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1.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(3): 44, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649328

RESUMO

Great progress in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has been made due to the development of novel drugs. Patients with relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) can be enrolled in early-phase clinical trials, but their performance across the last decade is unknown. We conducted a meta-analysis on the overall response rate (ORR) and toxicity. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for phase I and phase II trials investigating an experimental compound as a single agent or in combination with dexamethasone, published from January 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020. Eighty-eight articles were included, describing 61 phase I trials involving 1835 patients and 37 phase II trials involving 2644 patients. There was a high degree of heterogeneity. Using a random-effects model, the 95% CIs of the estimated ORR were 8-17% for phase I trials and 18-28% for phase II trials. There were significant subgroup differences in ORR between the years of publication in phase I trials and between drug classes in both phase I and phase II trials. The ORR in early-phase clinical trials in RRMM is substantial, especially in phase II trials, but due to high heterogeneity a general assessment of clinical benefit before participation is difficult to offer to patients.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3923, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594104

RESUMO

Real-world data (RWD) sources are important to advance clinical oncology research and evaluate treatments in daily practice. Since 2013, the Prospective Dutch Colorectal Cancer (PLCRC) cohort, linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry, serves as an infrastructure for scientific research collecting additional patient-reported outcomes (PRO) and biospecimens. Here we report on cohort developments and investigate to what extent PLCRC reflects the "real-world". Clinical and demographic characteristics of PLCRC participants were compared with the general Dutch CRC population (n = 74,692, Dutch-ref). To study representativeness, standardized differences between PLCRC and Dutch-ref were calculated, and logistic regression models were evaluated on their ability to distinguish cohort participants from the Dutch-ref (AU-ROC 0.5 = preferred, implying participation independent of patient characteristics). Stratified analyses by stage and time-period (2013-2016 and 2017-Aug 2019) were performed to study the evolution towards RWD. In August 2019, 5744 patients were enrolled. Enrollment increased steeply, from 129 participants (1 hospital) in 2013 to 2136 (50 of 75 Dutch hospitals) in 2018. Low AU-ROC (0.65, 95% CI: 0.64-0.65) indicates limited ability to distinguish cohort participants from the Dutch-ref. Characteristics that remained imbalanced in the period 2017-Aug'19 compared with the Dutch-ref were age (65.0 years in PLCRC, 69.3 in the Dutch-ref) and tumor stage (40% stage-III in PLCRC, 30% in the Dutch-ref). PLCRC approaches to represent the Dutch CRC population and will ultimately meet the current demand for high-quality RWD. Efforts are ongoing to improve multidisciplinary recruitment which will further enhance PLCRC's representativeness and its contribution to a learning healthcare system.

3.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population. METHODS: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed. RESULTS: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)). CONCLUSIONS: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.

4.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; : e13410, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer patients are increasingly involved in decision-making for cancer treatment. General practitioners' (GPs) support in this process is advocated. Therefore, GPs need to be aware of patients' treatment decision-making process and their potential role. We aim to understand the treatment decision-making process and to explore the added value of GP involvement, from the perspective of cancer patients treated with curative intent. METHODS: An explorative qualitative study was performed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively sampled Dutch cancer patients treated with curative intent. RESULTS: Patients' treatment decision-making process was dominated by a focus on 'safeguarding survival'. Patients generally followed the treatment plan as proposed by their physician and did not always experience having a treatment choice. The majority of patients expressed added value for GP involvement, mainly to provide psychological support, but also for providing shared decision-making (SDM) support. CONCLUSION: The treatment decision-making process of cancer patients treated with curative intent is dominated by the urge to 'safeguard survival'. GPs should be aware of their added value in providing psychological support and their potential role to support SDM following a cancer diagnosis.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 296-306, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638384

