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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82 Suppl 1: S13-S19, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focused attention on Data to Care underlines the importance of high-quality HIV surveillance data. This study identified the number of total duplicate and exact duplicate HIV case records in 9 separate Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) databases reported by 8 jurisdictions and compared this approach to traditional Routine Interstate Duplicate Review resolution. METHODS: This study used the ATra Black Box System and 6 eHARS variables for matching case records across jurisdictions: last name, first name, date of birth, sex assigned at birth (birth sex), social security number, and race/ethnicity, plus 4 system-calculated values (first name Soundex, last name Soundex, partial date of birth, and partial social security number). RESULTS: In approximately 11 hours, this study matched 290,482 cases from 799,326 uploaded records, including 55,460 exact case pairs. Top case pair overlaps were between NYC and NYS (51%), DC and MD (10%), and FL and NYC (6%), followed closely by FL and NYS (4%), FL and NC (3%), DC and VA (3%), and MD and VA (3%). Jurisdictions estimated that they realized a combined 135 labor hours in time efficiency by using this approach compared with manual methods previously used for interstate duplication resolution. DISCUSSION: This approach discovered exact matches that were not previously identified. It also decreased time spent resolving duplicated case records across jurisdictions while improving accuracy and completeness of HIV surveillance data in support of public health program policies. Future uses of this approach should consider standardized protocols for postprocessing eHARS data.

3.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(2): 80-85, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ocular syphilis (OS) has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection previously. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of syphilis patients with and without HIV to identify risk factors for developing OS. METHODS: We reviewed all syphilis cases (early and late) reported to the North Carolina Division of Public Health during 2014 to 2016 and categorized HIV status (positive, negative, unknown) and OS status based on report of ocular symptoms with no other defined etiology. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for OS by HIV status. Among syphilis patients with HIV, we compared viral loads and CD4 cell counts by OS status. We compared symptom resolution by HIV status for a subset of OS patients. RESULTS: Among 7123 confirmed syphilis cases, 2846 (39.9%) were living with HIV, 109 (1.5%) had OS, and 59 (0.8%) had both. Ocular syphilis was more prevalent in syphilis patients with HIV compared to HIV-negative/unknown-status patients (PR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6). Compared with other patients with HIV, the prevalence of OS was higher in patients with viral loads greater than 200 copies/mL (1.7; 1.0-2.8) and in patients with a CD4 count of 200 cells/mL or less (PR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2). Among 11 patients with severe OS, 9 (81.8%) were HIV-positive. Among 39 interviewed OS patients, OS symptom resolution was similar for HIV-positive (70.0%) and HIV-negative/unknown-status (68.4%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Syphilis patients with HIV were nearly twice as likely to report OS symptoms as were patients without documented HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus-related immunodeficiency possibly increases the risk of OS development in co-infected patients.

4.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(12): 823-828, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partner notification services (PNS) remain the backbone of syphilis control. The popularity of Internet-based apps to meet sex partners among early syphilis (ES) patients may hinder the success of PNS if partners cannot be located. METHODS: We compared demographic and clinical characteristics between male ES patients indicating sex with men (MSM) and reported in North Carolina between 2013 and 2016 by reported use of an Internet-based app to meet sex partners (app user). We used multivariable log-binomial regression to assess the association between app usage and ES exposure notification of 1 or more sex partner. RESULTS: Among 3414 MSM ES patients, 58.6% were app users. App users were more frequently white (33.2% vs 27.3%; P = 0.003), younger (median, 28 years vs 30 years; P = 0.0002) and less frequently human immunodeficiency virus coinfected (54.1% vs 58.2%; P = 0.02) compared to non-app users. Overall, 94.9% of app users and 89.6% of non-app users reported 1 or more sex partner. App users reported 2.5 times more locatable and 2.7 times more unlocatable sex partners than non-app users. Similar proportions of app (23.6%) and non-app users (25.0%) reported only unlocatable partners (P = 0.4). App usage was not associated with ES exposure notification of 1 or more sex partner (adjusted risk ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.13). CONCLUSIONS: We observed no difference in the proportion of locatable partners or likelihood of notifying 1 or more sex partner of exposure among MSM ES patients, by reported use of Internet-based apps to meet sex partners. Partner notification services continues to be an important mechanism to locate and assure treatment for sex partners in this population.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Internet , Aplicativos Móveis , Parceiros Sexuais , Rede Social , Sífilis/transmissão , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(11): 1930-1933, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020212

RESUMO

We evaluated the syphilis reverse sequence algorithm (RSA) in a Veteran Affairs facility, finding 5.5% reactive Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. In a subset of EIA+/VDRL-/TP-PA+ cases, 48% were previously treated. Of veterans with unknown/no prior therapy, only 45% had documentation of subsequent treatment, suggesting suboptimal interpretation of RSA results.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/métodos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação
6.
Sex Transm Dis ; 44(8): 451-456, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28703722

