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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine if later birth year influences trajectory of age-related cognitive decline across racial/ethnic groups and to test whether years of school, childhood socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular disease burden explain such secular trends. METHODS: We compared cognitive trajectories of global cognition and subdomains in two successive racially/ethnically and educationally diverse birth cohorts of a prospective cohort study. RESULTS: Later birth year was associated with higher initial cognitive levels for Whites and Blacks, but not Hispanics. Later birth year was also associated with less rapid rate of decline in all three racial/ethnic groups. More years of education, higher childhood socioeconomic status, and, to a smaller extent, greater cardiovascular disease burden accounted for higher intercepts in the later-born cohort, but did not account for attenuated slope of cognitive decline. DISCUSSION: Later birth year is related to a slower rate of age-related decline in some cognitive domains in some racial/ethnic groups. Our analyses suggest that racial/ethnic and social inequalities are part of the mechanisms driving secular trends in cognitive aging and dementia.

2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Odor identification deficits characterize Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. We examined if intact performance on brief cognitive and odor identification tests predicts lack of transition to dementia. METHODS: In an urban community, 1037 older adults without dementia completed the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, which includes the 12-item Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT). Data from 749 participants followed up for 4 years were analyzed. RESULTS: In covariate-adjusted survival analyses, impairment on the Blessed Orientation Memory Concentration Test and B-SIT each predicted dementia (n = 109), primarily Alzheimer's disease (n = 101). Among participants with intact olfactory (B-SIT ≥ 11/12 correct) and cognitive (Blessed Orientation Memory Concentration Test ≤ 5/28 incorrect) ability, 3.4% (4/117) transitioned to dementia during follow-up with no transitions in the 70-75 and 81-83 years age group quartiles. DISCUSSION: Odor identification testing adds value to global cognitive testing, and together can identify individuals who rarely transition to dementia, thereby avoiding unnecessary diagnostic investigation.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study sought to determine whether cognitive trajectories differ between men and women across and within racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: Participants were 5258 non-Hispanic White (NHW), Black, and Hispanic men and women in the Washington/Hamilton Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project who were administered neuropsychological tests of memory, language, and visuospatial abilities at 18- to 24-month intervals for up to 25 years. Multiple-group latent growth curve modeling examined trajectories across sex/gender by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and education, the largest baseline differences were between NHW men and Hispanic women on visuospatial and language, and between NHW women and Black men on memory. Memory and visuospatial decline was steeper for Black women compared with Hispanic men and NHW women, respectively. DISCUSSION: This study takes an important first step in understanding interactions between race/ethnicity and sex/gender on cognitive trajectories by demonstrating variability in sex/gender differences across race/ethnicity.

4.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The associations between self-reported current and past leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) incidence were determined using data from the multiethnic Washington/Hamilton Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP) study. METHODS: The metabolic equivalent of LTPA energy expenditure was calculated for self-reported current and past LTPA for 1345 older adults. A Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to estimate the association between LTPA (low, middle, and high) and incident AD risk. RESULTS: Comparing high to low level, current and past LTPA were both associated with reduced AD risk, with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.39 (0.20-0.75) and 0.37 (0.18-0.75), respectively. Compared with "always low," "increased" and "always high" LTPA throughout life were associated with reduced AD risk, with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.60 (0.36-0.99) and 0.28 (0.08-0.94), respectively. Light- and moderate-intensity LTPA were associated with lower AD risk. DISCUSSION: LTPA both throughout life and later in life are associated with lower risk of AD.

5.
Brain ; 142(11): 3375-3381, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580390

RESUMO

Age at onset of Alzheimer's disease is highly variable, and its modifiers (genetic or environmental) could act through epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation at CpG sites. DNA methylation is also linked to ageing-the strongest Alzheimer's disease risk factor. DNA methylation age can be calculated using age-related CpGs and might reflect biological ageing. We conducted a clinical, genetic and epigenetic investigation of a unique Ashkenazi Jewish family with monozygotic triplets, two of whom developed Alzheimer's disease at ages 73 and 76, while the third at age 85 has no cognitive complaints or deficits in daily activities. One of their offspring developed Alzheimer's disease at age 50. Targeted sequencing of 80 genes associated with neurodegeneration revealed that the triplets and the affected offspring are heterozygous carriers of the risk APOE ε4 allele, as well as rare substitutions in APP (p.S198P), NOTCH3 (p.H1235L) and SORL1 (p.W1563C). In addition, we catalogued 52 possibly damaging rare variants detected by NeuroX array in affected individuals. Analysis of family members on a genome-wide DNA methylation chip revealed that the DNA methylation age of the triplets was 6-10 years younger than chronological age, while it was 9 years older in the offspring with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, suggesting accelerated ageing.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 822-835, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585107

