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New Phytol ; 209(2): 855-70, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350789


Despite progress based on multilocus, phylogenetic studies of the palms (order Arecales, family Arecaceae), uncertainty remains in resolution/support among major clades and for the placement of the palms among the commelinid monocots. Palms and related commelinids represent a classic case of substitution rate heterogeneity that has not been investigated in the genomic era. To address questions of relationships, support and rate variation among palms and commelinid relatives, 39 plastomes representing the palms and related family Dasypogonaceae were generated via genome skimming and integrated within a monocot-wide matrix for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. Support was strong for 'deep' relationships among the commelinid orders, among the five palm subfamilies, and among tribes of the subfamily Coryphoideae. Additionally, there was extreme heterogeneity in the plastid substitution rates across the commelinid orders indicated by model based analyses, with c. 22 rate shifts, and significant departure from a global clock. To date, this study represents the most comprehensively sampled matrix of plastomes assembled for monocot angiosperms, providing genome-scale support for phylogenetic relationships of monocot angiosperms, and lays the phylogenetic groundwork for comparative analyses of the drivers and correlates of such drastic differences in substitution rates across a diverse and significant clade.

Arecaceae/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Filogenia , Evolução Molecular , Magnoliopsida/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
Mol Biol Evol ; 31(12): 3095-112, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25172958


Parasitic organisms exemplify morphological and genomic reduction. Some heterotrophic, parasitic plants harbor drastically reduced and degraded plastid genomes resulting from relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function. However, few studies have addressed the initial stages of plastome degradation in groups containing both photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic species. Corallorhiza is a genus of leafless, heterotrophic orchids that contains both green, photosynthetic species and nongreen, putatively nonphotosynthetic species, and represents an ideal system in which to assess the beginning of the transition to a "minimal plastome." Complete plastomes were generated for nine taxa of Corallorhiza using Illumina paired-end sequencing of genomic DNA to assess the degree of degradation among taxa, and for comparison with a general model of degradation among angiosperms. Quantification of total chlorophyll suggests that nongreen Corallorhiza still produce chlorophyll, but at 10-fold lower concentrations than green congeners. Complete plastomes and partial nuclear rDNA cistrons yielded a fully resolved tree for Corallorhiza, with at least two independent losses of photosynthesis, evidenced by gene deletions and pseudogenes in Co. striata and nongreen Co. maculata. All Corallorhiza show some evidence of degradation in genes of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex. Among genes with open reading frames, photosynthesis-related genes displayed evidence of neutral evolution in nongreen Corallorhiza, whereas genes of the ATP synthase complex displayed some evidence of positive selection in these same groups, though for reasons unknown. Corallorhiza spans the early stages of a general model of plastome degradation and has added critical insight for understanding the process of plastome evolution in heterotrophic angiosperms.

Genomas de Plastídeos , Orchidaceae/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Processos Heterotróficos/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA