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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211670, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254259

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments and adhesive approaches on the microshear bond strength of resin cement to a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN). Methods: PICN blocks were randomly assigned into 9 groups (n=10): CTRL: no treatment; HF: 5% hydrofluoric acid etching; HF-S: HF + silane; HF-S-A: HF-S + adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2); HF-UA: HF + universal adhesive (Single Bond Universal); SB: sandblasting with 50 µm Al2O3 particles; SB-S: SB + silane; SB-S-A: SB-S + adhesive; SB-UA: SB + universal adhesive. Resin cement microcylinders (Ø = 0.96 mm; height = 1 mm) (RelyX Ultimate) were built upon the PICN surface after roughness and contact angle measurements. Next, microshear bonding tests (µSBS) were performed (0.5 mm/min) after water storage (37ºC, 90 days) and thermocycling (12,000 cycles; 5ºC-55ºC). Failure modes were observed under stereomicroscope. Bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA/Tukey's test and t-tests. Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's tests were conducted for roughness and contact angle data (α = 0.05). Results: A rougher surface and lower contact angles were observed for Sandblasting. HF-S (18.54 ± 2.03 MPa), SB-S (19.00 ± 1.66 MPa) and SB-UA (18.07 ± 2.36 MPa) provided the highest bond strength values, followed by the other treated groups. The CTRL group resulted in lower bond strength (7.18 ± 2.34 MPa). Conclusion: Hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application and sandblasting followed by silane or universal adhesive are useful clinical steps to enhance bonding to PICN. Adhesive applications after HF etching have no advantages in bonding to PICN


Assuntos
Propriedades de Superfície , Cerâmica , Adesivos Dentinários , Cimentos de Resina , Abrasão Dental por Ar , Ácido Fluorídrico
2.
Braz Dent J ; 32(3): 56-64, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755790

RESUMO

It aims on evaluate the effect of the test environment on static fatigue behavior of lithium disilicate-based (LD), and yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramics. Specimens of LD (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) and YSZ (IPS e.max ZirCAD MO, 3 mol% Y2O3, Ivoclar Vivadent) were randomly allocated into three groups: tested in air, inert (paraffin oil, Sigma Aldrich) or distilled water. The static fatigue test (n=15) was performed using a piston-on-three ball assembly, adapted from ISO 6872, as follows: starting load 100 N for LD and 300 N for YSZ; loading application time set to 1 hour for each loading step; step size of 50 N for LD and 100 N for YSZ, applied successively until fracture. Data from static fatigue strength (MPa) and time to fracture (hours) were recorded. Fractographic analysis was executed. Survival analysis corroborates absence of influence of environment on static fatigue outcomes (fatigue strength, time to fracture and survival rates) for YSZ. For LD, specimens tested in air presented statistically superior survival rate and static fatigue strength (p= 0.025). In regards of time to fracture, LD tested in air were superior than when tested in distilled water (p=0.019) or inert (p=0.017) environments. No statistical differences for Weibull modulus were observed. Failures started on the tensile stress surface. Thus, the test environment did not affect slow crack growth (SCG) mechanisms during static fatigue test of YSZ ceramics, but it plays a significant role for the static fatigue behavior of lithium disilicate-based glass ceramics, indicating a high susceptibility to SCG.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Vidro , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
3.
Dent Mater ; 37(11): 1655-1666, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the stress development in porcelain-veneered zirconia (PVZ) and porcelain-veneered lithium disilicate (PVLD) crowns with different veneer/core thickness ratios and cooling rates. To provide design guidelines for better performing bilayer restorations with the aid of Viscoelastic Finite Element Method (VFEM). METHODS: The VFEM was validated by comparing the predicted residual stresses with experimental measurements. Then, the model was used to predict transient and residual stresses in the two bilayer systems. Models with two different veneer/core thickness ratios were prepared (2:1 and 1:1) and two cooling protocols were simulated (Fast: ∼300 °C/min, Slow: ∼30 °C/min) using the heat transfer module, followed by stress analysis in ABAQUS. The physical properties of zirconia, lithium disilicate, and the porcelains used for the simulations were determined as a function of temperature. RESULTS: PVLD showed lower residual stresses than PVZ. The maximum tensile stresses in PVZ were observed in the cusp area, whereas those in PVLD were located in the central fossa. The 1:1 thickness ratio decreased stresses in both layers of PVZ. Slow cooling slightly decreased residual stresses in both systems. However, the cooling rate effect was more evident in transient stresses. SIGNIFICANCE: Slow cooling is preferable for both systems. A thinner porcelain layer over zirconia lowers stresses throughout the restoration. The different stress distributions between PVZ and PVLD may affect their failure modes. Smaller mismatches in modulus, CTE, and specific heat between the constituents, and the use of low Tg porcelains can effectively reduce the deleterious transient and residual tensile stresses in bilayer restorations.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Coroas , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Teste de Materiais , Zircônio
4.
J. health sci. (Londrina) ; 23(2): 99-105, 20210621.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283092

