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J Anim Ecol ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368156


Few studies have simultaneously compared ageing within genetically similar populations in both laboratory and natural environments. Such comparisons are important for interpreting laboratory studies, because factors such as diet could affect ageing in environment-dependent ways. Using a natural population of antler flies (Protopiophila litigata), we conducted separate factorial experiments in 2012 and 2013 that compared age-specific male survival and mating success in laboratory cages versus a natural field environment while supplementing their diets with protein or sugar. We found consistent and substantial increases in both survival and mating rates in the laboratory compared to the field, but remarkably, despite these large differences actuarial ageing was only higher in the laboratory than in the field in 2012 and similar in the two environments in 2013. In both years, there was no difference between environments in reproductive ageing. We found that males fed protein had a higher mortality rate than males fed sugar (strong and low support in 2012 and 2013, respectively). In contrast, diet did not strongly impact average mating rates, actuarial ageing or reproductive ageing in either experiment. Our results provide the first evidence that the negative effect of protein on life span reported in many laboratory studies can also occur in wild populations, although perhaps less consistently. They also highlight how laboratory environments can influence life-history traits and suggest caution when extrapolating from the laboratory to the field.

Nat Genet ; 51(1): 51-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578418


In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.

Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(17): 6925-30, 2013 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23569234


Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits.

Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Pênis/anatomia & histologia , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Feminino , Aptidão Genética/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 88(3): 669-82, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23374138


There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and 'ejaculate quality' (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a direct benefit by choosing more attractive males for fertility assurance reasons ('the phenotype-linked fertility' hypothesis). Second, there is much interest in the direction of the correlation between traits favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. affecting mating success) and those favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. increasing sperm competitiveness). If the relationship is negative this could lead to the two forms of selection counteracting each other. Theory predicts that the direction of the relationship could be either positive or negative depending on the underlying genetic variance and covariance in each trait, the extent of variation among males in condition (resources available to allocate to reproductive traits), and variation among males in the cost or rate of mating. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the average relationship between the expression of behavioural and morphological male secondary sexual characters and four assays of ejaculate quality (sperm number, viability, swimming speed and size). Regardless of how the data were partitioned the mean relationship was consistently positive, but always statistically non-significant. The only exception was that secondary sexual character expression was weakly but significantly positively correlated with sperm viability (r = 0.07, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the strength or direction of the relationship between behavioural and morphological SSCs, nor among relationships using the four ejaculate quality assays. The implications of our findings are discussed.

Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Sêmen/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 87(1): 1-33, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21545390


The consequences of polyandry for female fitness are controversial. Sexual conflict studies and a meta-analysis of mating rates in insects suggest that there is a longevity cost when females mate repeatedly. Even so, compensatory material benefits can elevate egg production and fertility, partly because polyandry ensures an adequate sperm supply. Polyandry can therefore confer direct benefits. The main controversy surrounds genetic benefits. The argument is analogous to that surrounding the evolution of conventional female mate choice, except that with polyandry it is post-copulatory mechanisms that might bias paternity towards males with higher breeding values for fitness. Recent meta-analyses of extra-pair copulations in birds have cast doubt on whether detectable genetic benefits exist. By contrast, another meta-analysis showed that polyandry elevates egg hatching success (possibly due to a fertilization bias towards sperm with paternal genes that elevate embryo survival) in insects. A detailed summary of whether polyandry elevates other components of offspring performance is lacking. Here we present a comprehensive meta-analysis of 232 effect sizes from 46 experimental studies. These experiments were specifically designed to try to quantify the potential genetic benefits of polyandry by controlling fully for the number of matings by females assigned to monandry and polyandry treatments. The bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals for egg hatching success (d = -0.01 to 0.61), clutch production (d = 0.07 to 0.45) and fertility (d = 0.04 to 0.40) all suggest that polyandry has a beneficial effect (although P values from parametric tests were marginally non-significant at P = 0.075, 0.052 and 0.058, respectively). Polyandry was not significantly beneficial for any single offspring performance trait (e.g. growth rate, survival, adult size), but the test power was low due to small sample sizes (suggesting that many more studies are still needed). We then calculated a composite effect size that provides an index of general offspring performance. Depending on the model assumptions, the mean effect of polyandry was either significantly positive or marginally non-significant. A possible role for publication bias is discussed. The magnitude of the reported potential genetic benefits (d = 0.07 to 0.19) are larger than those from two recent meta-analyses comparing offspring sired by social and extra-pair mates in birds (d = 0.02 to 0.04). This difference raises the intriguing possibility that cryptic, post-copulatory female choice might be more likely to generate 'good gene' or 'compatible gene' benefits than female choice of mates based on the expression of secondary sexual traits.

Aptidão Genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/genética
Am J Hum Genet ; 81(1): 44-52, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17564962


Sperm-egg interaction is a crucial step in fertilization, yet the identity of most interacting sperm-egg proteins that mediate this process remains elusive. Rapid evolution of some fertilization proteins has been observed in a number of species, including evidence of positive selection in the evolution of components of the mammalian egg coat. The rapid evolution of the egg-coat proteins could strongly select for changes on the sperm receptor, to maintain the interaction. Here, we present evidence that positive selection has driven the evolution of PKDREJ, a candidate sperm receptor of mammalian egg-coat proteins. We sequenced PKDREJ from a panel of 14 primates, including humans, and conducted a comparative maximum-likelihood analysis of nucleotide changes and found evidence of positive selection. An additional panel of 48 humans was surveyed for nucleotide polymorphisms at the PKDREJ locus. The regions predicted to have been subject to adaptive evolution among primates show several amino acid polymorphisms within humans. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests that balancing selection may maintain diverse PKDREJ alleles in some populations. It remains unknown whether there are functional differences associated with these diverse alleles, but their existence could have consequences for human fertility.

Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Primatas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA