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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381996

RESUMO

Among 419 consecutive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, we observed 17 (4.0%) cases of toxoplasmosis at a median time of day 45 (range, 6 to 322) after transplant. Seven of these 17 cases occurred before day 30 after transplant. Because of the lack of PCR screening and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis before engraftment, the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was late, and 5 of these 7 patients died. Analyzing these cases, early Toxoplasma blood PCR screening, starting from transplant, is crucial.

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097628

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment for sickle-cell anemia, but the place of myeloablative conditioning remains to be defined. The aim of the present study was to analyze long-term outcomes, including chimerism, sickle-cell anemia-related events and biological data (hemoglobin, reticulocytes, HbS%), and fertility, in a French series of 234 SCA-patients younger than 30 years who received (1988-2012) a matched-sibling-donor stem cell transplantation following standardized myeloablative conditioning (Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin). Since the first report of the series (1988-2004), 151 new consecutive patients with sickle-cell anemia were similarly transplanted. Considering death, non-engraftment or rejection (donor cells<5%) as events, the 5-year event-free survival was 97.9% (95% confidence interval:95.5-100%), confirming at least 95% chance of cure since year 2000. In the overall cohort (n=234, median follow-up of 7.9 years), event-free survival was not associated with age, but chronic-graft-vs-host disease was independently associated with recipien's age>15 (hazard ratio=4.37,P=0.002) and lower (5-15 vs 20 mg/kg) anti-thymocyte globulin dose (hazard ratio=4.55,P=0.001). At one year, 44% of patients had mixed chimerism (5-95% donor cells), but those prepared with anti-thymocyte globulin had no graft rejection. No events related to sickle cell anemia occurred in patients with mixed chimerism, even those with 15-20% donor cells, but hemolytic anemia stigmata were observed with donor cells<50%. Currently, myeloablative transplantation with matched-sibling donor has a higher event-free survival (98%) in patients younger than 30 than that reported for non-myeloablative conditioning (88%). Nevertheless, the risk of chronic graft-vs-host disease in older patients and need for fertility preservation might be indications in patients older than 15 for a non-myeloablative conditioning.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413810

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening disease in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the preferred prophylaxis but has significant toxicity. We assessed 139 consecutive HCT patients for PCP prophylaxis in our center. According to our procedures, TMP-SMX should be given as first-line prophylaxis from engraftment. In case of intolerance, atovaquone (ATO) or aerosolized pentamidine may be given. Thirteen (9.3%) patients did not receive prophylaxis because they early died. Of the 126 prophylaxed patients, 113 (90%) received TMP-SMX and 13 (10%) received ATO as first-line regimen. However, only 51/113 (45%) patients received TMP-SMX as the sole prophylaxis: 60 patients were switched to ATO because of side effect. There were 18 PCP cases: 3 occurred before engraftment, 7 occurred under ATO, 3 occurred while prophylaxis was pending the resolution of side effects, and 5 occurred after stopping prophylaxis. No cases occurred under TMP-SMX while 7 (9.6%) cases occurred under first-(n = 13) or second (n = 60)-line ATO. There are many concerns about PCP prophylaxis after HCT: patients may develop PCP before engraftment or several months after stopping immunosuppressors, and half of them do not receive TMP-SMX all along the at-risk periods. New prophylactic drugs and strategies should be evaluated.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268782

RESUMO

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) occurs in up to 23% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. Although transplant procedures have changed over time, more late cases of IA are being observed. The objective of this study was to identify the pre- and post-transplant factors of IA in a large cohort of HSCT patients mainly transplanted with reduced-intensity conditioning. This multicenter, case-control study was carried out using data collected between 2005 and 2010 by the Surveillance des Aspergilloses Invasives en France program (Institut Pasteur, Paris) and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation ProMISe registry. Four control subjects without IA were individually matched to each case based on the center, patient age, and year of the transplant. We identified 185 cases of probable and proven IA and 651 control subjects. The median date of IA after the transplant was 133 days, with 35 cases (19%) of early IA (before day 40), 33 cases (18%) of late IA (days 40 to 100), and 117 cases (63%) cases of very late IA (after day 100). In the multivariate analysis early IA was significantly associated with a lack of engraftment, whereas late and very late IA were significantly associated with more than grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); very late IA was also significantly associated with relapse and secondary neutropenia. Two-thirds of IA cases occurred more than 100 days after HSCT with different risk factors from those occurring earlier. Prophylactic strategies should consider the specific risk factors for late and very late IA, especially GVHD, relapse after transplant, and secondary neutropenia.

