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1.
Therapie ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dosage required to reach circulating levels that inhibit SARS-Cov-2 are extrapolated from pharmacokinetic data in non-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a population-pharmacokinetic analysis from 104 consecutive COVID-19 hospitalized patients (31 in intensive care units, 73 in medical wards, n=149 samples). Plasma HCQ concentration were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. Modelling used Monolix-2019R2. RESULTS: HCQ doses ranged from 200 to 800mg/day administered for 1 to 11days and median HCQ plasma concentration was 151ng/mL. Among the tested covariates, only bodyweight influenced elimination oral clearance (CL) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd). CL/F (F for unknown bioavailability) and Vd/F (relative standard-error, %) estimates were 45.9L/h (21.2) and 6690L (16.1). The derived elimination half-life (t1/2) was 102h. These parameters in COVID-19 differed from those reported in patients with lupus, where CL/F, Vd/F and t1/2 are reported to be 68L/h, 2440 L and 19.5h, respectively. Within 72h of HCQ initiation, only 16/104 (15.4%) COVID-19 patients had HCQ plasma levels above the in vitro half maximal effective concentration of HCQ against SARS-CoV-2 (240ng/mL). HCQ did not influence inflammation status (assessed by C-reactive protein) or SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (assessed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR nasopharyngeal swabs). CONCLUSION: The interindividual variability of HCQ pharmacokinetic parameters in severe COVID-19 patients was important and differed from that previously reported in non-COVID-19 patients. Loading doses of 1600mg HCQ followed by 600mg daily doses are needed to reach concentrations relevant to SARS-CoV-2 inhibition within 72hours in≥60% (95% confidence interval: 49.5-69.0%) of COVID-19 patients.

2.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(3): 307-317, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480831

RESUMO

Rationale: Whether severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a significant risk factor for the development of invasive fungal superinfections is of great medical interest and remains, for now, an open question.Objectives: We aim to assess the occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with severe COVID-19.Methods: We conducted the study on patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related pneumonia admitted to five ICUs in France who had respiratory and serum sampling performed for specific screening of fungal complications.Measurements and Main Results: The study population included a total of 145 patients; the median age was 55 years old. Most of them were male (n = 104; 72%), were overweight (n = 99; 68%), and had hypertension (n = 83; 57%) and diabetes (n = 46; 32%). Few patients presented preexisting host risk factors for invasive fungal infection (n = 20; 14%). Their global severity was high; all patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation, and half (n = 73, 54%) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Mycological analysis included 2,815 mycological tests (culture, galactomannan, ß-glucan, and PCR) performed on 475 respiratory samples and 532 sera. A probable/putative invasive pulmonary mold infection was diagnosed in 7 (4.8%) patients and linked to high mortality. Multivariate analysis indicates a significantly higher risk for solid organ transplant recipients (odds ratio, = 4.66; interquartile range, 1.98-7.34; P = 0.004). False-positive fungal test and clinically irrelevant colonization, which did not require the initiation of antifungal treatment, was observed in 25 patients (17.2%).Conclusions: In patients with no underlying immunosuppression, severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia seems at low risk of invasive fungal secondary infection, especially aspergillosis.


Assuntos
/terapia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Idoso , /mortalidade , Feminino , França , Hospitalização , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To describe the reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) admitted to the ICU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 101 PCNSL patients admitted to 3 ICUs over a two-decade period. RESULTS: Acute respiratory failure, mainly secondary to aspiration pneumonia and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, was the leading reason for ICU admission (33%). Aspiration pneumonia was more common in patients with brainstem tumor (67% vs. 0%, p < 0.001), whereas patients with intracranial hypertension were more frequently admitted for coma without seizures (61% vs. 9%, p = 0.004). Hospital and 6-month mortality were 47% and 53%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, admission for coma without seizures (OR 7.28), cancer progression (OR 3.47), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.58) and vasopressors (OR 4.07) were associated with higher 6-month mortality. Karnofsky performance status prior to ICU admission was independently associated with lower 6-month mortality (OR 0.96). DISCUSSION: Six-month survival of PCNSL patients admitted to the ICU appears to be relatively favorable (around 50%) and the presence of PCNSL alone is not a relevant criterion for ICU refusal. Predictive factors of mortality may help clinicians to make optimal triage decisions.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288662

