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1.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683974

RESUMO

Standard of care therapies for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cause potent off-target toxicity to healthy cells, highlighting the need to develop new therapeutic approaches that are safe and specific for leukemia cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an emerging and highly attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer due to their oncogenic functions and selective expression in cancer cells. However, lncRNAs have historically been considered 'undruggable' targets because they do not encode for a protein product. Here, we describe the development of a new siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticle for the therapeutic silencing of the novel oncogenic lncRNA LINC01257. Transcriptomic analysis of children with AML identified LINC01257 as specifically expressed in t(8;21) AML and absent in healthy patients. Using NxGen microfluidic technology, we efficiently and reproducibly packaged anti-LINC01257 siRNA (LNP-si-LINC01257) into lipid nanoparticles based on the FDA-approved Patisiran (Onpattro®) formulation. LNP-si-LINC01257 size and ζ-potential were determined by dynamic light scattering using a Malvern Zetasizer Ultra. LNP-si-LINC01257 internalization and siRNA delivery were verified by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. lncRNA knockdown was determined by RT-qPCR and cell viability was characterized by flow cytometry-based apoptosis assay. LNP-siRNA production yielded a mean LNP size of ~65 nm with PDI ≤ 0.22 along with a >85% siRNA encapsulation rate. LNP-siRNAs were efficiently taken up by Kasumi-1 cells (>95% of cells) and LNP-si-LINC01257 treatment was able to successfully ablate LINC01257 expression which was accompanied by a significant 55% reduction in total cell count following 48 h of treatment. In contrast, healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which do not express LINC01257, were unaffected by LNP-si-LINC01257 treatment despite comparable levels of LNP-siRNA uptake. This is the first report demonstrating the use of LNP-assisted RNA interference modalities for the silencing of cancer-driving lncRNAs as a therapeutically viable and non-toxic approach in the management of AML.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572932

RESUMO

Sarcomas are a diverse group of bone and soft tissue tumors that account for over 10% of childhood cancers. Outcomes are particularly poor for children with refractory, relapsed, or metastatic disease. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells are an exciting form of adoptive cell therapy that potentially offers new hope for these children. In early trials, promising outcomes have been achieved in some pediatric patients with sarcoma. However, many children do not derive benefit despite significant expression of the targeted tumor antigen. The success of CAR T cell therapy in sarcomas and other solid tumors is limited by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). In this review, we provide an update of the CAR T cell therapies that are currently being tested in pediatric sarcoma clinical trials, including those targeting tumors that express HER2, NY-ESO, GD2, EGFR, GPC3, B7-H3, and MAGE-A4. We also outline promising new CAR T cells that are in pre-clinical development. Finally, we discuss strategies that are being used to overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression in solid tumors; these strategies have the potential to improve clinical outcomes of CAR T cell therapy for children with sarcoma.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal residual disease (MRD) measurement is a cornerstone of contemporary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene recombinations in leukaemic clones allows widespread use of patient-specific, DNA-based MRD assays. In contrast, paediatric solid tumour MRD remains experimental and has focussed on generic assays targeting tumour-specific messenger RNA, methylated DNA or microRNA. METHODS: We examined the feasibility of using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data to design tumour-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based MRD tests (WGS-MRD) in 18 children with high-risk relapsed cancer, including ALL, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) and Ewing sarcoma (EWS) (n = 6 each). RESULTS: Sensitive WGS-MRD assays were generated for each patient and allowed quantitation of 1 tumour cell per 10-4 (0.01%)-10-5 (0.001%) mononuclear cells. In ALL, WGS-MRD and Ig/TCR-MRD were highly concordant. WGS-MRD assays also showed good concordance between quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR formats. In serial clinical samples, WGS-MRD correlated with disease course. In solid tumours, WGS-MRD assays were more sensitive than RNA-MRD assays. CONCLUSIONS: WGS facilitated the development of patient-specific MRD tests in ALL, HR-NB and EWS with potential clinical utility in monitoring treatment response. WGS data could be used to design patient-specific MRD assays in a broad range of tumours.