RESUMO

To analyze family-based whole-genome sequence (WGS) data for complex traits, we developed a rare variant (RV) non-parametric linkage (NPL) analysis method, which has advantages over association methods. The RV-NPL differs from the NPL in that RVs are analyzed, and allele sharing among affected relative-pairs is estimated only for minor alleles. Analyzing families can increase power because causal variants with familial aggregation usually have larger effect sizes than those underlying sporadic diseases. Differing from association analysis, for NPL only affected individuals are analyzed, which can increase power, since unaffected family members can be susceptibility variant carriers. RV-NPL is robust to population substructure and admixture, inclusion of nonpathogenic variants, as well as allelic and locus heterogeneity and can readily be applied outside of coding regions. In contrast to analyzing common variants using NPL, where loci localize to large genomic regions (e.g., >50 Mb), mapped regions are well defined for RV-NPL. Using simulation studies, we demonstrate that RV-NPL is substantially more powerful than applying traditional NPL methods to analyze RVs. The RV-NPL was applied to analyze 107 late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) pedigrees of Caribbean Hispanic and European ancestry with WGS data, and statistically significant linkage (LOD ≥ 3.8) was found with RVs in PSMF1 and PTPN21 which have been shown to be involved in LOAD etiology. Additionally, nominally significant linkage was observed with RVs in ABCA7, ACE, EPHA1, and SORL1, genes that were previously reported to be associated with LOAD. RV-NPL is an ideal method to elucidate the genetic etiology of complex familial diseases.

7.
Neurobiol Aging ; 84: 109-118, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539647

RESUMO

Educational attainment is associated with cognition among older adults, but this association is complex and not well understood. While associated with better cognition among healthy adults, more education predicts faster decline in older adults with cognitive impairment. Education may influence cognitive functioning through mechanisms involving brain maintenance (BM: reduced age-related pathology) or cognitive reserve (CR: altered pathology-cognition association). We examined evidence for each mechanism by quantifying main and interaction effects of education within a well-studied pathway involving systolic blood pressure, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and episodic memory in 2 samples without dementia at the baseline (total N = 1136). There were no effects of education on systolic blood pressure or WMH, suggesting a lack of evidence for BM. In the sample less likely to progress to dementia, education attenuated the effect of WMH on memory at the baseline. In the sample more likely to progress to dementia, education exacerbated this effect at the baseline. These moderations provide evidence for a CR mechanism and are consistent with previous findings of faster decline once CR is depleted.

8.
Neuropsychology ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Greater depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive decline in older adulthood, but it is not clear what underlying factors drive this association. One behavioral pathway through which depressive symptoms may negatively influence cognitive functioning is through activity engagement. Prior research has independently linked greater depressive symptoms to both lower leisure and physical activity and independently linked both lower leisure and physical activity to lower cognition. Therefore, depressive symptoms may negatively influence cognition by reducing engagement in beneficial leisure and/or physical activities that help to maintain cognition. METHODS: The current study examined associations between depressive symptoms, leisure activity, physical activity, and global cognitive functioning using longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (n = 5,458 older adults). A multilevel structural equation model estimated the between-person and within-person effects of depressive symptoms on global cognition through leisure and physical activity. RESULTS: Leisure activity, but not physical activity, mediated the association between depressive symptoms and global cognition between- and within-persons. When individuals reported high depressive symptoms, they also reported fewer leisure activities, which was associated with lower global cognition. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight behavioral pathways through which depressive symptoms may negatively influence cognitive functioning. Findings support the view that perhaps depressive symptoms act as a risk factor for cognitive impairment by reducing leisure activity engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180460