RESUMO

Humoral immune responses are typically characterized by primary IgM antibody responses followed by secondary antibody responses associated with immune memory and comprised of of IgG, IgA and IgE. Here we measured acute humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, including the frequency of antibody-secreting cells and the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in the serum, saliva and broncho-alveolar fluid of 159 patients with COVID-19. Early SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral responses were dominated by IgA antibodies. Peripheral expansion of IgA plasmablasts with mucosal-homing potential was detected shortly after the onset of symptoms and peaked during the third week of the disease. The virus-specific antibody responses included IgG, IgM and IgA, but IgA contributed to virus neutralization to a greater extent compared with IgG. Specific IgA serum concentrations decreased notably one month after the onset of symptoms, but neutralizing IgA remained detectable in saliva for a longer time (days 49 to 73 post symptoms). These results represent a critical observation given the emerging information as to the types of antibodies associated with optimal protection against re-infection, and whether vaccine regimens should consider targeting a potent but potentially short-lived IgA response.

5.
J Crit Care ; 62: 6-11, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early intensive care unit (ICU) admission, in Critically Ill Cancer Patients (CICP), is believed to have contributed to the prognostic improvement of critically ill cancer patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between early ICU admission and hospital mortality in CICP. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter dataset. Early admission was defined as admission in the ICU < 24 h of hospital admission. We assessed the association between early ICU admission and hospital mortality in CICP via survival analysis and propensity score matching. RESULTS: Of the 1011patients in our cohort, 1005 had data available regarding ICU admission timing and were included. Overall, early ICU admission occurred in 455 patients (45.3%). Crude hospital mortality in patients with early and delayed ICU admission was 33.6% (n = 153) vs. 43.1% (n = 237), respectively (P = 0.02). After adjustment for confounders, early compared to late ICU admission was not associated with hospital mortality (HR 0.92; 95%CI 0.76-1.11). After propensity score matching, hospital mortality did not differ between patients with early (35.2%) and late (40.6%) ICU admission (P = 0.13). In the matched cohort, early ICU admission was not associated with mortality after adjustment on SOFA score (HR 0.89; 95%CI 0.71-1.12). Similar results were obtained after adjustment for center effect. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, early ICU admission was not associated with a better outcome after adjustment for confounder and center effect. The uncertainty with regard to the beneficial effect of early ICU on hospital mortality suggests the need for an interventional study.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 1920, a decrease in serum cholesterol has been identified as a marker of severe pneumonia. We have assessed the performance of serum apolipoprotein-A1, the main transporter of HDL-cholesterol, to identify the early spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in the general population and its diagnostic performance for the Covid-19. METHODS: We compared the daily mean serum apolipoprotein-A1 during the first 34 weeks of 2020 in a population that is routinely followed for a risk of liver fibrosis risk in the USA (212,297 serum) and in France (20,652 serum) in relation to a local increase in confirmed cases, and in comparison to the same period in 2019 (266,976 and 28,452 serum, respectively). We prospectively assessed the sensitivity of this marker in an observational study of 136 consecutive hospitalized cases and retrospectively evaluated its specificity in 7,481 controls representing the general population. RESULTS: The mean serum apolipoprotein-A1 levels in the survey populations began decreasing in January 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. This decrease was highly correlated with the daily increase in confirmed Covid-19 cases in the following 34 weeks, both in France and USA, including the June and mid-July recovery periods in France. Apolipoprotein-A1 at the 1.25 g/L cutoff had a sensitivity of 90.6% (95%CI84.2-95.1) and a specificity of 96.1% (95.7-96.6%) for the diagnosis of Covid-19. The area under the characteristics curve was 0.978 (0.957-0.988), and outperformed haptoglobin and liver function tests. The adjusted risk ratio of apolipoprotein-A1 for survival without transfer to intensive care unit was 5.61 (95%CI 1.02-31.0; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Apolipoprotein-A1 could be a sentinel of the pandemic in existing routine surveillance of the general population. NCT01927133, CER-2020-14.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Neurol ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Only limited data are available regarding the long-term prognosis of patients with high-grade glioma discharged alive from the intensive care unit. We sought to quantify 1-year mortality and evaluate the association between mortality and (1) functional status, and (2) management of anticancer therapy in patients with high-grade glioma discharged alive from the intensive care unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of patients with high-grade glioma admitted to two intensive care units between January 2009 and June 2018. Functional status was assessed by the Karnofsky Performance Status. Anticancer therapy after discharge was classified as (1) continued (unchanged), (2) modified (changed or stopped), or (3) initiated (for newly diagnosed disease). RESULTS: Ninety-one high-grade glioma patients (73% of whom had glioblastoma) were included and 78 (86%) of these patients were discharged alive from the intensive care unit. Anticancer therapy was continued, modified, and initiated in 41%, 42%, and 17% of patients, respectively. Corticosteroid therapy at the time of ICU admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.07] and cancer progression (OR 0.09) was independently associated with continuation of anticancer therapy. The mortality rate 1 year after ICU admission was 73%. On multivariate analysis, continuation of anticancer therapy (OR 0.18) and Karnofsky performance status on admission (OR 0.90) were independently associated with lower 1-year mortality. CONCLUSION: The presence of high-grade glioma is not sufficient to justify refusal of intensive care unit admission. Performance status and continuation of anticancer therapy are associated with higher survival after intensive care unit discharge. PREVIOUS PRESENTATION: Preliminary results were presented at the most recent congress of the French Intensive Care Society, Paris, 2019.

