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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within HIV/HBV infected patients, an increase in HDV infection has been observed; there is inadequate information on HDV prevalence as well as virologic profile in Ghana. This study sought to determine the presence of HDV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana. METHODS: This was a longitudinal purposive study which enrolled 113 HIV/HBV co-infected patients attending clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Accra, Ghana. After consenting, 5 mL whole blood was collected at two-time points (baseline and 4-6 months afterwards). The sera obtained were tested to confirm the presence of HIV, HBV antibodies and/or antigens, and HBV DNA. Antibodies and viral RNA were also determined for HDV. Amplified HBV DNA and HDV RNA were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis carried out with reference sequences from the GenBank to establish the genotypes. RESULTS: Of the 113 samples tested 63 (55.7%) were females and 50 (44.25%) were males with a median age of 45 years. A total of 100 (88.5%) samples had detectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), and 32 out of the 113 had detectable HBV DNA. Nucleotide sequences were obtained for 15 and 2 samples of HBV and HDV, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis was predominantly genotype E for the HBVs and genotype 1 for the HDVs. Of the 13 samples that were HBsAg unreactive, 4 (30.8%) had detectable HBV DNA suggesting the incidence of occult HBV infections. The percentage occurrence of HDV in this study was observed to be 3.54. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the presence and circulation of HDV and incidence of occult HBV infection in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana. This informs health staff and makes it imperative to look out for the presence of HDV and occult HBV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients presenting with potential risk of liver cancers and HBV transmission through haemodialysis and blood transfusions.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Coinfecção/enzimologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Gana , Infecções por HIV/enzimologia , Hepatite B/enzimologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Virol J ; 17(1): 114, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and subtype diversity (SD) are public health strategies to assess current HIV-1 regimen and ensure effective therapeutic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-1 patients. Globally, limited data exist on TDR and SD among blood donors. In this study, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and SD amongst HIV-1 sero-positive blood donors in Accra, Ghana were characterized. METHODS: Purposive sampling method was used to collect 81 HIV sero-positive blood samples from the Southern Area Blood Center and confirmed by INNO-LIA as HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Viral RNA was only extracted from plasma samples confirmed as HIV-1 positive. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized using the RNA as a template and subsequently amplified by nested PCR with specific primers. The expected products were verified, purified and sequenced. Neighbour-joining tree with the Kimura's 2-parameter distances was generated with the RT sequences using Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis version 6.0 (MEGA 6.0). RESULTS: Out of the 81 plasma samples, 60 (74%) were confirmed as HIV-1 sero-positive by INNO-LIA HIVI/II Score kit with no HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/2 infections. The remaining samples, 21 (26%) were confirmed as HIV sero-negative. Of the 60 confirmed positive samples, (32) 53% and (28) 47% were successfully amplified in the RT and PR genes respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified samples revealed the presence of major drug resistance mutations in two (2) samples; E138A in one sample and another with K65R. HIV-1 Subtypes including subtypes A, B, CRF02_AG and CRF09_cpx were found. CONCLUSION: This study found major drug resistance mutations, E138A and K65R in the RT gene that confer high level resistance to most NNRTIs and NRTI respectively. CRF02_AG was most predominant, the recorded percentage of subtype B and the evolutionary relationship inferred by phylogenetic analysis may suggest possible subtype importation. However, a more prospective and detailed analysis is needed to establish this phenomenon. The data obtained would inform the selection of drugs for ART initiation to maximize therapeutic options in drug-naïve HIV-1 patients in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(6): e14313, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732150

RESUMO

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and drug resistance studies worldwide have focused almost exclusively on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). As a result, there is limited information on ART and drug resistance in HIV-2 patients. In Ghana, the HIV epidemic is characterized by the domination of HIV-1, with cocirculating HIV-2. We, therefore, sought to determine viral load and drug resistance mutations in HIV-2 patients to inform the clinical management of such individuals in Ghana.We used purposive sampling to collect blood from 16 consented patients, confirmed as HIV-2 or HIV-1/2 dual infections by serology. A 2-step real-time RT-PCR assay was used to determine plasma HIV-2 RNA viral loads. For drug resistance testing, nucleic acids were extracted from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-2 were amplified, sequenced and analyzed for drug resistance mutations and HIV-2 group.HIV-2 viral load was detected in 9 of 16 patients. Six of these had quantifiable viral loads (range: 2.62-5.45 log IU/mL) while 3 had viral loads below the limit of quantification. Sequences were generated from 7 out of 16 samples. Five of these were classified as HIV-2 group B and 2 as HIV-2 group A. HIV-2 drug resistance mutations (M184V, K65R, Y115F) were identified in 1 patient.This study is the first to report HIV-2 viral load and drug resistance mutations in HIV-2 strains from Ghana. The results indicate the need for continuous monitoring of drug resistance among HIV-2- infected patients to improve their clinical management.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , HIV-2/genética , Mutação/genética , Carga Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203699, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis continues to play significant role in causing morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Apart from the few population based studies available, not many have investigated the burden of these viruses in jaundiced patients. Among the few studies, hepatitis E is the least studied among jaundiced patients. This study was aimed at describing the frequency, distribution and risk of the different hepatitis viruses among jaundiced patients reporting to the second largest teaching hospital in Ghana. METHODS: From November, 2015 to April, 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among jaundiced patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between 3-5 ml of blood was collected from each patient and screened for viral hepatitis agents using both serologic and molecular-based assays. RESULTS: In the 155 patients recruited, hepatitis B was the most prevalent [54.2% (95% CI = 46.0%-62.2%)] followed by hepatitis E [32.9% (95% CI = 25.6-40.9%)]. Most cases of hepatitis E occurred as co-infections with hepatitis B (18%), with the predominant clinical feature being hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factor variable analysis showed middle and older aged individuals were more at risk of hepatitis B exposure whereas younger age groups (<18 years) were more at risk of hepatitis E virus infection. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis viruses are still important in the viral aetiology of jaundice in Ghana. Hepatitis B and hepatitis E co-infections could play significant roles in causing severe disease. A more aggressive approach needs to be adopted in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis causing viruses in Ghana and other developing countries.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Icterícia/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/complicações , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/complicações , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Icterícia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 615, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among patients living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on clinical presentations alone, the different types of meningitis may not be distinguished from each other, consequently accurate laboratory diagnosis is extremely essential. Viruses such as Enteroviruses (EV), Mumps virus (MuV) and Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) are implicated in cases of meningitis. We sought to detect and characterize viral aetiologies of meningitis among HIV-infected adults with the use of molecular tools. RESULTS: As a subset of a main research work, cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from a cross-section of HIV patients at the Fevers Unit of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital with clinical features suggestive of meningitis but without laboratory confirmation. Laboratory investigations were performed with the use of the real time polymerase chain reaction for pan EV, MuV and HSV-1. None of the viruses investigated in this study was found to be positive for meningitis. However, lymphocytic pleocytosis, normal glucose and elevated protein levels were observed in some of the study participants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Meningite Viral/virologia , Adulto , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Gana , Humanos , Meningite Viral/complicações , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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