RESUMO

Importance: Previous genome-wide association studies of common variants identified associations for Alzheimer disease (AD) loci evident only among individuals with particular APOE alleles. Objective: To identify APOE genotype-dependent associations with infrequent and rare variants using whole-exome sequencing. Design, Setting, and Participants: The discovery stage included 10 441 non-Hispanic white participants in the Alzheimer Disease Sequencing Project. Replication was sought in 2 independent, whole-exome sequencing data sets (1766 patients with AD, 2906 without AD [controls]) and a chip-based genotype imputation data set (8728 patients with AD, 9808 controls). Bioinformatics and functional analyses were conducted using clinical, cognitive, neuropathologic, whole-exome sequencing, and gene expression data obtained from a longitudinal cohort sample including 402 patients with AD and 647 controls. Data were analyzed between March 2017 and September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Score, Firth, and sequence kernel association tests were used to test the association of AD risk with individual variants and genes in subgroups of APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers. Results with P ≤ 1 × 10-5 were further evaluated in the replication data sets and combined by meta-analysis. Results: Among 3145 patients with AD and 4213 controls lacking ε4 (mean [SD] age, 83.4 [7.6] years; 4363 [59.3.%] women), novel genome-wide significant associations were obtained in the discovery sample with rs536940594 in AC099552 (odds ratio [OR], 88.0; 95% CI, 9.08-852.0; P = 2.22 × 10-7) and rs138412600 in GPAA1 (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.44-2.2; meta-P = 7.81 × 10-8). GPAA1 was also associated with expression in the brain of GPAA1 (ß = -0.08; P = .03) and its repressive transcription factor, FOXG1 (ß = 0.13; P = .003), and global cognition function (ß = -0.53; P = .009). Significant gene-wide associations (threshold P ≤ 6.35 × 10-7) were observed for OR8G5 (P = 4.67 × 10-7), IGHV3-7 (P = 9.75 × 10-16), and SLC24A3 (P = 2.67 × 10-12) in 2377 patients with AD and 706 controls with ε4 (mean [SD] age, 75.2 [9.6] years; 1668 [54.1%] women). Conclusions and Relevance: The study identified multiple possible novel associations for AD with individual and aggregated rare variants in groups of individuals with and without APOE ε4 alleles that reinforce known and suggest additional pathways leading to AD.

11.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058951

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) are not completely explained by known genetic loci. Whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing can improve the understanding of the causes of LOAD and provide initial steps required to identify potential therapeutic targets. Objective: To identify the genetic loci for LOAD across different ethnic groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study was designed to analyze whole-exome sequencing data from a multiethnic cohort using a transethnic gene-kernel association test meta-analysis, adjusted for sex, age, and principal components, to identify genetic variants associated with LOAD. A meta-analysis was conducted on the results of 2 independent studies of whole-exome and whole-genome sequence data from individuals of European ancestry. This group of European American, African American, and Caribbean Hispanic individuals participating in an urban population-based study were the discovery cohort; the additional cohorts included affected individuals and control participants from 2 publicly available data sets. Replication was achieved using independent data sets from Caribbean Hispanic families with multiple family members affected by LOAD and the International Genetics of Alzheimer Project. Main Outcomes and Measures: Late-onset Alzheimer disease. Results: The discovery cohort included 3595 affected individuals, while the additional cohorts included 5931 individuals with LOAD and 5504 control participants. Of 3916 individuals in the discovery cohort, we included 3595 individuals (1397 with LOAD and 2198 cognitively healthy controls; 2451 [68.2%] women; mean [SD] age, 80.3 [6.83] years). Another 321 individuals (8.2%) were excluded because of non-LOAD diagnosis, age younger than 60 years, missing covariates, duplicate data, or genetic outlier status. Gene-based tests that compared affected individuals (n = 7328) and control participants (n = 7702) and included only rare and uncommon variants annotated as having moderate-high functional effect supported PINX1 (8p23.1) as a locus with gene-wide significance (P = 2.81 × 10-6) after meta-analysis across the 3 studies. The PINX1 finding was replicated using data from the family-based study and the International Genetics of Alzheimer Project. Full meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts reached a P value of 6.16 × 10-7 for PINX1 (in 7620 affected individuals vs 7768 control participants). We also identified TREM2 in an annotation model that prioritized highly deleterious variants with a combined annotation dependent depletion greater than 20 (P= 1.0 × 10-7). Conclusions and Relevance: This gene-based, transethnic approach identified PINX1, a gene involved in telomere integrity, and TREM2, a gene with a product of an immune receptor found in microglia, as associated with LOAD. Both genes have well-established roles in aging and neurodegeneration.