RESUMO

A wide variety of dental ceramics is launched every year. Therefore, clinicians should constantly study and update themselves to correctly indicate these materials. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association of dentists' academic aspects with their knowledge and the indication of dental ceramics for metal free restorations. All the dentists from private clinics who affirmed to perform prosthetic treatments on their patients in a Southern Brazilian city were personally invited to this research to avoid dropouts. Participants answered questions related to their knowledge of different dental materials, their information sources and usage frequency of ceramic materials, and related to their academic training/education. Chi-square tests were performed to evaluate the association among the outcomes (knowledge of different materials, information sources considered for material selection and their frequencies of use) and exposure variables (time since graduation and post-graduation degree). Significant associations were also submitted to Chi-square residual analysis. A response rate of 73.3% was reached. The most known and used materials were Y-TZP and porcelain veneered zirconia, respectively, whereas the least known was leucite-based ceramic. The majority of the professionals with at least 25 years since graduation claimed not to know lithium disilicate or leucite-based ceramics, and a significant number of these professionals allow the laboratory prostheses technician to choose the restorative material. In addition, most of dentists with no post-graduation said they did not have knowledge about leucite and lithium disilicate. It was evidenced that continuing education plays an important role in the dentists' attitudes regarding ceramic materials. (AU)


Uma grande variedade de cerâmicas é lançada no mercado a cada ano. Portanto, os clínicos devem se manter em constante estudo e atualização para indicar corretamente o uso desses materiais. Assim, este estudo transversal teve por objetivo avaliar a associação entre aspectos acadêmicos de dentistas com seus conhecimentos e as indicações de cerâmicas dentárias para uso em restaurações livres de metal. Para isso, todos os dentistas de clínicas privadas que afirmaram realizar tratamentos protéticos em seus pacientes em uma cidade do sul do Brasil foram pessoalmente convidados a participar desta pesquisa para evitar desistências. Os participantes responderam a questões relacionadas ao seu conhecimento sobre diferentes materiais dentários, suas fontes de informação, a frequência de uso de materiais cerâmicos, e, também, sobre sua formação acadêmica. Testes qui-quadrado foram realizados para avaliar a associação entre os desfechos (conhecimento de diferentes materiais, fontes de informação consideradas para a seleção do material e sua frequência de uso) e as variáveis de exposição (tempo desde a graduação e grau de pós-graduação). As associações significativas foram submetidas à análise de resíduos do qui-quadrado. A taxa de resposta obtida foi de 73,3%. O material mais conhecido e usado foi a Y-TZP e zircônia recoberta por porcelana, respectivamente, enquanto que o material menos conhecido foi a cerâmica a base de leucita. A maioria dos profissionais com pelo menos 25 desde a graduação afirmaram não conhecer as cerâmicas a base de dissilicato de lítio ou leucita, e um significativo número desses profissionais permitem que o técnico em prótese dentária escolha o material restaurador. Ainda, a maioria dos dentistas sem pós-graduação disseram não conhecer as cerâmicas a base de dissilicato de lítio ou leucita. Concluiu-se que a educação continuada é um fator determinante nas atitudes de dentistas em relação aos materiais cerâmicos. (AU)

5.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 56-64, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1345501

RESUMO

Abstract It aims on evaluate the effect of the test environment on static fatigue behavior of lithium disilicate-based (LD), and yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramics. Specimens of LD (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) and YSZ (IPS e.max ZirCAD MO, 3 mol% Y2O3, Ivoclar Vivadent) were randomly allocated into three groups: tested in air, inert (paraffin oil, Sigma Aldrich) or distilled water. The static fatigue test (n=15) was performed using a piston-on-three ball assembly, adapted from ISO 6872, as follows: starting load 100 N for LD and 300 N for YSZ; loading application time set to 1 hour for each loading step; step size of 50 N for LD and 100 N for YSZ, applied successively until fracture. Data from static fatigue strength (MPa) and time to fracture (hours) were recorded. Fractographic analysis was executed. Survival analysis corroborates absence of influence of environment on static fatigue outcomes (fatigue strength, time to fracture and survival rates) for YSZ. For LD, specimens tested in air presented statistically superior survival rate and static fatigue strength (p= 0.025). In regards of time to fracture, LD tested in air were superior than when tested in distilled water (p=0.019) or inert (p=0.017) environments. No statistical differences for Weibull modulus were observed. Failures started on the tensile stress surface. Thus, the test environment did not affect slow crack growth (SCG) mechanisms during static fatigue test of YSZ ceramics, but it plays a significant role for the static fatigue behavior of lithium disilicate-based glass ceramics, indicating a high susceptibility to SCG.