RESUMO

Compare syphilis investigation yield among patient groups using number needed to interview. GOAL: To increase investigation efficiency. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of North Carolina 2015 syphilis investigations, using the number of cases needed to interview (NNTI) and the total number of cases and contacts needed to interview (TNTI) to compare yield of new syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses between patient groups. RESULTS: We reviewed 1646 early syphilis cases and 2181 contacts; these yielded 241 new syphilis cases (NNTI, 6.9; TNTI, 16.4) and 38 new human immunodeficiency virus cases (NNTI, 43). Interviews of women (prevalence difference [PD] = 6%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 12-16), patients <30 years old (PD = 5%, 95% CI, 1-8), and patients with titer >1:16 (PD = 5%, 95% CI, 1-9) yielded more new syphilis cases in our adjusted model; no other patient factors increased investigation yield. CONCLUSIONS: The NNTI and TNTI are useful measures of efficiency. Prioritizing early syphilis investigation by gender, rapid plasmin reagin titer, and age provides small increases in efficiency; no other factors increased efficiency.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Eficiência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Viruses ; 8(6)2016 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27275831

RESUMO

Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is an antiviral lectin with potent activity against enveloped viruses, including HIV. The mechanism of action involves high affinity binding to mannose-rich glycans that decorate the surface of enveloped viruses. In the case of HIV, antiviral activity of CV-N is postulated to require multivalent interactions with envelope protein gp120, achieved through a pseudo-repeat of sequence that adopts two near-identical glycan-binding sites, and possibly involves a 3D-domain-swapped dimeric form of CV-N. Here, we present a covalent dimer of CV-N that increases the number of active glycan-binding sites, and we characterize its ability to recognize four glycans in solution. A CV-N variant was designed in which two native repeats were separated by the "nested" covalent insertion of two additional repeats of CV-N, resulting in four possible glycan-binding sites. The resulting Nested CV-N folds into a wild-type-like structure as assessed by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, and displays high thermal stability with a Tm of 59 °C, identical to WT. All four glycan-binding domains encompassed by the sequence are functional as demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry, which revealed two sets of binding events to dimannose with dissociation constants Kd of 25 µM and 900 µM, assigned to domains B and B' and domains A and A' respectively. Nested CV-N displays a slight increase in activity when compared to WT CV-N in both an anti-HIV cellular assay and a fusion assay. This construct conserves the original binding specifityies of domain A and B, thus indicating correct fold of the two CV-N repeats. Thus, rational design can be used to increase multivalency in antiviral lectins in a controlled manner.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Dicroísmo Circular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Biochemistry ; 54(46): 6951-60, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26507789

RESUMO

Mutations in the hinge region of cyanovirin-N (CVN) dictate its preferential oligomerization state. Constructs with the Pro51Gly mutation preferentially exist as monomers, whereas wild-type cyanovirin can form domain-swapped dimers under certain conditions. Because the hinge region is an integral part of the high-affinity binding site of CVN, we investigated whether this mutation affects the shape, flexibility, and binding affinity of domain B for dimannose. Our studies indicate that the capability of monomeric wild-type CVN to resist mechanical perturbations is enhanced when compared to that of constructs in which the hinge region is more flexible. Our computational results also show that enhanced flexibility leads to blocking of the binding site by allowing different rotational isomeric states of Asn53. Moreover, at higher temperatures, this observed flexibility leads to an interaction between Asn53 and Asn42, further hindering access to the binding site. On the basis of these results, we predicted that binding affinity for dimannose would be more favorable for cyanovirin constructs containing a wild-type hinge region, whereas affinity would be impaired in the case of mutants containing Pro51Gly. Experimental characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry of a set of cyanovirin mutants confirms this hypothesis. Those possessing the Pro51Gly mutation are consistently inferior binders.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/química , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
9.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 41(5): 1170-6, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24059504

RESUMO

CVN (cyanovirin-N), a small lectin isolated from cyanobacteria, exemplifies a novel class of anti-HIV agents that act by binding to the highly glycosylated envelope protein gp120 (glycoprotein 120), resulting in inhibition of the crucial viral entry step. In the present review, we summarize recent work in our laboratory and others towards determining the crucial role of multivalency in the antiviral activity, and we discuss features that contribute to the high specificity and affinity for the glycan ligand observed in CVN. An integrated approach that encompasses structural determination, mutagenesis analysis and computational work holds particular promise to clarify aspects of the interactions between CVN and glycans.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cianobactérias/química , HIV/química , HIV/genética , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/química , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
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