4.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 129(10): 805-818, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of high-throughput drug screening (HTS) using primary cultures provides a promising, clinically translatable approach to tailoring treatment strategies for patients with cancer. However, this has been challenging for solid tumors because of often limited amounts of tissue available. In most cases, in vitro expansion is required before HTS, which may lead to overgrowth and contamination by non-neoplastic cells. METHODS: In this study, hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were performed on 129 cytopathology cases from 95 patients. These cytopathology cases comprised cell block preparations derived from primary tumor specimens or patient-derived xenografts as part of a pediatric precision oncology trial. Cytopathology cases were compared with the morphology and immunohistochemical staining profile of the original tumor. Cases were reported as tumor cells present, equivocal, or tumor cells absent. The HTS results from cytopathologically validated cultures were incorporated into a multidisciplinary tumor board report issued to the treating clinician to guide clinical decision making. RESULTS: On cytopathologic examination, tumor cells were present in 77 of 129 cases (60%) and were absent in 38 of 129 cases (29%), whereas 14 of 129 cases (11%) were equivocal. Cultures that contained tumor cells resembled the tumors from which they were derived. CONCLUSIONS: Cytopathologic examination of tumor cell block preparations is feasible and provides detailed morphologic characterization. Cytopathologic examination is essential for ensuring that samples submitted for HTS contain representative tumor cells and that in vitro drug sensitivity data are clinically translatable.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(15): 4338-4352, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated whether targeting chromatin stability through a combination of the curaxin CBL0137 with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, panobinostat, constitutes an effective multimodal treatment for high-risk neuroblastoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effects of the drug combination on cancer growth were examined in vitro and in animal models of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. The molecular mechanisms of action were analyzed by multiple techniques including whole transcriptome profiling, immune deconvolution analysis, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, assays to assess cell growth and apoptosis, and a range of cell-based reporter systems to examine histone eviction, heterochromatin transcription, and chromatin compaction. RESULTS: The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat enhanced nucleosome destabilization, induced an IFN response, inhibited DNA damage repair, and synergistically suppressed cancer cell growth. Similar synergistic effects were observed when combining CBL0137 with other HDAC inhibitors. The CBL0137/panobinostat combination significantly delayed cancer progression in xenograft models of poor outcome high-risk neuroblastoma. Complete tumor regression was achieved in the transgenic Th-MYCN neuroblastoma model which was accompanied by induction of a type I IFN and immune response. Tumor transplantation experiments further confirmed that the presence of a competent adaptive immune system component allowed the exploitation of the full potential of the drug combination. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat is effective and well-tolerated in preclinical models of aggressive high-risk neuroblastoma, warranting further preclinical and clinical investigation in other pediatric cancers. On the basis of its potential to boost IFN and immune responses in cancer models, the drug combination holds promising potential for addition to immunotherapies.

6.
Leukemia ; 35(11): 3101-3112, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895784

RESUMO

Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is a high-risk ALL subtype with high rates of relapse and poor patient outcome. Activating mutations affecting components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway occur in the majority of Ph-like ALL cases. The use of JAK inhibitors represents a potential treatment option for Ph-like ALL, although we and others have shown that CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL responds poorly to single-agent JAK inhibitors in the preclinical setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify effective combination treatments against CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of synergy. We carried out a series of high-throughput combination drug screenings and found that ruxolitinib exerted synergy with standard-of-care drugs used in the treatment of ALL. In addition, we investigated the molecular effects of ruxolitinib on Ph-like ALL by combining mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics with gene expression analysis. Based on these findings, we conducted preclinical in vivo drug testing and demonstrated that ruxolitinib enhanced the in vivo efficacy of an induction-type regimen consisting of vincristine, dexamethasone, and L-asparaginase in 2/3 CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL xenografts. Overall, our findings support evaluating the addition of ruxolitinib to conventional induction regimens for the treatment of CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL.