Resumo O presente estudo objetivou investigar a influência do ambiente de teste no comportamento a fadiga estática (resistência à fratura e tempo para falha) de cerâmicas à base de dissilicato de lítio (LD) e zircônia estabilizada com ítria (YSZ). Espécimes de LD (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) e YSZ (IPS e.max ZirCAD MO, 3mol% Y2O3, Ivoclar Vivadent) foram obtidos e alocados aleatoriamente em três grupos: testado em ar, em líquido inerte (óleo de parafina) ou em água destilada. O teste de fadiga estática (n= 15) foi realizado usando o teste pistão sobre três esferas, ISO 6872, da seguinte forma: carga inicial 100 N para LD e 300 N para YSZ; tempo de aplicação de carregamento definido para 1 hora para cada etapa de carregamento; tamanho do passo de 50 N para LD e 100 N para YSZ, aplicados sucessivamente até a fratura. Dados de resistência à fadiga estática (MPa) e tempo até a fratura (horas) foram registrados. A análise fractográfica foi executada. A análise de sobrevivência corrobora a ausência de influência do ambiente de teste nos resultados de fadiga estática (resistência à fadiga, tempo de fratura e taxas de sobrevivência) para a YSZ. Para LD, os corpos de prova testados em ar apresentaram taxa de sobrevivência e resistência à fadiga estática estatisticamente superiores (p= 0,025). Em relação ao tempo de fratura, os espécimes LD testados em ar foram superiores aos testados em água destilada (p= 0,019) ou em ambiente inerte (p= 0,017). Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas para o módulo de Weibull. Todas as falhas começaram no lado onde se concentra a tensão de tração (lado de baixo) durante o teste. Com base nisso, observa-se que o ambiente de teste não afetou os mecanismos de crescimento lento de trinca durante o teste de fadiga estática da cerâmica YSZ, mas desempenha um papel significativo na resistência à fadiga estática da cerâmica de vidro à base de dissilicato de lítio, indicando alta susceptibilidade ao crescimento lento e subcrítico de trincas.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio , Teste de Materiais , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Vidro
6.
Dent Mater ; 37(7): 1096-1106, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of dwell time (conventional or extended) and cooling protocol (fast or slow) of self-glaze firings on the mechanical (flexural strength and crack propagation) and optical (color and translucency) properties of a porcelain-veneered zirconia system. METHODS: Bilayer disc-shaped samples were prepared (Vita VM9 + In-Ceram YZ) and divided according to the final thermal treatment: glaze firing followed by slow cooling (furnace opening at 200 °C) (G-S) or fast cooling (furnace opening at 600 °C) (G-F, manufacturer-recommended protocol), extended glaze firing (15 min of dwell time) followed by slow cooling (EG-S) or fast cooling (EG-F), or no thermal treatment (CTRL). Porcelain roughness (Ra and Rz) was measured before and after glaze firings. Color (ΔE00) and translucency (TP00) alteration were also evaluated. Flexural strength was measured with the piston-on-three-ball test and crack propagation analysis was performed after Vickers indentations. Complementary analyzes of crystalline phase and scanning electron microscopy were carried out. RESULTS: Significant effect of dwell time was observed, with extended glaze leading to higher flexural strength and shorter crack lengths. Cracks of EG groups were observed to end in clusters of crystals. Color and translucency changed below perceptibility thresholds. All treatments led to a smoother surface and EG groups reached the lowest Rz values. An extra SiO2 peak was revealed in control and EG groups. No effect of cooling protocol was found. SIGNIFICANCE: Extended glaze firing was able to improve the resistance to crack initiation and propagation of porcelain-veneered zirconia without clinically perceptible changes in optical properties.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Dióxido de Silício , Cerâmica , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Facetas Dentárias , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
7.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865557