9.
Chest ; 158(6): 2404-2413, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-hanging experiences are life-threatening events about which few data are available. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the outcomes and early predictors of hospital mortality in critically ill patients who have undergone a near-hanging experience? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Adult patients who were resuscitated successfully after suicidal near-hanging injury admitted to 31 university or university-affiliated ICUs in France and Belgium between 1992 and 2014 were studied retrospectively. Patients were identified by searching the hospital databases for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 9th and 10th revisions, codes and hospital charts for hanging. Logistic multivariate regression was performed to identify factors associated vital and functional outcomes at hospital discharge as the primary end points. Secondary outcomes were evaluation of temporal trends and identification of predictors of hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 886 patients (181 women and 705 men; median age, 43 years; interquartile range, 34-52 years), 266 (30.0%) had attempted suicide previously, 600 (67.7%) had a diagnosed mental illness, and 55 (6.2%) attempted hanging while hospitalized. Median time from hanging awareness to unhanging was 0 min (interquartile range [IQR], 0-0; range, 0-82 min). Median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 3 (IQR, 3-5) at ICU admission. Hanging induced cardiac arrest in 450 of 886 patients (50.8%). Overall, 497 of 886 patients (56.1%) were alive at hospital discharge, including 479 of 497 patients (96.4%) with a favorable neurocognitive outcome (defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4 or 5). By multivariate analysis, factors associated with hospital mortality were hanging-induced cardiac arrest (OR, 19.50; 95% CI, 7.21-60.90; P < .00001) and findings at ICU admission of glycemia level > 1.4 g/L (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.82-10.81; P = .0007) and of lactate level > 3.5 mmol/L (OR, 9.98; 95% CI, 4.17-25.36; P < .00001). INTERPRETATION: The findings from this large multicenter retrospective cohort emphasize the very high mortality after hanging injury chiefly because of hanging-induced cardiac arrest. However, patients who survive near-hanging experiences achieve excellent neurocognitive recovery. Studies of early neuroprotective strategies for patients who have undergone near-hanging experiences are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04096976; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 418, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is spreading worldwide. To date, no specific treatment has convincingly demonstrated its efficacy. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have potential interest, but virological and clinical data are scarce, especially in critically ill patients. METHODS: The present report took the opportunity of compassionate use and successive drug shortages to compare the effects of two therapeutic options, lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, as compared to standard of care only. The primary outcomes were treatment escalation (intubation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation support, or renal replacement therapy) after day 1 until day 28. Secondary outcomes included ventilator-free days at day 28, mortality at day 14 and day 28, treatment safety issues and changes in respiratory tracts, and plasma viral load (as estimated by cycle threshold value) between admission and day 7. RESULTS: Eighty patients were treated during a 4-week period and included in the analysis: 22 (28%) received standard of care only, 20 (25%) patients received lopinavir/ritonavir associated to standard of care, and 38 (47%) patients received hydroxychloroquine and standard of care. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the 3 groups. Treatment escalation occurred in 9 (41%), 10 (50%), and 15 (39%) patients who received standard of care only, standard of care and lopinavir/ritonavir, and standard of care and hydroxychloroquine, respectively (p = 0.567). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 and mortality at day 14 and day 28. Finally, there was no significant change between groups in viral respiratory or plasma load between admission and day 7. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia, no difference was found between hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir as compared to standard of care only on the proportion of patients who needed treatment escalation at day 28. Further randomized controlled trials are required to demonstrate whether these drugs may be useful in this context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Chest ; 158(5): 1947-1957, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In view of the high mortality rate of immunocompromised patients with ARDS, it is important to identify targets for improvement. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study investigated factors associated with mortality in this specific ARDS population, including factors related to respiratory mechanics (plateau pressure [Pplat,rs], compliance [Crs], and driving pressure [ΔPrs]). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study consisted of a predefined secondary analysis of the EFRAIM data. Overall, 789 of 1,611 patients met the Berlin criteria for ARDS, and Pplat,rs, ΔPrs, and Crs were available for 494 patients. A hierarchical model was used to assess factors at ARDS onset independently associated with hospital mortality. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 56.3%. After adjustment, variables independently associated with hospital mortality included ARDS of undetermined etiology (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.72), need for vasopressors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.88), and need for renal replacement therapy (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.37-2.97). ARDS severity according to the Berlin definition, neutropenia on admission, and the type of underlying disease were not significantly associated with mortality. Before adjustment, higher Pplat,rs, higher ΔPrs, and lower Crs were associated with higher mortality. Addition of each of these individual variables to the final hierarchical model revealed a significant association with mortality: ΔPrs (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12), Pplat,rs (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11), and Crs (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98). Tidal volume was not associated with mortality. INTERPRETATION: In immunocompromised patients with ARDS, respiratory mechanics provide additional prognostic information to predictors of hospital mortality. Studies designed to define lung-protective ventilation guided by these physiological variables may be warranted in this specific population.