RESUMO

Reported median overall survival (mOS) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients participating in systemic therapy trials has increased to over 30 months. It is uncertain whether trial results translate to real-life populations. Moreover, patients prefer presentation of multiple survival scenarios. Population-based data of all stage IV CRC patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2016 were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry, which has a case ascertainment completeness surpassing 95%. We calculated the following percentiles (scenarios) of OS per year of diagnosis for the total population, and for treatment subgroups: 10th (best-case), 25th (upper-typical), 50th (median), 75th (lower-typical) and 90th (worst-case). Twenty-five percent of patients did not receive any antitumor treatment. From 2008 to 2016, mOS of the total population (n = 27275) remained unchanged at approximately 12 months. OS improved only for the upper-typical and best-case patients; by 4.2 to 29.1 months (P < .001), and by 6 to 62 months (P < .001), respectively. No clinically relevant change was observed among patients who received systemic therapy, with mOS close to 15 months and best-case scenario approximately 40 months. A clinically relevant improvement in survival over time was observed in patients who initially received metastasectomy and/or HIPEC only. In contrast to the wide belief based on trial data that mOS of mCRC patients receiving systemic therapy has improved substantially, improvement could not be demonstrated in our real-life population. Clinicians should consider quoting multiple survival scenarios based on real-life data instead of point estimates from clinical trials, when informing patients about their life expectancy.

6.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

7.
BJGP Open ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shared decision making (SDM) is considered important to realise personalised cancer care. Increased GP involvement after a diagnosis is advocated to improve SDM. AIM: To explore whether patients with cancer are in need of GP involvement in cancer care in general and in SDM, and whether GP involvement occurs. DESIGN & SETTING: An online national survey was distributed by the Dutch Federation of Cancer Patient Organisations (NFK) in May 2019. METHOD: The survey was sent to (former) patients with cancer. Topics included GP involvement in cancer care in general and in SDM. Descriptive statistics and quotes were used. RESULTS: Among 4763 (former) patients with cancer, 59% (n = 2804) expressed a need for GP involvement in cancer care. Of these patients, 79% (n = 2193) experienced GP involvement. Regarding GP involvement in SDM, 82% of patients (n = 3724) expressed that the GP should 'listen to patients' worries and considerations', 69% (n = 3130) to 'check patients' understanding of information', 66% (n = 3006) to 'discuss patients' priorities in life and the consequences of treatment options for these priorities', and 67% (n = 3045) to 'create awareness of the patient's role in the decision making'. This happened in 47%, 17%, 15% and 10% of these patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The majority of (former) patients with cancer expressed a need for active GP involvement in cancer care. GP support in the fundamental SDM steps is presently insufficient. Therefore, GPs should be made aware of these needs and enabled to support their patients with cancer in SDM.

8.
ESMO Open ; 5(6)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) can cause severe and sometimes fatal immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Since these irAEs mimick immunological disease, a female predominance has been speculated on. Nevertheless, no demographic or tumour-related factors associated with an increased risk of irAEs have been identified until now. METHODS: Risk ratios of severe (grade ≥3) irAEs for age, sex, WHO performance status, number of comorbidities, stage of disease, number of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) were estimated using data from anti-PD1-treated patients with advanced melanoma in the prospective nationwide Dutch Melanoma Treatment Registry. RESULTS: 111 (11%) out of 819 anti-programmed cell death 1 treated patients experienced severe irAEs. Patients with non-lung visceral metastases (stage IV M1c or higher) less often experienced severe irAEs (11%) compared with patients with only lung and/or lymph node/soft tissue involvement (stage IV M1b or lower; 19%; adjusted risk ratio (RRadj) 0.63; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.94). Patients with LDH of more than two times upper limit of normal had a non-significantly lower risk of developing severe irAEs than those with normal LDH (RRadj 0.65; 95% CI 0.20 to 2.13). None of the other variables were associated with severe irAEs. CONCLUSION: In patients with melanoma, more advanced disease is associated with a lower rate of severe irAEs. No association with sex was found.