12.
Aging Cell ; 18(4): e12964, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144443

RESUMO

CpG-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (CGS) have the potential to perturb DNA methylation; however, their effects on Alzheimer disease (AD) risk have not been evaluated systematically. We conducted a genome-wide association study using a sliding-window approach to measure the combined effects of CGSes on AD risk in a discovery sample of 24 European ancestry cohorts (12,181 cases, 12,601 controls) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) and replication sample of seven European ancestry cohorts (7,554 cases, 27,382 controls) from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). The potential functional relevance of significant associations was evaluated by analysis of methylation and expression levels in brain tissue of the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (ROSMAP), and in whole blood of Framingham Heart Study participants (FHS). Genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) associations were identified with 171 1.0 kb-length windows spanning 932 kb in the APOE region (top p < 2.2 × 10-308 ), five windows at BIN1 (top p = 1.3 × 10-13 ), two windows at MS4A6A (top p = 2.7 × 10-10 ), two windows near MS4A4A (top p = 6.4 × 10-10 ), and one window at PICALM (p = 6.3 × 10-9 ). The total number of CGS-derived CpG dinucleotides in the window near MS4A4A was associated with AD risk (p = 2.67 × 10-10 ), brain DNA methylation (p = 2.15 × 10-10 ), and gene expression in brain (p = 0.03) and blood (p = 2.53 × 10-4 ). Pathway analysis of the genes responsive to changes in the methylation quantitative trait locus signal at MS4A4A (cg14750746) showed an enrichment of methyltransferase functions. We confirm the importance of CGS in AD and the potential for creating a functional CpG dosage-derived genetic score to predict AD risk.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191350, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924900

RESUMO

Importance: Some of the unexplained heritability of Alzheimer disease (AD) may be due to rare variants whose effects are not captured in genome-wide association studies because very large samples are needed to observe statistically significant associations. Objective: To identify genetic variants associated with AD risk using a nonstatistical approach. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genetic association study in which rare variants were identified by whole-exome sequencing in unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP). Data were analyzed between March 2017 and September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Minor alleles genome-wide and in 95 genes previously associated with AD, AD-related traits, or other dementias were tabulated and filtered for predicted functional impact and occurrence in participants with AD but not controls. Support for several findings was sought in a whole-exome sequencing data set comprising 19 affected relative pairs from Utah high-risk pedigrees and whole-genome sequencing data sets from the ADSP and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results: Among 5617 participants with AD (3202 [57.0%] women; mean [SD] age, 76.4 [9.3] years) and 4594 controls (2719 [59.0%] women; mean [SD] age, 86.5 [4.5] years), a total of 24 variants with moderate or high functional impact from 19 genes were observed in 10 or more participants with AD but not in controls. These variants included a missense mutation (rs149307620 [p.A284T], n = 10) in NOTCH3, a gene in which coding mutations are associated with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), that was also identified in 1 participant with AD and 1 participant with mild cognitive impairment in the whole genome sequencing data sets. Four participants with AD carried the TREM2 rs104894002 (p.Q33X) high-impact mutation that, in homozygous form, causes Nasu-Hakola disease, a rare disorder characterized by early-onset dementia and multifocal bone cysts, suggesting an intermediate inheritance model for the mutation. Compared with controls, participants with AD had a significantly higher burden of deleterious rare coding variants in dementia-associated genes (2314 vs 3354 cumulative variants, respectively; P = .006). Conclusions and Relevance: Different mutations in the same gene or variable dose of a mutation may be associated with result in distinct dementias. These findings suggest that minor differences in the structure or amount of protein may be associated with in different clinical outcomes. Understanding these genotype-phenotype associations may provide further insight into the pathogenic nature of the mutations, as well as offer clues for developing new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Mutação/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Notch3/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
14.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(5): 666-674, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827874

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We tested the hypothesis that brain arterial dilatation increases the risk of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). METHODS: We studied dementia-free participants in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project who had a brain MRI and post-MRI dementia adjudication. We measured the axial T2-proton density diameters of the intracranial carotids and basilar diameters and used Cox models to obtain AD hazard ratios and 95% intervals. RESULTS: Of 953 participants (mean age 77 ± 7 y, women 64%, 71% nonwhite) followed on average for 3 ± 3 years, 76 (8%) developed AD. In a model adjusted for demographics, vascular risks, apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε4, and white matter hyperintensities, larger carotid diameters increased the risk of AD, defined categorically as ≥ 90th percentile (HR 4.34, 1.70-11.11) or continuously (HR 1.44 per SD, 1.07-1.94). DISCUSSION: Understanding the pathophysiology of the association between AD and brain arterial dilatation may reveal new clues to the vascular contributions to AD.