7.
Cell Rep ; 35(2): 108994, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852836

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive and incurable childhood brain tumor for which new treatments are needed. CBL0137 is an anti-cancer compound developed from quinacrine that targets facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT), a chromatin remodeling complex involved in transcription, replication, and DNA repair. We show that CBL0137 displays profound cytotoxic activity against a panel of patient-derived DIPG cultures by restoring tumor suppressor TP53 and Rb activity. Moreover, in an orthotopic model of DIPG, treatment with CBL0137 significantly extends animal survival. The FACT subunit SPT16 is found to directly interact with H3.3K27M, and treatment with CBL0137 restores both histone H3 acetylation and trimethylation. Combined treatment of CBL0137 with the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat leads to inhibition of the Rb/E2F1 pathway and induction of apoptosis. The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat significantly prolongs the survival of mice bearing DIPG orthografts, suggesting a potential treatment strategy for DIPG.

8.
Oncogene ; 40(13): 2367-2381, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658627

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are effective in MYCN-driven cancers, because of a unique need for HDAC recruitment by the MYCN oncogenic signal. However, HDAC inhibitors are much more effective in combination with other anti-cancer agents. To identify novel compounds which act synergistically with HDAC inhibitor, such as suberanoyl hydroxamic acid (SAHA), we performed a cell-based, high-throughput drug screen of 10,560 small molecule compounds from a drug-like diversity library and identified a small molecule compound (SE486-11) which synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effects of SAHA. Effects of drug combinations on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and colony forming were assessed in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines. Treatment with SAHA and SE486-11 increased MYCN ubiquitination and degradation, and markedly inhibited tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma xenografts, and, MYCN transgenic zebrafish and mice. The combination reduced ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5) levels and increased unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Overexpression of USP5 rescued neuroblastoma cells from the cytopathic effects of the combination and reduced unanchored polyubiquitin, suggesting USP5 is a therapeutic target of the combination. SAHA and SE486-11 directly bound to USP5 and the drug combination exhibited a 100-fold higher binding to USP5 than individual drugs alone in microscale thermophoresis assays. MYCN bound to the USP5 promoter and induced USP5 gene expression suggesting that USP5 and MYCN expression created a forward positive feedback loop in neuroblastoma cells. Thus, USP5 acts as an oncogenic cofactor with MYCN in neuroblastoma and the novel combination of HDAC inhibitor with SE486-11 represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of MYCN-driven neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1881, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767157

RESUMO

To achieve the very high oncoprotein levels required to drive the malignant state cancer cells utilise the ubiquitin proteasome system to upregulate transcription factor levels. Here our analyses identify ALYREF, expressed from the most common genetic copy number variation in neuroblastoma, chromosome 17q21-ter gain as a key regulator of MYCN protein turnover. We show strong co-operativity between ALYREF and MYCN from transgenic models of neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo. The two proteins form a nuclear coactivator complex which stimulates transcription of the ubiquitin specific peptidase 3, USP3. We show that increased USP3 levels reduce K-48- and K-63-linked ubiquitination of MYCN, thus driving up MYCN protein stability. In the MYCN-ALYREF-USP3 signal, ALYREF is required for MYCN effects on the malignant phenotype and that of USP3 on MYCN stability. This data defines a MYCN oncoprotein dependency state which provides a rationale for future pharmacological studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 971, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579942

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable malignant childhood brain tumor, with no active systemic therapies and a 5-year survival of less than 1%. Polyamines are small organic polycations that are essential for DNA replication, translation and cell proliferation. Ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is irreversibly inhibited by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Herein we show that polyamine synthesis is upregulated in DIPG, leading to sensitivity to DFMO. DIPG cells compensate for ODC1 inhibition by upregulation of the polyamine transporter SLC3A2. Treatment with the polyamine transporter inhibitor AMXT 1501 reduces uptake of polyamines in DIPG cells, and co-administration of AMXT 1501 and DFMO leads to potent in vitro activity, and significant extension of survival in three aggressive DIPG orthotopic animal models. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of dual targeting of polyamine synthesis and uptake as a therapeutic strategy for incurable DIPG.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/tratamento farmacológico , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eflornitina/farmacologia , Eflornitina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial , Ornitina Descarboxilase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Poliaminas/uso terapêutico
11.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 5(1): 9, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580196

RESUMO

The prognosis of recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) is dismal, with surgical resection being the only definitive salvage therapy. Treatment with chemoradiation approaches has not significantly improved patient outcomes. Similarly, trials of therapies targeting MPNST genomic drivers have thus far been unsuccessful. Improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPNST indicates frequent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell signaling pathway. MEK inhibitors have shown activity in preclinical studies; however, their clinical efficacy has not been reported to date. We describe here a case of sustained complete response to MEK inhibition in an adolescent patient with a recurrent metastatic MPNST with multiple alterations in the MAPK pathway, guided by a precision oncology approach.