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Whether procedures performed before the cementation of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) glass-ceramic restorations, including milling, fitting adjustment, and hydrofluoric acid etching introduce defects on the ceramic surface that affect the mechanical and surface properties is unclear. PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the effect of milling, fitting adjustments, and hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) on the flexural strength and roughness (Ra) of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature searches were performed up to June 2020 in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, with no publication year or language limits. The focused question was "Do milling, fitting adjustments, and hydrofluoric acid etching affect the flexural strength and roughness of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics?" For the meta-analysis, flexural strength and Ra data on milling, fitting adjustment, and HF etching versus control (polishing) were analyzed globally. A subgroup analysis assessed the effect of etching parameters (HF concentration and time) on the flexural strength and roughness of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics with different microstructures. Comparisons were performed with random-effect models at 5% significance. RESULTS: Fourteen studies from 2764 potentially relevant records were included in the qualitative syntheses, and 12 in the meta-analysis. Milling and fitting adjustments increased roughness and reduced the flexural strength of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics. The effect of HF etching was dependent on the glass-ceramic microstructure, HF concentration, and etching time. For feldspathic- and leucite-reinforced ceramics, HF 5% applied for between 30 and 120 seconds increased roughness without affecting flexural strength. For lithium disilicate glass-ceramics, HF concentrations greater than 4.9% used for 20 seconds or more reduced the strength without affecting the surface roughness. CONCLUSIONS: The flexural strength of CAD-CAM glass-ceramic is reduced by grinding procedures such as milling and fitting adjustment. Ceramic microstructure, HF concentration, and etching time determined the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching on the flexural strength and surface roughness of glass-ceramic materials.

8.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 113: 104091, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032009

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes for the fatigue mechanical behavior of bonded simplified lithium disilicate restorations, with and without an internal adjustment by grinding with diamond bur in running two fatigue tests: Staircase and Step-stress testing approaches. Ceramic discs (IPS e.max CAD) were prepared (Ø = 10 mm; thickness = 1.0 mm), submitted to an in-lab simulation of CAD/CAM milling (#60 SiC paper) and allocated into 2 groups according to the internal adjustment by grinding of the cementation surface: no adjustment (CTRL); or grinding with a coarse diamond bur (GR). Adhesive cementation (Multilink N) was performed onto epoxy resin discs (Ø = 10 mm; thickness = 2 mm) after ceramic/epoxy surface treatments. The cemented assemblies of each group were randomly assigned into 2 subgroups considering two fatigue tests (n = 15): Staircase - SC (250,000 cycles; 20 Hz), or Step-stress - SS (10,000 cycles per step; 20 Hz). Roughness, topographic and fractographic analyses were additionally performed. Statistical analyses were carried out using the Dixon and Mood method for Staircase data, and Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) tests for Step-stress data. Ceramic restorations having its intaglio surface ground (GR group: SC test = 306.67 N; SS test = 646.67 N) presented lower fatigue failure load (FFL) values than the CTRL group (SC test = 879.28 N; SS test = 1090.00 N), regardless of the fatigue testing approach. The percentage of mean FFL decrease comparing the CTRL to GR group was higher for SC (65.1%) than the SS (40.7%) approach. However, a different total number of cycles was applied for each method. Both fatigue tests were able to detect the negative effect of internal adjustments of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic simplified restorations on their mechanical behavior. Therefore, both methods can be applied for similar evaluations (fatigue testing for ceramic restorations).


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 110: 103893, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957199

RESUMO

This study evaluated the influence of occlusal resin cement space on the fatigue performance of bonded-leucite crowns to a dentin-analogue material. Leucite anatomical crowns were adhesively cemented to dentin-like preparations having distinct occlusal cement space (50, 100 and 300 µm) (n = 18), and subjected to step-stress fatigue testing (150 N - 350 N; step-size: 25 N; 20,000 cycles/step; 20 Hz). Fatigue data (load and number of cycles for failure) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) tests (p <0.05). Fractographic analysis and occlusal internal space measurements were also performed. There was no significant difference for the distinct occlusal cement layer (50 µm: 289 N, 136,111 cycles; 100 µm: 285 N, 132,778 cycles; 300 µm: 246 N, 101,667 cycles). Occlusal internal space analysis showed a mean thickness of 120.4 (50 µm), 174.9 (100 µm) and 337.2 (300 µm). All failures were radial cracks originating at the ceramic-cement interface. Distinct occlusal cement spaces had no effect on the fatigue behavior of anatomical leucite crowns.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Cimentos de Resina , Silicatos de Alumínio , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Porcelana Dentária , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais
10.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 107: 103769, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364945