12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 231, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) occurs during the course of autoimmune disease and may be life threatening. The objective was to assess characteristics and prognosis factors of DAH who required intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with autoimmune diseases. METHODS: French multicenter retrospective study including patients presenting DAH related to autoimmune diseases requiring ICU admission from 2000 to 2016. RESULTS: One hundred four patients (54% of men) with median age of 56 [32-68] years were included with 79 (76%) systemic vasculitis and 25 (24%) connective tissue disorders. All patients received steroids, and 72 (69%), 12 (11.5%), and 57 (55%) patients had cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and plasma exchanges, respectively. During ICU stay, 52 (50%), 36 (35%), and 55 (53%) patients required mechanical ventilation, vasopressor use, and renal replacement therapy, respectively. Factors associated with mechanical ventilation weaning were age (HR [95%CI] 0.97 [0.96-0.99] per 10 years, p < 0.0001), vasculitis-related DAH (0.52 [0.27-0.98], p = 0.04), and time from dyspnea onset to ICU admission (0.99 [0.99-1] per day, p = 0.03). ICU mortality was 15%. Factors associated with alive status at ICU discharge were chronic cardiac failure (HR [95%CI] 0.37 [0.15-0.94], p = 0.04), antiphospholipid syndrome-related DAH (3.17 [1.89-5.32], p < 0.0001), SAPS II (0.98 [0.97-0.99], p = 0.007), and oxygen flow at ICU admission (0.95 [0.91-0.99] per liter/min, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: DAH in autoimmune diseases is a life-threatening complication which requires mechanical ventilation in half of the cases admitted to ICU.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1636-1637, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343223