12.
Haematologica ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567813

RESUMO

Symptomatic methotrexate-related central neurotoxicity, 'MTX neurotoxicity', is a severe toxicity experienced during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy with potential long-term neurologic complications. Risk factors and long-term outcomes require further study. We conducted a systematic, retrospective review of 1251 consecutive Australian children enrolled on BFM or COG-based protocols between 1998-2013. Clinical risk predictors for MTX neurotoxicity were analyzed using regression. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 48 cases and 537 controls. The incidence of MTX neurotoxicity was 7.6% (n=95/1251), at a median of 4 months from ALL diagnosis and 8 days after intravenous or intrathecal MTX. Grade 3 elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.005, OR 2.31 (1.28-4.16)) in induction/consolidation was associated with MTX neurotoxicity, after accounting for the only established risk factor, age a10 years. Cumulative incidence of CNS relapse was increased in children where intrathecal MTX was omitted following symptomatic MTX neurotoxicity (n=48) compared to where intrathecal MTX was continued throughout therapy (n=1174) (P=0.047). Five-year CNS relapsefree survival was 89.2%±4.6% when intrathecal MTX was ceased compared to 95.4%±0.6% when intrathecal MTX was continued. Recurrence of MTX neurotoxicity was low (12.9%) for patients whose intrathecal MTX was continued after their first episode. The GWAS identified SNPs associated with MTX neurotoxicity near genes regulating neuronal growth, neuronal differentiation and cytoskeletal organization (P>1E-06). In conclusion, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and age a10 years at diagnosis were independent risk factors for MTX neurotoxicity. Our data do not support cessation of intrathecal MTX after a first MTX neurotoxicity event.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(5): 1438-1451, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TERT gene rearrangement with transcriptional superenhancers leads to TERT overexpression and neuroblastoma. No targeted therapy is available for clinical trials in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Anticancer agents exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors were identified by screening an FDA-approved oncology drug library. The synergistic effects of the BET bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 and the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib were examined by immunoblot and flow cytometry analysis. The anticancer efficacy of OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy was investigated in mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor cells, and the role of TERT reduction in the anticancer efficacy was examined through rescue experiments in mice. RESULTS: The BET bromodomain protein BRD4 promoted TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell proliferation through upregulating TERT expression. Screening of an approved oncology drug library identified the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib as the agent exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors including OTX015. OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically reduced TERT protein expression, induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and induced TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell apoptosis which was blocked by TERT overexpression and endoplasmic reticulum stress antagonists. In mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or PDX tumor cells, OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically blocked TERT expression, induced tumor cell apoptosis, suppressed tumor progression, and improved mouse survival, which was largely reversed by forced TERT overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy is likely to be translated into the first clinical trial of a targeted therapy in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144287

RESUMO

The identification of rearrangements driving expression of neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) family kinases in tumors has become critically important because of the availability of effective, specific inhibitor drugs. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) combined with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) can identify novel and recurrent expressed fusions. Here we describe three SPECC1L-NTRK fusions identified in two pediatric central nervous system cancers and an extracranial solid tumor using WGS and RNA-seq. These fusions arose either through a simple balanced rearrangement or in the context of a complex chromoplexy event. We cloned the SPECC1L-NTRK2 fusion directly from a patient sample and showed that enforced expression of this fusion is sufficient to promote cytokine-independent survival and proliferation. Cells transformed by SPECC1L-NTRK2 expression are sensitive to a TRK inhibitor drug. We report here that SPECC1L-NTRK fusions can arise in a range of pediatric cancers. Although WGS and RNA-seq are not required to detect NTRK fusions, these techniques may be of benefit when NTRK fusions are not suspected on clinical grounds or not identified by other methods.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkB/genética , Sarcoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Criança , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Sarcoma/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1742-1753, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020650