RESUMO

Considering the long time spent in low frequency cyclic fatigue tests, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of loading frequency (2 Hz and 20 Hz) on the flexural fatigue strength (FFS) and on the time and number of cycles to failure of a leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic. Disc-shaped specimens were produced using leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic CAD/CAM blocks (IPS Empress CAD), according to ISO 6872/2015. Two fatigue tests were performed. The FFS (n = 17) was determined by staircase approach at a lifetime of 500,000 cycles, for 2 Hz (control - chewing frequency estimative) and 20 Hz (accelerated approach). To determine the time and the number of cycles to failure in flexural fatigue, discs (n = 20) were submitted to a cyclic loading ranging from 10 MPa to 99 MPa (60% of the monotonic strength), until a maximum of 500,000 cycles. Means, standard deviation and confidence intervals (CI) at 95% for FFS were calculated, whereas statistical differences were detected based on maximum likelihood estimations and overlapping of 95% CIs. Kaplan Meier (α = 0.05) and log rank post-hoc tests were used to analyze the time (in minutes) and the number of cycles to failure in the lifetime test. FFS did not differ significantly between 2 Hz (mean: 78 MPa; 95% CI: 69-88 MPa) and 20 Hz (mean: 84 MPa; 95% CI: 78-90 MPa). Regarding the lifetime test, there was no difference (p = 0.3) in the time to failure for 2 Hz (mean: 13 min; 95% CI: 6-20 min) and 20 Hz (mean: 69 min; 95% CI: 9-128 min). However, the group tested with 20 Hz survived a significantly (p < 0.01) higher number of cycles (mean: 82,247 cycles; 95% CI: 11,450-153,044) than the group tested with 2 Hz (mean: 1588 cycles; 95% CI: 779-2397). Therefore, in leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic fatigue strength tests, limited to a lifetime of 500,000 cycles, the use of loading frequencies up to 20 Hz did not influence the FFS estimations when compared to 2 Hz (chewing frequency estimative), and may be an alternative to accelerate data collection in this type of mechanical test. However, in lifetime tests, the use of higher loading frequencies, as 20 Hz, did not save time, since a higher number of cycles was necessary to promote the failure, when compared to 2 Hz.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio , Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Porcelana Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 109: 103800, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347216

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of diamond bur grinding the intaglio surface of second (yttria partially-stabilized zirconia polycrystals, PSZ) and third-generation zirconia (fully-stabilized zirconia polycrystals, FSZ) adhesively cemented to dentin analogue substrate on the fatigue failure load, cycle number until failure, surface micromorphology and phase transformation. Disc-shaped specimens were produced from second (Katana ML-HT, Kuraray) and third-generation zirconia (Katana STML, Kuraray) and randomly allocated (n = 15) into two groups according to the intaglio surface treatment: Control - Ctrl (without grinding); Grinding - Gr (grinding at the center of the intaglio surface). The ceramic discs were adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix System) onto dentin analogue discs. Fatigue tests were executed by the step-stress method. The obtained data were analyzed by Kaplan Meier and Mantel-Cox tests. In addition, surface topography, roughness, phase transformation and fractography analyses were performed. SEM analysis showed that grinding increased the surface roughness and introduced defects in zirconia from both generations. Grinding increased the fatigue failure load, number of cycles to failure and survival rates of the second-generation zirconia statistically (control: 1373.33 N < grinding: 1600 N), while these same outcomes were reduced by grinding for the third-generation zirconia significantly (control: 766.67 N > grinding: 620 N). Thus, clinical adjustments with diamond burs damage the fatigue behavior of adhesively cemented third-generation zirconia.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Ítrio , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
12.
Dent Mater ; 35(5): 807-817, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A systematic review of in vitro studies was conducted to assess the effect of thermal treatments on flexural strength or critical load to failure of porcelain-veneered zirconia (PVZ). SOURCES: Literature searches were performed up to June 2018 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases, with no publication year or language limits. DATA: From 393 relevant studies, 21 were selected for full-text analysis, from which 7 failed to meet the inclusion criteria. The 14 remaining papers were included in the systematic review: 8 for meta-analysis and 6 restricted to descriptive analyses. Hand searching of reference lists resulted in no additional papers. STUDY SELECTION: In vitro studies using PVZ specimens testing the influence of thermal treatments on the fracture resistance to monotonic or cyclic loading. Papers evaluating cooling rate were divided into those applying fast cooling from above the porcelain glass transition temperature (Tg), or from below it. Meta-analyses were performed separately for flexural strength and critical load to failure, using random effects at a 5% significance level. CONCLUSIONS: Delaying furnace opening at a temperature below the porcelain Tg is advised for PVZ restorations, in order to improve their fracture resistance. Additional information is required to confirm the apparent beneficial effect of self-glaze and repeated veneer firings on the mechanical properties of these restorations. Finally, in order to obtain conclusive and relevant evidence regarding thermal treatments and the fracture resistance of PVZs, future studies should concentrate on anatomically-correct crown specimens.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Coroas , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
13.
Dent Mater ; 35(4): e63-e73, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare file-splitting multilayer (fused and cemented) with monolithic Y-TZP on the fatigue flexural strength and finite element analysis (FEA) stresses. Additionally, to verify the effect of the material under tension in multilayer Y-TZP. METHODS: Disc-shaped (diameter: 14.4mm; thickness: 1.4mm) monolithic Y-TZP (IPS e.max ZirCAD - Ivoclar Vivadent) and trilayer specimens with Y-TZP framework (IPS e.max ZirCAD), intermediate layer of fusion ceramic (IPS e.max CAD Crystall./Connect) or resin cement (Multilink Automix) and lithium disilicate veneer (IPS e.max CAD) were divided into five groups (n=20): monolithic Y-TZP (M), fused file-splitting with framework under tension (F-FT), cemented file-splitting with framework under tension (C-FT), fused file-splitting with veneer under tension (F-VT) and cemented file-splitting with veneer under tension (C-VT). Fatigue flexural strength was determined (piston-on-three ball) by the staircase approach (750,000 cycles; 20Hz). Mean and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. FEA was evaluated under the application of the experimental mean fatigue load. RESULTS: The fatigue strength was statistically different for all groups. Means and CI (MPa) were: M - 405.92 (CI 397.58-414.26), F-FT - 377.73 (CI 374.59-380.88), C-FT - 346.54 (CI 340.62-352.46), F-VT - 154.79 (CI 151.86-157.72) and C-VT - 100.34 (CI 97.42-103.26). FEA tensile stresses were similar to the mean experimental values (up to ≅10MPa of variation), with the most discrepant calculated stresses for C-FT (≅20MPa higher than experimental result). SIGNIFICANCE: Monolithic specimens showed the highest flexural fatigue strength and fused file-splitting resulted in higher fatigue strength than cemented file-splitting. Groups with the framework under tension exhibited higher flexural fatigue strength.