15.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(1): e521, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568999

RESUMO

Objective: This investigation aimed at examining whether circulating inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were related to cerebrovascular disease (CVD) assessed by MRI. Methods: The study included nondemented elderly participants of a community-based, multiethnic cohort, who received baseline MRI scans and had CRP (n = 508), ACT (435), and IL6 (N = 357) measured by ELISA. Silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were derived from all available MRI scans at baseline, approximately 4.4 years after blood sample collection for inflammatory biomarkers. Repeated assessments of infarcts and WMH, as well as microbleeds assessment, were performed at follow-up MRI visits around 4.5 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and CVD were analyzed using appropriate logistic regression models, generalized linear models, or COX models. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, APOE genotype, and intracranial volume, 1 SD increase in log10IL6 was associated with infarcts on MRI {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 1.28 [1.02-1.60], p = 0.033}, and 1 SD increase in log10CRP and log10ACT was associated with microbleeds (OR [95% CI] = 1.46 [1.02-2.09], p = 0.041; and 1.65 [1.11-2.46], p = 0.013; respectively). One SD increase in log10ACT was also associated with larger WMH at the follow-up MRI (b = 0.103, p = 0.012) and increased accumulation of WMH volume (b = 0.062, p = 0.041) during follow-up. The associations remained significant after additional adjustment of vascular risk factors and excluding participants with clinical stroke. Conclusions: Among older adults, increased circulating inflammatory biomarkers were associated with the presence of infarcts and microbleeds, WMH burden, and progression of WMH.

16.
Neurobiol Dis ; 121: 327-337, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336198

RESUMO

Our group has previously studied the brains of some unique individuals who are able to tolerate robust amounts of Alzheimer's pathological lesions (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) without experiencing dementia while alive. These rare resilient cases do not demonstrate the patterns of neuronal/synaptic loss that are normally found in the brains of typical demented Alzheimer's patients. Moreover, they exhibit decreased astrocyte and microglial activation markers GFAP and CD68, suggesting that a suppressed neuroinflammatory response may be implicated in human brain resilience to Alzheimer's pathology. In the present work, we used a multiplexed immunoassay to profile a panel of 27 cytokines in the brains of controls, typical demented Alzheimer's cases, and two groups of resilient cases, which possessed pathology consistent with either high probability (HP, Braak stage V-VI and CERAD 2-3) or intermediate probability (IP, Braak state III-IV and CERAD 1-3) of Alzheimer's disease in the absence of dementia. We used a multivariate partial least squares regression approach to study differences in cytokine expression between resilient cases and both Alzheimer's and control cases. Our analysis identified distinct profiles of cytokines in the entorhinal cortex (one of the earliest and most severely affected brain regions in Alzheimer's disease) that are up-regulated in both HP and IP resilient cases relative to Alzheimer's and control cases. These cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-4 in HP resilient cases and IL-6, IL-10, and IP-10 in IP resilient cases, delineate differential inflammatory activity in brains resilient to Alzheimer's pathology compared to Alzheimer's cases. Of note, these cytokines all have been associated with pathogen clearance and/or the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, our analysis in the superior temporal sulcus (a multimodal association cortex that consistently accumulates Alzheimer's pathology at later stages of the disease along with overt symptoms of dementia) revealed increased expression of neurotrophic factors, such as PDGF-bb and basic FGF in resilient compared to AD cases. The same region also had reduced expression of chemokines associated with microglial recruitment, including MCP-1 in HP resilient cases and MIP-1α in IP resilient cases compared to AD. Altogether, our data suggest that different patterns of cytokine expression exist in the brains of resilient and Alzheimer's cases, link these differences to reduced glial activation, increased neuronal survival and preserved cognition in resilient cases, and reveal specific cytokine targets that may prove relevant to the identification of novel mechanisms of brain resiliency to Alzheimer's pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Encefalite/complicações , Encefalite/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Regulação para Cima
17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The genetic architecture of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is only partially understood. METHODS: We conducted an association study for AD using whole sequence data from 507 genetically enriched AD cases (i.e., cases having close relatives affected by AD) and 4917 cognitively healthy controls of European ancestry (EA) and 172 enriched cases and 179 controls of Caribbean Hispanic ancestry. Confirmation of top findings from stage 1 was sought in two family-based genome-wide association study data sets and in a whole genome-sequencing data set comprising members from 42 EA and 115 Caribbean Hispanic families. RESULTS: We identified associations in EAs with variants in 12 novel loci. The most robust finding is a rare CASP7 missense variant (rs116437863; P = 2.44 × 10-10) which improved when combined with results from stage 2 data sets (P = 1.92 × 10-10). DISCUSSION: Our study demonstrated that an enriched case design can strengthen genetic signals, thus allowing detection of associations that would otherwise be missed in a traditional case-control study.