9.
Psychooncology ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Improving shared decision making (SDM) enables more tailored cancer treatment decisions. We evaluated a Time Out Consultation (TOC) with the general practitioner (GP), between cancer diagnosis and treatment decision, which aims at supporting SDM and improving continuity of primary care. This study aims to evaluate the effects of a TOC on perceived SDM, information provision and self-efficacy. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial included newly diagnosed patients with curable cancer (breast, lung, colorectal, gynaecologic, melanoma) from four Dutch hospitals. Primary outcome is perceived SDM and secondary outcomes are information provision and self-efficacy. RESULTS: 154 patients (control n=77, intervention n=77), female: 75%, mean age: 61 (SD±11.9). In the intervention group 80.5% (n=62) had a TOC, of which 82.3% (n=51) took place after treatment decision. Perceived SDM was lower in the intervention group (-8.9 (95% CI, 0.6-17.1)). Among those with a TOC before treatment decision (n=11), perceived SDM was comparable to the control group (66.5±27.2 vs 67.9±26.1). CONCLUSION: Even though patients are motivated to have a TOC, implementing a TOC between diagnosis and treatment decision is challenging. Effects of a timely TOC could not be established. Non-timely TOC decreased perceived SDM. Planning of the TOC should be optimised, and future research should establish if adequately timed TOC results in improved SDM in cancer patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 130: 135-142, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Trials within Cohorts design aims to reduce recruitment difficulties and disappointment bias in pragmatic trials. On cohort enrollment, broad informed consent for randomization is asked, after which cohort participants can be randomized to interventions or serve as controls without further notification. We evaluated patients' recollection, understanding, and acceptance of broad consent in a clinical oncology setting. METHODS: We surveyed 610 patients with cancer participating in ongoing TwiCs; 482 patients (79%) responded, of which 312 patients shortly after cohort enrollment, 108 patients after randomization to an intervention (12-18 months after cohort enrollment), and a random sample of 62 cohort participants who had not been selected for interventions (1-6 months after cohort enrollment). RESULTS: Shortly after providing cohort consent, 76% of patients (238/312) adequately remembered whether they had given broad consent for randomization. Of patients randomly offered interventions, 76% (82/108) remembered giving broad consent for randomization; 41% (44/108) understood they were randomly selected, 44% (48/108) were not interested in selection procedures, and 10% (11/108) did not understand selection was random. Among patients not selected for interventions, 42% (26/62) understood selection was random; 89% felt neutral regarding the scenario of "not being selected for an intervention while your data were being used in comparison with patients receiving interventions," 10% felt reassured (6/62) and 2% scared/insecure (2/62). CONCLUSION: Patients adequately remember giving broad consent for randomization shortly after cohort enrollment and after being offered an intervention, but recollection is lower in those never selected for interventions. Patients are acceptant of serving as control without further notifications.

11.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237294

RESUMO

Importance: As the resolution of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis is unforeseeable, and/or a second wave of infections may arrive in the fall of 2020, it is important to evaluate patients' perspectives to learn from this. Objective: To assess how Dutch patients with cancer perceive cancer treatment and follow-up care (including experiences with telephone and video consultations [TC/VC]) and patients' well-being in comparison with a norm population during the COVID-19 crisis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of patients participating in the Dutch Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry and a norm population who completed a questionnaire from April to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with changes in cancer care (treatment or follow-up appointment postponed/canceled or changed to TC/VC). Differences in quality of life, anxiety/depression, and loneliness between patients and age-matched and sex-matched norm participants were evaluated with regression models. Results: The online questionnaire was completed by 4094 patients (48.6% response), of whom most were male (2493 [60.9%]) and had a mean (SD) age of 63.0 (11.1) years. Of these respondents, 886 (21.7%) patients received treatment; 2725 (55.6%) received follow-up care. Treatment or follow-up appointments were canceled for 390 (10.8%) patients, whereas 160 of 886 (18.1%) in treatment and 234 of 2725 (8.6%) in follow-up had it replaced by a TC/VC. Systemic therapy, active surveillance, or surgery were associated with cancellation of treatment or follow-up appointment. Younger age, female sex, comorbidities, metastasized cancer, being worried about getting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and receiving supportive care were associated with replacement of a consultation with a TC/VC. Patients and norm participants reported that the COVID-19 crisis made them contact their general practitioner (852 of 4068 [20.9%] and 218 of 979 [22.3%]) or medical specialist/nurse (585 of 4068 [14.4%] and 144 of 979 [14.7%]) less quickly when they had physical complaints or concerns. Most patients who had a TC/VC preferred a face-to-face consultation, but 151 of 394 (38.3%) were willing to use a TC/VC again. Patients with cancer were more worried about getting infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared with the 977 norm participants (917 of 4094 [22.4%] vs 175 of 977 [17.9%]). Quality of life, anxiety, and depression were comparable, but norm participants more often reported loneliness (114 of 977 [11.7%] vs 287 of 4094 [7.0%]) than patients with cancer (P = .009). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with cancer in the Netherlands, 1 in 3 reported changes in cancer care in the first weeks of the COVID-19 crisis. Long-term outcomes need to be monitored. The crisis may affect the mental well-being of the general population relatively more than that of patients with cancer.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238530