6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 37(10): 1931-1940, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051357

RESUMO

Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main reason for antibiotic prescription in hematology wards where, on the other hand, antibiotic stewardship (AS) is poorly explored. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate (1) the impact of an AS intervention on antibiotic consumption and (2) the applicability and acceptance rate of the intervention and its clinical impact. A persuasive AS intervention based on European Conference on Infection in Leukaemia (ECIL) guidelines for FN was implemented in a high-risk hematology ward in a tertiary referral public university hospital. This included the creation and diffusion of flow charts on de-escalation and discontinuation of antibiotics for FN, and the introduction in the team of a doctor dedicated to the implementation of flow charts and to antibiotic prescription revision. All consecutive patients receiving antibiotics during hospitalization were included. A segmented linear regression model was performed for the evaluation of antibiotic consumption, taking into account 1-year pre-intervention period and 6-month intervention period. Overall, 137 consecutive antibiotic prescriptions were re-evaluated, 100 prescriptions were for FN. A significant reduction of the level of carbapenem consumption was observed during the intervention period (level change (estimate coefficient ± standard error) = - 135.28 ± 59.49; p = 0.04). Applicability and acceptability of flow charts were high. No differences in terms of intensive care unit transfers, bacteremia incidence, and mortality were found. A persuasive AS intervention in hematology significantly reduced carbapenem consumption without affecting outcome and was well accepted. This should encourage further applications of ECIL guidelines for FN.

7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 10, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403494

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) represents a challenging complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite the intensive preclinical research in the field of prevention and treatment of aGVHD, and the presence of a well-established clinical grading system to evaluate human aGVHD, such a valid tool is still lacking for the evaluation of murine aGVHD. Indeed, several scoring systems have been reported, but none of them has been properly evaluated and they all share some limitations: they incompletely reflect the disease, rely on severity stages that are distinguished by subjective assessment of clinical criteria and are not easy to discriminate, which could render evaluation more time consuming, and their reproducibility among different experimenters is uncertain. Consequently, clinical murine aGVHD description is often based merely on animal weight loss and mortality. Here, we propose a simple scoring system of aGVHD relying on the binary (yes or no) evaluation of five important visual parameters that reflect the complexity of the disease without the need to sacrifice the mice. We show that this scoring system is consistent with the gold standard histological staging of aGVHD across several donor/recipient mice combinations. This system is also a strong predictor of survival of recipient mice when used early after transplant and is highly reproducible between experimenters.

8.
Blood ; 131(7): 717-732, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146883

RESUMO

Bone marrow (BM) failure (BMF) in children and young adults is often suspected to be inherited, but in many cases diagnosis remains uncertain. We studied a cohort of 179 patients (from 173 families) with BMF of suspected inherited origin but unresolved diagnosis after medical evaluation and Fanconi anemia exclusion. All patients had cytopenias, and 12.0% presented ≥5% BM blast cells. Median age at genetic evaluation was 11 years; 20.7% of patients were aged ≤2 years and 36.9% were ≥18 years. We analyzed genomic DNA from skin fibroblasts using whole-exome sequencing, and were able to assign a causal or likely causal germ line mutation in 86 patients (48.0%), involving a total of 28 genes. These included genes in familial hematopoietic disorders (GATA2, RUNX1), telomeropathies (TERC, TERT, RTEL1), ribosome disorders (SBDS, DNAJC21, RPL5), and DNA repair deficiency (LIG4). Many patients had an atypical presentation, and the mutated gene was often not clinically suspected. We also found mutations in genes seldom reported in inherited BMF (IBMF), such as SAMD9 and SAMD9L (N = 16 of the 86 patients, 18.6%), MECOM/EVI1 (N = 6, 7.0%), and ERCC6L2 (N = 7, 8.1%), each of which was associated with a distinct natural history; SAMD9 and SAMD9L patients often experienced transient aplasia and monosomy 7, whereas MECOM patients presented early-onset severe aplastic anemia, and ERCC6L2 patients, mild pancytopenia with myelodysplasia. This study broadens the molecular and clinical portrait of IBMF syndromes and sheds light on newly recognized disease entities. Using a high-throughput sequencing screen to implement precision medicine at diagnosis can improve patient management and family counseling.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 747, 2017 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease (CMV episodes) are global concerns after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). They affect survival, both by direct and indirect effects. Due to safety issues of current anti-CMV antivirals, long-term CMV prophylaxis is poorly tolerated and the most common strategy to decrease the incidence of CMV disease is preemptive. New, less toxic, molecules are currently being assessed for CMV prophylaxis which should replace or considerably decrease the preemptive approach. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of CMV episodes after HSCT with a preemptive approach. METHODS: We analyzed data from 208 consecutive adults transplanted in our institution, between 2008 and 2013. Hospital resource utilization was retrieved via the linked hospital admissions and Diagnostic Related Groups for the period of conditioning to 12 months after transplant. RESULTS: CMV episodes occurred in 70 patients (34%) over the first 12 months following HSCT, after a mean of 75 days (median: 46 (7-334)). The mean total length of stay was significantly associated with the occurrence of a CMV episode (113.9 vs. 87.5 days, p = 0.0002) but was associated neither with the pre-transplant CMV serology of donors/recipients nor with survival. The mean cost of transplant was €104,016 (SD = €37,281) after 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that the occurrence of >1 CMV episode increased the costs of allogeneic HSCT by 25-30% (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our study, which is the largest, single-institution cost study of allogeneic HSCT in Europe, shows that two or more CMV episodes significantly increased the transplant cost. New prophylactic strategies to prevent CMV infection and disease should decrease transplant costs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/economia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/economia , Adulto , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo
11.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 72(9): 2602-2606, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651341