RESUMO

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a complication in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially those with severe influenza pneumonia. We report a fatal case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient in France who had severe coronavirus disease-associated pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/etiologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Aspergilose Pulmonar/mortalidade
14.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): 822-829, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cancer affects up to 20% of critically ill patients, and sepsis is one of the leading reasons for ICU admission in this setting. Early signals suggested that survival might be increasing in this population. However, confirmation studies have been lacking. The goal of this study was to assess trends in survival rates over time in cancer patients admitted to the ICU for sepsis or septic shock over the last 2 decades. DATA SOURCE: Seven European ICUs. STUDY SELECTION: A hierarchical model taking into account the year of admission and the source dataset as random variables was used to identify risk factors for day 30 mortality. DATA EXTRACTION: Data from cancer patients admitted to ICUs for sepsis or septic shock were extracted from the Groupe de Recherche Respiratoire en Réanimation Onco-Hématologique database (1994-2015). DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 2,062 patients (62% men, median [interquartile range] age 59 yr [48-67 yr]) were included in the study. Underlying malignancies were solid tumors (n = 362; 17.6%) or hematologic malignancies (n = 1,700; 82.4%), including acute leukemia (n = 591; 28.7%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 461; 22.3%), and myeloma (n = 244; 11.8%). Two-hundred fifty patients (12%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 640 (31.0%) were neutropenic at ICU admission. Day 30 mortality was 39.9% (823 deaths). The year of ICU admission was associated with significant decrease in day 30 mortality over time (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98; p = 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 2.52-4.19; p < 0.01) and vasopressors use (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10-1.83; p < 0.01) were independently associated with day 30 mortality, whereas underlying malignancy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and neutropenia were not. CONCLUSIONS: Survival in critically ill oncology and hematology patients with sepsis improved significantly over time. As outcomes improve, clinicians should consider updating admission policies and goals of care in this population.

15.
Anesthesiology ; 132(5): 1114-1125, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of diaphragm function with diaphragm ultrasound seems to bring important clinical information to describe diaphragm work and weakness. When the diaphragm is weak, extradiaphragmatic muscles may play an important role, but whether ultrasound can also assess their activity and function is unknown. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the feasibility of measuring the thickening of the parasternal intercostal and investigate the responsiveness of this muscle to assisted ventilation; and (2) evaluate whether a combined evaluation of the parasternal and the diaphragm could predict failure of a spontaneous breathing trial. METHODS: First, an exploratory evaluation of the parasternal in 23 healthy subjects. Second, the responsiveness of parasternal to several pressure support levels were studied in 16 patients. Last, parasternal activity was compared in presence or absence of diaphragm dysfunction (assessed by magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves and ultrasound) and in case of success/failure of a spontaneous breathing trial in 54 patients. RESULTS: The parasternal was easily accessible in all patients. The interobserver reproducibility was good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.89). There was a progressive decrease in parasternal muscle thickening fraction with increasing levels of pressure support (Spearman ρ = -0.61 [95% CI, -0.74 to -0.44]; P < 0.0001) and an inverse correlation between parasternal muscle thickening fraction and the pressure generating capacity of the diaphragm (Spearman ρ = -0.79 [95% CI, -0.87 to -0.66]; P < 0.0001). The parasternal muscle thickening fraction was higher in patients with diaphragm dysfunction: 17% (10 to 25) versus 5% (3 to 8), P < 0.0001. The pressure generating capacity of the diaphragm, the diaphragm thickening fraction and the parasternal thickening fraction similarly predicted failure or the spontaneous breathing trial. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound assessment of the parasternal intercostal muscle is feasible in the intensive care unit and provides novel information regarding the respiratory capacity load balance.