RESUMO

The Zero Childhood Cancer Program is a precision medicine program to benefit children with poor-outcome, rare, relapsed or refractory cancer. Using tumor and germline whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA sequencing (RNAseq) across 252 tumors from high-risk pediatric patients with cancer, we identified 968 reportable molecular aberrations (39.9% in WGS and RNAseq, 35.1% in WGS only and 25.0% in RNAseq only). Of these patients, 93.7% had at least one germline or somatic aberration, 71.4% had therapeutic targets and 5.2% had a change in diagnosis. WGS identified pathogenic cancer-predisposing variants in 16.2% of patients. In 76 central nervous system tumors, methylome analysis confirmed diagnosis in 71.1% of patients and contributed to a change of diagnosis in two patients (2.6%). To date, 43 patients have received a recommended therapy, 38 of whom could be evaluated, with 31% showing objective evidence of clinical benefit. Comprehensive molecular profiling resolved the molecular basis of virtually all high-risk cancers, leading to clinical benefit in some patients.


Assuntos
Epigenoma/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/patologia , Pediatria , Medicina de Precisão , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053751

RESUMO

Radiation-induced glioma (RIG) is a highly aggressive brain cancer arising as a consequence of radiation therapy. We report a case of RIG that arose in the brain stem following treatment for paediatric medulloblastoma, and the development and characterisation of a matched orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model (TK-RIG915). Patient and PDX tumours were analysed using DNA methylation profiling, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA sequencing. While initially thought to be a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) based on disease location, results from methylation profiling and WGS were not consistent with this diagnosis. Furthermore, clustering analyses based on RNA expression suggested the tumours were distinct from primary DIPG. Additional gene expression analysis demonstrated concordance with a published RIG expression profile. Multiple genetic alterations that enhance PI3K/AKT and Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling were discovered in TK-RIG915 including an activating mutation in PIK3CA, upregulation of PDGFRA and AKT2, inactivating mutations in NF1, and a gain-of-function mutation in PTPN11. Additionally, deletion of CDKN2A/B, increased IDH1 expression, and decreased ARID1A expression were observed. Detection of phosphorylated S6, 4EBP1 and ERK via immunohistochemistry confirmed PI3K pathway and ERK activation. Here, we report one of the first PDX models for RIG, which recapitulates the patient disease and is molecularly distinct from primary brain stem glioma. Genetic interrogation of this model has enabled the identification of potential therapeutic vulnerabilities in this currently incurable disease.

17.
Cancer Res ; 80(19): 4129-4144, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816860

RESUMO

Therapeutic checkpoint antibodies blocking programmed death receptor 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling have radically improved clinical outcomes in cancer. However, the regulation of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells is still poorly understood. Here we show that intratumoral copper levels influence PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. Deep analysis of the The Cancer Genome Atlas database and tissue microarrays showed strong correlation between the major copper influx transporter copper transporter 1 (CTR-1) and PD-L1 expression across many cancers but not in corresponding normal tissues. Copper supplementation enhanced PD-L1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in cancer cells and RNA sequencing revealed that copper regulates key signaling pathways mediating PD-L1-driven cancer immune evasion. Conversely, copper chelators inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 and EGFR and promoted ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PD-L1. Copper-chelating drugs also significantly increased the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T and natural killer cells, slowed tumor growth, and improved mouse survival. Overall, this study reveals an important role for copper in regulating PD-L1 and suggests that anticancer immunotherapy might be enhanced by pharmacologically reducing intratumor copper levels. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings characterize the role of copper in modulating PD-L1 expression and contributing to cancer immune evasion, highlighting the potential for repurposing copper chelators as enhancers of antitumor immunity. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/19/4129/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quelantes/farmacologia , Transportador de Cobre 1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Trietilenofosforamida/farmacologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(12): 1767-1776, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801162