RESUMO

Low skeletal muscle mass (LSMM) is increasingly recognized for its predictive value for adverse events in cancer patients. In specific, the predictive value of LSMM has been demonstrated for anti-cancer drug toxicity in a variety of cancer types and anti-cancer drugs. However, due to the limited sample size and study populations focused on a single cancer type, an overall predictive value of LSMM for anti-cancer drug toxicity remains unknown. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the predictive value of LSMM and perform a meta-analysis to analyse the overall effect. A systematic search was conducted of MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane. Inclusion criteria were skeletal muscle mass (SMM) evaluated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), articles published in English, SMM studied in humans, SMM measurement normalized for height, and patients did not receive an intervention to treat or prevent LSMM. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and expressed in odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using χ2 and I2 statistics. The search yielded 907 studies. 31 studies were included in the systematic review. Sample sizes ranged from 21 to 414 patients. The occurrence of LSMM ranged from 12.2% to 89.0%. The most frequently studied cancer types were oesophageal, renal, colorectal, breast, and head and neck cancer. Patients with LSMM had a higher risk of severe toxicity (OR 4.08; 95% CI 2.48-6.70; p < 0.001) and dose-limiting toxicity (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.28-3.92; p < 0.001) compared to patients without LSMM. To conclude, the predictive value of LSMM for anti-cancer drug toxicity can be observed across cancer types. This information increases the need for further research into interventions that could treat LSMM as well as the possibility to adapt treatment regimens based on the presence of LSMM.

13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(10): e18023, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronomodulated chemotherapy aims to achieve maximum drug safety and efficacy by adjusting the time of treatment to an optimal biological time as determined by the circadian clock. Although it is a promising alternative to conventional (non-time-stipulated) chemotherapy in several instances, the lack of scientific consensus and the increased logistical burden of timed administration limit the use of a chronomodulated administration protocol. OBJECTIVE: With the goal to increase scientific consensus on this subject, we plan to conduct a systematic review of the current literature to compare the drug safety and efficacy of chronomodulated chemotherapy with those of conventional chemotherapy. METHODS: This systematic review will comply with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. In order to identify relevant studies, we conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed and Embase on May 18, 2020. We included clinical studies that compare either the safety or efficacy of chronomodulated chemotherapy with that of conventional chemotherapy. Potential studies will be reviewed and screened by 2 independent reviewers. Quality assessment will be performed using the National Institutes of Health's Study Quality Assessment Tool (Quality Assessment of Controlled Intervention Studies). Disagreements will be resolved by consulting a third independent reviewer. RESULTS: This protocol has received funding, and the search for studies from databases commenced on May 18, 2020. The systematic review is planned to be completed by October 31, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, we will compare drug safety and drug efficacy for cancer patients who were administered either chronomodulated chemotherapy or conventional chemotherapy. Moreover, we will highlight the outcomes and quality of the selected trials for this review. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42020177878; https://tinyurl.com/y53w9nq6. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/18023.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity increases endometrial cancer risk, possibly through inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and increasing estrogens. We aimed to quantify the mediating effects of adiponectin (anti-inflammatory adipocytokine); IL6, IL1-receptor antagonist, TNF receptor 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein (inflammatory status biomarkers); C-peptide (hyperinsulinemia biomarker); and free estradiol and estrone (estrogen biomarkers) in the adiposity-endometrial cancer link in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We used data from a case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Eligible women did not have cancer, hysterectomy, and diabetes; did not use oral contraceptives or hormone therapy; and were postmenopausal at recruitment. Mediating pathways from adiposity to endometrial cancer were investigated by estimating natural indirect (NIE) and direct (NDE) effects using sequential mediation analysis. RESULTS: The study included 163 cases and 306 controls. The adjusted OR for endometrial cancer for body mass index (BMI) ≥30 versus ≥18.5-<25 kg/m2 was 2.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-5.02). The ORsNIE were 1.95 (1.01-3.74) through all biomarkers [72% proportion mediated (PM)] decomposed as: 1.35 (1.06-1.73) through pathways originating with adiponectin (33% PM); 1.13 (0.71-1.80) through inflammation beyond (the potential influence of) adiponectin (13% PM); 1.05 (0.88-1.24) through C-peptide beyond adiponectin and inflammation (5% PM); and 1.22 (0.89-1.67) through estrogens beyond preceding biomarkers (21% PM). The ORNDE not through biomarkers was 1.29 (0.54-3.09). Waist circumference gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced adiponectin and increased inflammatory biomarkers, C-peptide, and estrogens mediated approximately 70% of increased odds of endometrial cancer in women with obesity versus normal weight. IMPACT: If replicated, these results could have implications for identifying targets for intervention to reduce endometrial cancer risk in women with obesity.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic colorectal cancer patients with deficient mismatch repair (dMMR mCRC) benefit from immunotherapy. Interpretation of the single-arm immunotherapy trials is complicated by insignificant survival data during systemic non-immunotherapy. We present survival data on a large, comprehensive cohort of dMMR mCRC patients, treated with or without systemic non-immunotherapy. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-one dMMR mCRC patients (n = 54 from three prospective Phase 3 CAIRO trials; n = 227 from the Netherlands Cancer Registry). Overall survival was analysed from diagnosis of mCRC (OS), from initiation of first-line (OS1) and second-line (OS2) systemic treatment. Cox regression analysis examined prognostic factors. As comparison for OS 2746 MMR proficient mCRC patients were identified. RESULTS: Of 281 dMMR patients, 62% received first-line and 26% second-line treatment. Median OS was 16.0 months (13.8-19.6) with antitumour therapy and 2.5 months (1.8-3.5) in untreated patients. OS1 was 12.8 months (10.7-15.2) and OS2 6.2 months (5.4-8.9) in treated dMMR patients. Treated dMMR patients had a 7.6-month shorter median OS than pMMR patients. CONCLUSION: Available data from immunotherapy trials lack a control arm with standard systemic treatment. Given the poor outcome compared to the immunotherapy results, our data strongly suggest a survival benefit of immunotherapy in dMMR mCRC patients.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14541, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883969