Assuntos
Resistência à Flexão , Zircônio , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Fadiga , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 18: e190918, jan.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1087410

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of surface treatments of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramics on their bond strength to a resin cement. Methods: Seventy zirconia blocks (6 × 6 × 2 mm3, IPS e.max ZirCAD) were assigned into 7 groups (n=10) ­ as-sintered (AS), no treatment; tribochemical silica coating + silanization (TBS; Cojet-sand; ProSil); airabrasion with 45 µm alumina particles + universal primer (AAP; Monobond®Plus); fusion sputtering (FS); SiO2 nanofilm + silanization (SN; ProSil); FS+SN+ silanization (FSSN; ProSil); FS+SN+Universal Primer (FSSNP; Monobond®Plus). Afterwards, a resin cement (RelyX™ ARC) was applied inside cylinders (Ø = 0.96 mm × 1 mm height) placed on the zirconia surfaces. Microshear bond strength tests (µSBS) were carried out (1 mm/min). Failure and phase transformation analysis were performed. Bond strength data (MPa) were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Mann Whitney tests. Results: TBS (27 ± 1.2) and AAP (24.7 ± 0.8) showed higher bond strengths than the other groups, followed by FSSNP (15.5 ± 4.2) and FSSN (13.3 ± 3.6). FS (3.4 ± 0.44) and SN (9.5 ± 2.7) showed the lowest values (p < 0.001). Most of the specimens exhibited an adhesive failure. Conclusion: Air-abrasion by silica-coated alumina particles followed by silanization or by alumina particles followed by universal primer resulted in the highest resin bond strength to zirconia. Fusion sputtering and silica nanofilm deposition induced low strengths. However, when these methods are applied in combination and with a primer (FSSN and FSSNP), higher bond strengths may be achieved. Low bond strengths are obtained when no zirconia treatment is performed


Assuntos
Ítrio , Cimentos de Resina , Cimentos Dentários , Resistência à Flexão
15.
J Prosthet Dent ; 120(5): 755-761, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961617