RESUMO

Objectives: Atovaquone is one of the alternatives to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients. In volunteers, there was wide inter-individual variability in atovaquone bioavailability. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma concentrations of atovaquone in immunocompromised patients under PCP prophylaxis. Methods: Adult haematology or HIV-positive patients receiving atovaquone (750 mg oral suspension twice a day) for PCP prophylaxis were included. Plasma concentrations were assessed using UV-HPLC, around 12 h after the evening dose (Cmin) and 1-5 h after the morning dose (Cmax). Results: A total of 82 measurements were performed in 33 patients. This included 19 HSCT recipients, 7 haematology non-transplant patients and 7 HIV-positive patients. The median Cmin (IQR) was 11.3 µg/mL (6.2-27.8) and the median Cmax was 13.4 µg/mL (6.0-28.3). The Cmin and Cmax of atovaquone were not different between HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients, or between HSCT and non-HSCT patients. Atovaquone concentrations were not influenced by the co-administration of valaciclovir (n = 20) or ciclosporin (n = 11), by gut graft-versus-host disease (n = 7) or by the intake of atovaquone with food. Nineteen of the 33 (58%) patients had Cmin <15 µg/mL, a threshold associated with a low rate of clinical response in PCP treatment. Conclusions: Atovaquone is poorly absorbed in more than half of immunocompromised patients and its bioavailability varies between individuals. These unpredictable variations raise the question of therapeutic drug monitoring, in order to identify patients with low concentrations and those who could benefit from regimen adaptation or from alternatives.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/sangue , Atovaquona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pneumocystis carinii/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Atovaquona/administração & dosagem , Atovaquona/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia
12.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 700, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484441

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection in hematology. Although occasionally reported, the role of interhuman transmission of P. jirovecii in PCP, compared to that of reactivation, remains an unresolved question; the recommendation to isolate PCP patients in the hematology ward are not well evidence-based. Following an unexpected increase in the number of febrile pneumonia patients with P. jirovecii DNA detected in respiratory samples in our hematology ward, we explored 12 consecutive patients from November 2015 to May 2016. Genotyping of P jirovecii was performed using microsatellite markers. The frequency of simultaneous occupancy of these 12 patients in the same unit on the same day from 4 months prior to the first diagnosis was recorded. In three patients, the P. jirovecii genotype could not be determined because DNA was insufficient. One rare single genotype (Gt2) was found in four of the other nine, all allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. The transmission map showed that these 4 patients had multiple opportunities to meet on the same day (median, 6.5; range, 4-10) at the daycare center. It was much less among the eight non-Gt2 patients (median, 1; range, 0-9; P = 0.048). This study, based on modern molecular technics, strongly suggests that interhuman transmission of P. jirovecii between allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients is possible. P. jirovecii DNA detected in respiratory specimens supports that isolation and respiratory precautions be recommended in such cases in the hematology ward.