Assuntos
Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Intercostais/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Adulto , Diafragma/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Músculos Intercostais/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness and diaphragm dysfunction are frequent conditions, both associated with poor prognosis in critically ill patients. While it is well established that ICU-acquired weakness severely impairs long-term prognosis, the association of diaphragm dysfunction with this outcome has never been reported. This study investigated whether diaphragm dysfunction is associated with negative long-term outcomes and whether the coexistence of diaphragm dysfunction and ICU-acquired weakness has a particular association with 2-year survival and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: This study is an ancillary study derived from an observational cohort study. Patients under mechanical ventilation were enrolled at the time of their first spontaneous breathing trial. Diaphragm dysfunction was defined by tracheal pressure generated by phrenic nerve stimulation < 11 cmH2O and ICU-acquired weakness was defined by Medical Research Council (MRC) score < 48. HRQOL was evaluated with the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: Sixty-nine of the 76 patients enrolled in the original study were included in the survival analysis and 40 were interviewed. Overall 2-year survival was 67% (46/69): 64% (29/45) in patients with diaphragm dysfunction, 71% (17/24) in patients without diaphragm dysfunction, 46% (11/24) in patients with ICU-acquired weakness and 76% (34/45) in patients without ICU-acquired weakness. Patients with concomitant diaphragm dysfunction and ICU-acquired weakness had a poorer outcome with a 2-year survival rate of 36% (5/14) compared to patients without diaphragm function and ICU-acquired weakness [79% (11/14) (p < 0.01)]. Health-related quality of life was not influenced by the presence of ICU-acquired weakness, diaphragm dysfunction or their coexistence. CONCLUSIONS: ICU-acquired weakness but not diaphragm dysfunction was associated with a poor 2-year survival of critically ill patients.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(4): 1089-1091, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538643

RESUMO

In a multicenter cohort study including 22 oseltamivir-treated patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 acute respiratory distress syndrome, prevalence of the H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase, responsible for highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir, was 23%. Patients infected with the H275Y mutant virus had higher day 28 mortality than others (80% vs 12%; P = .011).

18.
Chest ; 157(5): 1158-1166, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease defined by thrombotic events that can require ICU admission because of organ dysfunction related to macrovascular and/or microvascular thrombosis. Critically ill patients with thrombosis and APS were studied to gain insight into their prognoses and in-hospital mortality-associated factors. METHODS: This French national, multicenter, retrospective study included all patients with APS and any new thrombotic manifestations admitted to 24 ICUs (January 2000-September 2018). RESULTS: During the study period, 134 patients (male/female ratio, 0.4) with 152 APS episodes were admitted to the ICU (mean age at admission, 46.0 ± 15.1 years). In-hospital mortality of their 134 last episodes was 35 of 134 (26.1%). The Cox multivariable model retained certain factors (hazard ratio [95% CI]: age ≥ 40 years, 11.4 [3.1-41.5], P < .0001; mechanical ventilation, 11.0 [3.3-37], P < .0001; renal replacement therapy, 2.9 [1.3-6.3], P = .007; and in-ICU anticoagulation, 0.1 [0.03-0.3], P < .0001) as independently associated with in-hospital mortality. For the subgroup of definite/probable catastrophic APS, the Cox bivariable model (including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score) retained double therapy (corticosteroids + anticoagulant, 0.2 [0.07-0.6]; P = .005) but not triple therapy (corticosteroids + anticoagulant + IV immunoglobulins or plasmapheresis: hazard ratio, 0.3 [0.1-1.1]; P = .07) as independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In-ICU anticoagulation was the only APS-specific treatment independently associated with survival for all patients. Double therapy was independently associated with better survival of patients with definite/probable catastrophic APS. In these patients, further studies are needed to determine the role of triple therapy.