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: It is unclear whether an extended glaze firing could improve the long-term mechanical performance of densely sintered CAD-CAM ceramics. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the effect of an extended glaze firing on the flexural fatigue strength (FFS) of densely sintered milled (hard-machined) leucite-based (LEU) and lithium disilicate-based (DIS) ceramics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disks were machined from ceramic blocks and divided into 6 groups (n=20) according to the material, LEU or DIS, and to the applied glaze firing: manufacturer-recommended glaze (G group), extended glaze (EG group), and control/no firing (C group). The surface roughness of the disks was measured before and after firing by using a contact profilometer, and data were compared by paired sample tests. Specimens were submitted to fatigue by using the staircase test design in water (piston-on-3 balls; 500 000 cycles, 20 Hz, and sinusoidal loading). Mean (±SD) FFS values were then calculated and analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (α=.05). RESULTS: Surface roughness did not change after the firing (P>.05). The highest FFS value in both ceramics was obtained after EG firing (LEU-EG=80.52 ±6.3 MPa; DIS-EG=147.25 ±10.5 MPa), which was statistically superior to G firing (LEU-G=73 ±6.8 MPa, P=.003; DIS-G=134.34 ±15.6 MPa; P=.023) and C group (LEU-C=61.94 ±6.3 MPa; P<.001; DIS-C=134.13 ±17.3 MPa; P=.023). CONCLUSIONS: EG firing optimized the biaxial flexural fatigue strength of hard-machined leucite and lithium disilicate ceramics compared with conventional glaze firing.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Cerâmica/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Porcelana Dentária/química , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Resistência à Flexão , Dureza , Temperatura Alta , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Dent Mater ; 34(9): e225-e235, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intaglio surface adjustment of simplified lithium disilicate ceramic restorations adhesively cemented to a dentin-like material on its fatigue behavior. METHODS: Ceramic discs (IPS e.max CAD) were prepared and an in-Lab simulation of machining roughness was performed by grinding with SiC paper (#60). Ceramic discs were divided into 4 groups according to the internal adjustment of the cementation surface: no adjustments (CTRL); adjustment with a medium (M), fine (F), or extra fine (FF) diamond bur. Dentin-like material discs were also produced. Ceramic disc intaglio surfaces were etched (5% hydrofluoric acid; 20s) and received a silane coating. Dentin-like material discs were etched (10% hydrofluoric acid; 1min) and received a primer coating. Pairs of ceramic/dentin-like material were adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix), and fatigue failure load tests were performed using the Staircase approach (250,000 cycles; 20Hz). Roughness, topographic and fractographic analyses were performed. Statistical analyses were carried out through ANOVA tests. RESULTS: All ground groups (M=521.3 N; F=536.9 N; FF=676.2 N) presented lower fatigue failure load values than the control (1241.6 N). M diamond bur created a rougher surface than F (Ra and Rz parameters). However, FF was similar to F and M for Ra, and similar to F for Rz. SIGNIFICANCE: Bur adjustments on the intaglio surface of simplified lithium disilicate ceramic restorations greatly decreased the fatigue failure load even using an extra-fine diamond bur. Care should be taken when internal adjustments are needed.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária/métodos , Porcelana Dentária/química , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Cerâmica/química , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Materiais Dentários , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina/química , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
J Prosthet Dent ; 119(6): 916-924, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627212

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Causes of failures of bilayer yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) restorations include the processing technique and the properties of the veneer ceramic. The effect of the veneering method on the mechanical behavior of veneered Y-TZP remains unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effect of the veneering method on the flexural strength and failure load of bilayer Y-TZP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Searches were performed through August 2017 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core Collection), Scopus, and Embase, with no year or language limit, targeting in vitro studies evaluating the effect of the veneering technique on the flexural strength and load-to-failure of bilayer Y-TZP immediately or after aging. Statistical analyses were conducted using an appropriate software. Comparisons were drawn with random effect models (α=.05). RESULTS: From 3242 identified studies, 241 were selected for full-text analysis; from these, 33 studies were included. Manual searching yielded no additional papers. The meta-analysis consisted of 32 studies. Meta-analysis was performed separately for flexural strength and failure load data to compare the hand-layered method (control) with pressed, fused, and cemented veneering techniques. The cemented and fused methods were analyzed using subgroups depending on the veneering material being examined (predominantly glass-ceramics and particle-filled glass-ceramics), and the results were compared with those of the hand-layered method. The pressed group presented flexural strength (7 studies) (P=.150) and failure load (19 studies) (P=.140) values that were similar to those of the hand-layered group. Subgroup analysis revealed that the fused group with particle-filled glass-ceramics (7 studies) produced higher load-to-failure (P=.006) values than the hand-layered group. Subgroup analyses showed a statistical difference that favored the hand-layered over the cemented method, with predominantly glass-ceramic materials (5 studies) (P=.002). CONCLUSIONS: The fused technique with particle-filled glass-ceramics seems more appropriate for the veneering of Y-TZP, with improved failure load, than the hand-layered method with predominantly glass-ceramic materials. The use of predominantly glass-ceramics for the cemented method is not recommended as failure load was lower than for the hand-layered group. Pressed veneers showed failure load and flexural strength values similar to those of the the hand-layered technique.