RESUMO

Philadelphia (Ph)-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by aberrant activation of signaling pathways and high risk of relapse. Approximately 50% of Ph-like ALL cases overexpress cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2) associated with gene rearrangement. Activated by its ligand thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), CRLF2 signaling is critical for the development, proliferation, and survival of normal lymphocytes. To examine activation of tyrosine kinases regulated by TSLP/CRLF2, phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) profiling coupled with stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was conducted using two CRLF2-rearranged (CRLF2r) Ph-like ALL cell lines stimulated with TSLP. As a result, increased P-Tyr was detected in previously reported TSLP-activated tyrosine kinases and substrates, including JAK1, JAK2, STAT5, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, TSLP also increased P-Tyr of insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), both of which can be targeted with small-molecule inhibitors. Fixed-ratio combination cytotoxicity assays using the tyrosine kinase inhibitors BMS-754807 and ponatinib that target IGF1R and FGFR1, respectively, revealed strong synergy against both cell line and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of CRLF2r Ph-like ALL. Further analyses also indicated off-target effects of ponatinib in the synergy, and novel association of the Ras-associated protein-1 (Rap1) signaling pathway with TSLP signaling in CRLF2r Ph-like ALL. When tested in vivo, the BMS-754807/ponatinib combination exerted minimal efficacy against 2 Ph-like ALL PDXs, associated with low achievable plasma drug concentrations. Although this study identified potential new targets in CRLF2r Ph-like ALL, it also highlights that in vivo validation of synergistic drug interactions is essential. IMPLICATION: Quantitative phosphotyrosine profiling identified potential therapeutic targets for high-risk CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Tirosina/metabolismo , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Marcação por Isótopo , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Triazinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3706-3718, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651259

RESUMO

The ability of the N-MYC transcription factor to drive cancer progression is well demonstrated in neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor, where MYCN amplification heralds a poor prognosis, with only 11% of high-risk patients surviving past 5 years. However, decades of attempts of direct inhibition of N-MYC or its paralogues has led to the conclusion that this protein is "undruggable." Therefore, targeting pathways upregulated by N-MYC signaling presents an alternative therapeutic approach. Here, we show that MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas are characterized by elevated rates of protein synthesis and that high expression of ABCE1, a translation factor directly upregulated by N-MYC, is itself a strong predictor of poor clinical outcome. Despite the potent ability of N-MYC in heightening protein synthesis and malignant characteristics in cancer cells, suppression of ABCE1 alone selectively negated this effect, returning the rate of translation to baseline levels and significantly reducing the growth, motility, and invasiveness of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells and patient-derived xenograft tumors in vivo. The growth of nonmalignant cells or MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma cells remained unaffected by reduced ABCE1, supporting a therapeutic window associated with targeting ABCE1. Neuroblastoma cells with c-MYC overexpression also required ABCE1 to maintain cell proliferation and translation. Taken together, ABCE1-mediated translation constitutes a critical process in the progression of N-MYC-driven and c-MYC-driven cancers that warrants investigations into methods of its therapeutic inhibition. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that N-MYC-driven cancers are reliant on elevated rates of protein synthesis driven by heightened expression of ABCE1, a vulnerability that can be exploited through suppression of ABCE1.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro
20.
Br J Cancer ; 123(5): 742-751, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While current chemotherapy has increased cure rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the largest number of relapsing patients are still stratified as medium risk (MR) at diagnosis (50-60%). This highlights an opportunity to develop improved relapse-prediction models for MR patients. We hypothesised that bone marrow from MR patients who eventually relapsed would regrow faster in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model after induction chemotherapy than samples from patients in long-term remission. METHODS: Diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from 30 paediatric MR-ALL patients (19 who relapsed, 11 who experienced remission) were inoculated into immune-deficient (NSG) mice and subsequently treated with either control or an induction-type regimen of vincristine, dexamethasone, and L-asparaginase (VXL). Engraftment was monitored by enumeration of the proportion of human CD45+ cells (%huCD45+) in the murine peripheral blood, and events were defined a priori as the time to reach 1% huCD45+, 25% huCD45+ (TT25%) or clinical manifestations of leukaemia (TTL). RESULTS: The TT25% value significantly predicted MR patient relapse. Mutational profiles of PDXs matched their tumours of origin, with a clonal shift towards relapse observed in one set of VXL-treated PDXs. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, establishing PDXs at diagnosis and subsequently applying chemotherapy has the potential to improve relapse prediction in paediatric MR-ALL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Xenoenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
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