RESUMO

Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.

17.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910094

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The randomized controlled OptiTrain trial showed beneficial effects on fatigue after a 16-week exercise intervention in patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. We hypothesize that exercise alters systemic inflammation and that this partially mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on fatigue. METHODS: Two hundred and forty women scheduled for chemotherapy were randomized to 16 weeks of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) or usual care (UC). In the current mechanistic analyses, we included all participants with >60% attendance and a random selection of controls (RT-HIIT=30, AT-HIIT=27, UC=29). Fatigue (Piper Fatigue Scale) and ninety-two markers (e.g. IL-6, TNFα) were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Mediation analyses were conducted to explore whether changes in inflammation markers mediated the effect of exercise on fatigue. RESULTS: Overall, chemotherapy led to an increase in inflammation. The increase in IL-6 (pleiotropic cytokine) and CD8a (T-cell surface glycoprotein) was, however, significantly less pronounced following RT-HIIT compared to UC (-0.47 (95%CI -0.87;-0.07) and -0.28 (-0.57;0.004), respectively). Changes in IL-6 and CD8a significantly mediated the exercise effects on both general and physical fatigue by 32.0% and 27.7%, and 31.2% and 26.4%, respectively. No significant between-group differences in inflammatory markers at 16 weeks were found between AT-HIIT and UC. CONCLUSION: This study is the first showing that supervised RT-HIIT partially counteracted the increase in inflammation during chemotherapy, i.e. IL-6 and soluble CD8a, which resulted in lower fatigue levels post-intervention. Exercise including both resistance and high-intensity aerobic training might be put forward as an effective treatment to reduce chemotherapy-induced inflammation and subsequent fatigue.