Assuntos
Falha de Restauração Dentária , Facetas Dentárias , Resistência à Flexão , Ítrio , Zircônio , Humanos
18.
Dent Mater ; 33(11): 1286-1297, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of machining on the flexural fatigue strength and on the surface roughness of different computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramics by comparing machined and polished after machining specimens. METHODS: Disc-shaped specimens of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP), leucite-, and lithium disilicate-based glass ceramics were prepared by CAD/CAM machining, and divided into two groups: machining (M) and machining followed by polishing (MP). The surface roughness was measured and the flexural fatigue strength was evaluated by the step-test method (n=20). The initial load and the load increment for each ceramic material were based on a monotonic test (n=5). A maximum of 10,000 cycles was applied in each load step, at 1.4Hz. Weibull probability statistics was used for the analysis of the flexural fatigue strength, and Mann-Whitney test (α=5%) to compare roughness between the M and MP conditions. RESULTS: Machining resulted in lower values of characteristic flexural fatigue strength than machining followed by polishing. The greatest reduction in flexural fatigue strength from MP to M was observed for Y-TZP (40%; M=536.48MPa; MP=894.50MPa), followed by lithium disilicate (33%; M=187.71MPa; MP=278.93MPa) and leucite (29%; M=72.61MPa; MP=102.55MPa). Significantly higher values of roughness (Ra) were observed for M compared to MP (leucite: M=1.59µm and MP=0.08µm; lithium disilicate: M=1.84µm and MP=0.13µm; Y-TZP: M=1.79µm and MP=0.18µm). SIGNIFICANCE: Machining negatively affected the flexural fatigue strength of CAD/CAM ceramics, indicating that machining of partially or fully sintered ceramics is deleterious to fatigue strength.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Porcelana Dentária/química , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Maleabilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química
19.
J Prosthet Dent ; 118(5): 604-610, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385431

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The color stability of luting agents influences the esthetics of ceramic laminate veneers. Clinical studies that have evaluated the color changes of veneers cemented to enamel with light- and dual-polymerizing resin cement are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this split-mouth randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the color change and marginal discoloration of dual- and light-polymerizing cement used for cementation of ceramic laminate veneers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 10 participants, 0.3-mm-thick ceramic laminate veneers were cemented on the buccal surface of the second premolars without tooth preparation. A randomized application of light-polymerized cement was used on one side and a dual-polymerized cement on the contralateral side. The operator and participants were blinded to the activation mode. Color was evaluated by a blinded evaluator with a spectrophotometer at 24 hours and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months after cementation. The CIELab (ΔE*ab) and CIEDE2000 (ΔE*00) formulas were used to quantify color alteration, and Δa*, Δb*, and ΔL* were calculated between the first and subsequent measurements. US Public Health Service guidelines were used to evaluate the marginal discoloration. RESULTS: Wilcoxon tests did not show a statistical difference in ΔE*ab and ΔE*00 between the groups (P>.05). At 24 months, the median ΔE*ab was 2.31 (interquartile ranges [IQR]: 3.34) for the light-polymerizing mode and 1.57 (IQR: 0.41) for the dual-polymerizing mode, while the median ΔE*00 was 1.65 for the light-polymerizing mode (IQR: 2.34) and 1.18 for the dual-polymerizing mode (IQR: 0.25). The thresholds for clinically acceptable color changes ΔE*ab>3.46 and ΔE*00>2.25 were found for both curing modes. Marginal discoloration was observed from the 2-year assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The color stability of ceramic laminate veneers was similar for both of the polymerizing modes for all evaluated periods. Marginal discoloration increased over a 2-year period for both the light- and the dual-polymerizing modes.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/uso terapêutico , Cimentos Dentários/uso terapêutico , Facetas Dentárias , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários/métodos , Cor , Método Duplo-Cego , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Polimerização
20.
J Adhes Dent ; 18(5): 435-440, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669635

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a novel tribochemical silica coating technique with powders made from feldspathic ceramic and leucite-based ceramic on the bond strength of zirconia to resin cement before and after aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zirconia blocks were divided into 3 groups according to the material used for airborne-particle abrasion: 1) SP (control): silica-coated alumina particles; 2) FP: feldspathic ceramic powder; 3) LP: leucite glass-ceramic powder. After silanization, composite resin cylinders were cemented on the zirconia surface using a dual-curing resin cement. Prior to the shear bond strength (SBS) test, half of the samples (n = 15) were stored in distilled water for 24 h; the other half (n = 15) were submitted to aging (10,000 thermocycles of 5°C to 55°C; 150 days of water storage). The bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction analysis were performed. RESULTS: The initial bond strengths did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.053). However, after aging procedures, airborne-particle abrasion with feldspathic ceramic powder (FP) resulted in higher values of bond strength (p = 0.0001). SEM and EDS indicated that all the treatments promoted silica deposition on the Y-TZP surface ceramic. Airborne-particle abrasion with FP and LP induced a lower percentage of the monoclinic phase. CONCLUSION: Airborne abrasion with fine feldspathic ceramic particles is a novel tribochemical technique and appears to be suitable for improving the bond strength between zirconia and resin cements.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Colagem Dentária , Cimentos Dentários , Materiais Dentários , Cimentos de Resina , Zircônio , Teste de Materiais , Dióxido de Silício
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