14.
Haematologica ; 102(5): e184-e186, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154086
16.
N Engl J Med ; 375(11): 1044-53, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27626518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with rituximab has improved the outcome for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may also have the CD20 antigen, which is targeted by rituximab. Although single-group studies suggest that adding rituximab to chemotherapy could improve the outcome in such patients, this hypothesis has not been tested in a randomized trial. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults (18 to 59 years of age) with CD20-positive, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative ALL to receive chemotherapy with or without rituximab, with event-free survival as the primary end point. Rituximab was given during all treatment phases, for a total of 16 to 18 infusions. RESULTS: From May 2006 through April 2014, a total of 209 patients were enrolled: 105 in the rituximab group and 104 in the control group. After a median follow-up of 30 months, event-free survival was longer in the rituximab group than in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.98; P=0.04); the estimated 2-year event-free survival rates were 65% (95% CI, 56 to 75) and 52% (95% CI, 43 to 63), respectively. Treatment with rituximab remained associated with longer event-free survival in a multivariate analysis. The overall incidence rate of severe adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups, but fewer allergic reactions to asparaginase were observed in the rituximab group. CONCLUSIONS: Adding rituximab to the ALL chemotherapy protocol improved the outcome for younger adults with CD20-positive, Ph-negative ALL. (Funded by the Regional Clinical Research Office, Paris, and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00327678 .).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD20/análise , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Blood ; 128(12): 1651-9, 2016 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27506541

RESUMO

Therapeutic CD4(+)Foxp3(+) natural regulatory T cells (Tregs) can control experimental graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) by suppressing conventional T cells (Tconvs). Treg-based therapies are currently tested in clinical trials with promising preliminary results in allo-HCT. Here, we hypothesized that as Tregs are capable of modulating Tconv response, it is likely that the inflammatory environment and particularly donor T cells are also capable of influencing Treg function. Indeed, previous findings in autoimmune diabetes revealed a feedback mechanism that renders Tconvs able to stimulate Tregs by a mechanism that was partially dependent on tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We tested this phenomenon during alloimmune response in our previously described model of GVHD protection using antigen specific Tregs. Using different experimental approaches, we observed that control of GVHD by Tregs was fully abolished by blocking TNF receptor type 2 (TNFR2) or by using TNF-deficient donor T cells or TNFR2-deficient Tregs. Thus, our results show that Tconvs exert a powerful modulatory activity on therapeutic Tregs and clearly demonstrate that the sole defect of TNF production by donor T cells was sufficient to completely abolish the Treg suppressive effect in GVHD. Importantly, our findings expand the understanding of one of the central components of Treg action, the inflammatory context, and support that targeting TNF/TNFR2 interaction represents an opportunity to efficiently modulate alloreactivity in allo-HCT to either exacerbate it for a powerful antileukemic effect or reduce it to control GVHD.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante Homólogo
19.
Haematologica ; 101(7): 884-90, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27056924

RESUMO

Unrelated allogeneic transplantation for severe aplastic anemia is a treatment option after immunosuppressive treatment failure in the absence of a matched sibling donor. Age, delay between disease diagnosis and transplantation, and HLA matching are the key factors in transplantation decisions, but their combined impact on patient outcomes remains unclear. Using the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapies registry, we analyzed all consecutive patients (n=139) who underwent a first allogeneic transplantation for idiopathic severe aplastic anemia from an unrelated donor between 2000 and 2012. In an adjusted multivariate model, age over 30 years (Hazard Ratio=2.39; P=0.011), time from diagnosis to transplantation over 12 months (Hazard Ratio=2.18; P=0.027) and the use of a 9/10 mismatched unrelated donor (Hazard Ratio=2.14; P=0.036) were independent risk factors that significantly worsened overall survival. Accordingly, we built a predictive score using these three parameters, considering patients at low (zero or one risk factors, n=94) or high (two or three risk factors, n=45) risk. High-risk patients had significantly shorter survival (Hazard Ratio=3.04; P<0.001). The score was then confirmed on an independent cohort from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database of 296 patients, with shorter survival in patients with at least 2 risk factors (Hazard Ratio=2.13; P=0.005) In conclusion, a simple score using age, transplantation timing and HLA matching would appear useful to help physicians in the daily care of patients with severe aplastic anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/diagnóstico , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Doadores não Relacionados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/mortalidade , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Depleção Linfocítica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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