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 138: 99-108, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation after a cancer diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival. Few studies have reported oncologists' cessation practice patterns, but differences between the curative and palliative settings have not been described. We aimed to study the oncologist's perceptions on patients' tobacco use, current practices and barriers to providing smoking cessation support, while distinguishing between treatment with curative (C) and palliative (P) intent. METHODS: In 2019, an online 34-item survey was sent to approximately 6235 oncologists from 16 European countries. Responses were descriptively reported and compared by treatment setting. RESULTS: Responses from 544 oncologists were included. Oncologists appeared to favour addressing tobacco in the curative setting more than in the palliative setting. Oncologists believe that continued smoking impacts treatment outcomes (C: 94%, P: 74%) and that cessation support should be standard cancer care (C: 95%, P: 63%). Most routinely assess tobacco use (C: 93%, P: 78%) and advise patients to stop using tobacco (C: 88%, P: 54%), but only 24% (P)-39% (C) routinely discuss medication options, and only 18% (P)-31% (C) provide cessation support. Hesitation to remove a pleasurable habit (C: 13%, P: 43%) and disbelieve on smoking affecting outcomes (C: 3%, P: 14%) were disparate barriers between the curative and palliative settings (p < 0.001), but dominant barriers of time, resources, education and patient resistance were similar between settings. CONCLUSION: Oncologists appear to favour addressing tobacco use more in the curative setting; however, they discuss medication options and/or provide cessation support in a minority of cases. All patients who report current smoking should have access to evidence-based smoking cessation support, also patients treated with palliative intent given their increasing survival.

19.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome characterized by the triad of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) and pituitary tumors. Patients are confronted with substantial morbidity and are consequently at risk for an impaired quality of life (QOL). Meticulous assessment of QOL and associated factors in a representative population is needed to understand the full spectrum of the burden of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using the national Dutch MEN1 cohort. Patients with a confirmed MEN1 mutation received the SF-36 Health Related Quality of Life questionnaire and questions regarding sociodemographic and medical history. RESULTS: A total of 227 of 285 (80%) eligible MEN1 patients returned the questionnaires. Health related QOL scores (HRQOL) in MEN1 patients were significantly lower for the majority of subscales of the SF-36 in comparison with the general Dutch population. The most consistent predictor for HRQOL was employment status, followed by the presence of a pituitary tumor. 16% of patients harbouring a pNET and 29% of patients with a pituitary tumors according to the medical records, reported that they were unaware of such a tumor. These subgroups of patients had several significant better QOL scores than patients who were aware of their pNET or pituitary tumors. CONCLUSION: Patients with MEN1 have an impaired QOL in comparison with the general Dutch population warranting special attention within routine care. For daily practice, physicians should be aware of their patients' impaired QOL and of the impact of unemployment on QOL.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231663, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having a physically active lifestyle after cancer diagnosis is beneficial for health, and this needs to be continued into survivorship to optimize long-term benefits. We found that patients, who participated in an 18-week exercise intervention, reported significant higher physical activity (PA) levels 4 years after participation in a randomized controlled trial of supervised exercise delivered during chemotherapy (PACT study). This study aimed to identify social-ecological correlates of PA levels in breast and colon cancer survivors 4 years after participation in the PACT study. METHODS: Self-reported PA levels and potential correlates (e.g. physical fitness, fatigue, exercise history, and built environment) were assessed in 127 breast and colon cancer survivors shortly after diagnosis (baseline), post-intervention and 4 years later. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify social-ecological correlates of PA 4 years post-baseline. RESULTS: The final model revealed that lower baseline physical fatigue (ß = -0.25, 95% CI -0.26; -0.24) and higher baseline total PA (0.06, 95% CI, 0.03; 0.10) were correlated with higher total PA levels 4 years post-baseline. Higher baseline leisure and sport PA (0.02, 95% CI 0.01; 0.03), more recreational facilities within a buffer of 1 km (4.05, 95% CI = 1.28; 6.83), lower physical fatigue at 4-year follow-up (-8.07, 95% CI -14.00; -2.13), and having a positive change in physical fatigue during the intervention period (0.04, 95% CI 0.001; 0.07) were correlates of sport and leisure PA levels 4 years post-baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that baseline and 4-year post-baseline physical fatigue, and past exercise behaviour, were significant correlates of PA 4 years after participation in an exercise trial. Additionally, this study suggests that the built environment should be taken into account when promoting PA. Understanding of socio-ecological correlates of PA can provide insights into how future exercise interventions should be designed to promote long-term exercise behaviour. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43801571, Dutch Trial Register NTR2138. Trial registered on 9 December 2009, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2138.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida
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