18.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 10: 669-677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417072

RESUMO

Introduction: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is commonly used to estimate neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluate the utility of dynamic PET measures of perfusion using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to estimate neuronal injury in comparison to FDG PET. Methods: FDG, early frames of PiB images, and relative PiB delivery rate constants (PiB-R1) were obtained from 110 participants from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. Voxelwise, regional cross-sectional, and longitudinal analyses were done to evaluate the correlation between images and estimate the relationship of the imaging biomarkers with estimated time to disease progression based on family history. Results: Metabolism and perfusion images were spatially correlated. Regional PiB-R1 values and FDG, but not early frames of PiB images, significantly decreased in the mutation carriers with estimated year to onset and with increasing dementia severity. Discussion: Hypometabolism estimated by PiB-R1 may provide a measure of brain perfusion without increasing radiation exposure.

19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412503

RESUMO

The incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia are higher among Caribbean Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites. The causes of this health disparity remain elusive, partially because of the relative limited capacity for biomedical research in the developing countries that comprise Caribbean Latin America. To begin to address this issue, we were awarded a Development Research Award from the US NIH and Fogarty International Center in order to establish the local capacity to integrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into studies of cognitive aging and dementia in Dominican Republic, establish collaborations with Dominican investigators, and conduct a pilot study on the role of cerebrovascular markers in the clinical expression of AD. Ninety older adult participants with and without AD dementia and with and without a strong family history of AD dementia received MRI scans and clinical evaluation. We quantified markers of cerebrovascular disease (white matter hyperintensities [WMH], presence of infarct, and presence of microbleed) and neurodegeneration (entorhinal cortex volume) and compared them across groups. Patients with AD dementia had smaller entorhinal cortex and greater WMH volumes compared with controls, regardless of family history status. This study provides evidence for the capacity to conduct MRI studies of cognitive aging and dementia in Dominican Republic. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that small vessel cerebrovascular disease represents a core feature of AD dementia, as affected participants had elevated WMH volumes irrespective of family history status.

20.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413934

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV)- and lifestyle-associated risk factors (RFs) are increasingly recognized as important for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Beyond the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE), comparatively little is known about whether CV-associated genes also increase risk for AD. Using large genome-wide association studies and validated tools to quantify genetic overlap, we systematically identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) jointly associated with AD and one or more CV-associated RFs, namely body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary artery disease (CAD), waist hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In fold enrichment plots, we observed robust genetic enrichment in AD as a function of plasma lipids (TG, TC, LDL, and HDL); we found minimal AD genetic enrichment conditional on BMI, T2D, CAD, and WHR. Beyond APOE, at conjunction FDR < 0.05 we identified 90 SNPs on 19 different chromosomes that were jointly associated with AD and CV-associated outcomes. In meta-analyses across three independent cohorts, we found four novel loci within MBLAC1 (chromosome 7, meta-p = 1.44 × 10-9), MINK1 (chromosome 17, meta-p = 1.98 × 10-7) and two chromosome 11 SNPs within the MTCH2/SPI1 region (closest gene = DDB2, meta-p = 7.01 × 10-7 and closest gene = MYBPC3, meta-p = 5.62 × 10-8). In a large 'AD-by-proxy' cohort from the UK Biobank, we replicated three of the four novel AD/CV pleiotropic SNPs, namely variants within MINK1, MBLAC1, and DDB2. Expression of MBLAC1, SPI1, MINK1 and DDB2 was differentially altered within postmortem AD brains. Beyond APOE, we show that the polygenic component of AD is enriched for lipid-associated RFs. We pinpoint a subset of cardiovascular-associated genes that strongly increase the risk for AD. Our collective findings support a disease model in which cardiovascular biology is integral to the development of clinical AD in a subset of individuals.

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