19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(2): 263-272, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841577

RESUMO

Importance: The role of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation on morbidity and mortality in patients in the intensive care unit requiring mechanical ventilation remains unknown. Objective: To determine whether preemptive treatment with intravenous acyclovir reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with HSV oropharyngeal reactivation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 16 intensive care units in France. Participants included 239 adults (age, >18 years) who received mechanical ventilation for at least 96 hours and continued to receive mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or more, with HSV oropharyngeal reactivation. Patients were enrolled between February 2, 2014, and February 22, 2018. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive intravenous acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 14 days or a matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was ventilator-free days from randomization to day 60. Prespecified secondary outcomes included mortality at 60 days. Main analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Of 239 patients enrolled and randomized, 1 patient withdrew consent, leaving 238 patients, with 119 patients in both the acyclovir and placebo (control) groups (median [IQR] age, 61 [50-70] years; 76 [32%] women) available for primary outcome measurement. On day 60, the median (IQR) numbers of ventilator-free days were 35 (0-53) for acyclovir recipients and 36 (0-50]) for controls (P = .17 for between-group comparison). Among secondary outcomes, 26 patients (22%) and 39 patients (33%) had died at day 60 (risk difference, 0.11, 95% CI, -0.004 to 0.22, P = .06). The adverse event frequency was similar for both groups (28% in the acyclovir group and 23% in the placebo group, P = .40), particularly acute renal failure post randomization affecting 3 acyclovir recipients (3%) and 2 controls (2%). Four patients (3%) in the acyclovir group vs none in the placebo group stopped the study drug for treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients receiving mechanical ventilation for 96 hours or more with HSV reactivation in the throat, use of acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 14 days, did not increase the number of ventilator-free days at day 60, compared with placebo. These findings do not appear to support routine preemptive use of acyclovir in this setting. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02152358.


Assuntos
Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Orofaringe , Doenças Faríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Ativação Viral , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Trials ; 20(1): 726, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Artificial Kidney Initiation in Kidney Injury (AKIKI) trial showed that a delayed renal replacement therapy (RRT) strategy for severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients was safe and associated with major reduction in RRT initiation compared with an early strategy. The five criteria which mandated RRT initiation in the delayed arm were: severe hyperkalemia, severe acidosis, acute pulmonary edema due to fluid overload resulting in severe hypoxemia, serum urea concentration > 40 mmol/l and oliguria/anuria > 72 h. However, duration of anuria/oliguria and level of blood urea are still criteria open to debate. The objective of the study is to compare the delayed strategy used in AKIKI (now termed "standard") with another in which RRT is further delayed for a longer period (termed "delayed strategy"). METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, two-arm randomized trial. The study is composed of two stages (observational and randomization stages). At any time, the occurrence of a potentially severe condition (severe hyperkalemia, severe metabolic or mixed acidosis, acute pulmonary edema due to fluid overload resulting in severe hypoxemia) suggests immediate RRT initiation. Patients receiving (or who have received) intravenously administered catecholamines and/or invasive mechanical ventilation and presenting with AKI stage 3 of the KDIGO classification and with no potentially severe condition are included in the observational stage. Patients presenting a serum urea concentration > 40 mmol/l and/or an oliguria/anuria for more than 72 h are randomly allocated to a standard (RRT is initiated within 12 h) or a delayed RRT strategy (RRT is initiated only if an above-mentioned potentially severe condition occurs or if the serum urea concentration reaches 50 mmol/l). The primary outcome will be the number of RRT-free days at day 28. One interim analysis is planned. It is expected to include 810 patients in the observational stage and to randomize 270 subjects. DISCUSSION: The AKIKI2 study should improve the knowledge of RRT initiation criteria in critically ill patients. The potential reduction in RRT use allowed by a delayed RRT strategy might be associated with less invasive care and decreased costs. Enrollment is ongoing. Inclusions are expected to be completed by November 2019. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03396757. Registered on 11 January 2018.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Rins Artificiais , Terapia de Substituição Renal/instrumentação , Tempo para o Tratamento , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , França , Humanos , Rins Artificiais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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