Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 247, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia progressively compromise the ability of people to live independently and can have a negative impact on their quality of life. Within the current European Active and Assisted Living programme (AAL), project TV-AssistDem has been developed to deliver a TV-based platform service to support patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and provide relief to their caregivers. The application is intended to be used daily at home, mainly by the participants themselves, with the help of their informal caregivers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of TV-AssistDem to improve quality of life in people with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia. METHODS: This is a 12-month European multicentre randomized controlled trial which will be performed in two countries: Spain and Romania. Two hundred and forty older adults will be recruited using identical inclusion/exclusion criteria. The primary outcome will be the change from baseline of TV-AssistDem on patient quality of life at 12 months. The secondary outcomes will be the changes from baseline of: 1) informal caregiver quality of life, 2) informal caregiver burden, 3) patient treatment adherence, 4) patient treatment compliance, 5) patient functional status, and 6) healthcare cost-effectiveness at 12 months. Patients in the intervention group will have access to an interactive platform which offers remote assistive services through a device connected to the television. The core services of the platform are: 1) Calendar and reminders, 2) Health monitoring and data transmission to a health server and 3) Videoconference; service-oriented applications are: 4) Cognitive stimulation; 5) Reminiscences; and 6) Patient and caregiver healthcare education. The analysis will be made following an intention-to-treat procedure. Linear and Generalized Mixed Model analysis will be performed. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that the regular use of TV-AssistDem will result in an improvement in patient quality of life. The uniqueness of this home TV-based intervention lies on its widespread accessibility and its integrative approach to quality of life in people with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and their informal caregivers. However, several anticipated challenges will need to be faced: poor engagement and connectivity problems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03653234 , Date of registration: 31 August 2018.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

3.
Neuropharmacology ; 149: 212-220, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822499

RESUMO

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a non-cannabinoid acylethanolamide with multiple physiological roles that has been proposed to have antidepressant-like activity in preclinical models. OEA shares biosynthetic pathways with anandamide (AEA) a transmitter involved in affective disorders and anxiety in humans. However, although the participation of OEA in depression has been proposed, both, the contribution of OEA to the depressive phenotype and the effect of antidepressant therapy on circulating levels of this and related non-cannabinoid acylethanolamides in humans are basically unknown. The main objective of this study is to compare the plasma concentrations of OEA and related acylethanolamides in a sample of primary care patients with depression (n = 69) with those of healthy non-depressed patients (n = 47). At the time of admission to the study, 22 patients were under selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment and 47 patients were not receiving any type of intervention. In addition, plasma concentrations of the endocannabinoid 2-AG and two related monoacylglycerols were monitored. Plasma OEA concentrations were found to be elevated in depressed patients and to correlate with somatic symptoms of depression. Plasma concentrations of both, AEA and 2-AG, were found to be elevated also in depressed patients. Further analysis demonstrated that the elevation observed in the plasma concentrations of both, OEA and 2-AG, was associated to SSRI antidepressant therapy at the time of recruitment. Further clinical research is needed to understand whether SSRI-induced elevations in OEA levels contribute to the response to SSRI in depressed patients as described in preclinical models.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 66, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has included comorbidity between depression and a chronic disease among the 10 leading global health priorities. Although there is a high prevalence of multimorbidity, health care systems are mainly designed for the management of individual diseases. Given the difficulty in delivering face-to-face psychological treatments, alternative models of treatment delivery have been proposed, emphasizing the role of technologies such as the Internet. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy in Primary Care (PC) of a blended low-intensity psychological intervention applied using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for the treatment of multimorbidity in PC (depression and type 2 diabetes/low back pain) by means of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Our main hypothesis is that improved usual care combined with psychological therapy applied using ICTs will be more efficacious for improvement in the symptomatology of multimorbidity, compared to a group with only improved treatment as usual six months after the end of treatment. METHODS: A protocol has been designed combining a face-to-face intervention with a supporting online programme that will be tested by an RCT conducted in three different regions (Andalusia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands). The RCT will evaluate three hundred participants diagnosed with depression and type 2 diabetes/low back pain. Four highly experienced research groups specializing in clinical psychology are involved in this trial, and there will be ample possibilities for translation and transfer to usual clinical practice. DISCUSSION: This clinical trial will lead to improvement in financial sustainability, maximizing the use of resources and responding to principles of efficiency and effectiveness. Furthermore, based on the evaluation of the feasibility of implementing this intervention in primary care facilities, we expect to be able to suggest the intervention for incorporation into public policy. In conclusion, positive results of this study could have a significant impact on one of the most important health-related problems, multimorbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03426709 . Registered retrospectively on 08 February 2018.

5.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 11(4): 199-207, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176753

RESUMO

Introducción: Se presenta la primera descripción del estudio denominado Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF). Se trata de una investigación longitudinal con familias procedentes de Andalucía (España), que comenzó en 1997, con el objetivo de dilucidar las causas geneticomoleculares del trastorno afectivo bipolar. Desde entonces, esta cohorte ha contribuido a una serie de hallazgos clave, que han sido publicados en revistas internacionales. Sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre las bases genéticas del trastorno en estas familias sigue siendo limitado. Método: El estudio consta de dos fases: en la fase inicial se reclutaron 100 familias con múltiples afectados de trastorno bipolar y otros trastornos del ánimo. La segunda fase del proyecto, actualmente en curso, comenzó en 2013 con el objetivo de realizar un seguimiento de la cohorte de familias reclutadas originalmente. Los objetivos del estudio de seguimiento son: i) recoger nuevos datos clínicos longitudinales; ii) realizar una evaluación neuropsicológica detallada, y iii) obtener una extensa colección de biomateriales para futuros estudios moleculares. Resultados: El estudio ABiF, por tanto, generará unos recursos valiosos para futuras investigaciones sobre la etiología del trastorno afectivo bipolar; particularmente con respecto a las causas de la alta carga genética del trastorno en las familias con múltiples afectados. Discusión: Se discute el valor de este enfoque en relación con las nuevas tecnologías para la identificación de factores genéticos de alta penetrancia. Estas nuevas tecnologías incluyen la secuenciación del exoma y del genoma completo, y el uso de células madre pluripotentes inducidas u organismos modelo para la determinación de consecuencias funcionales


Introduction: Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. Method: In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. Results: The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. Discussion: We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Geografia Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Família
6.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 46(5): 174-82, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is considered the gold standard in screening for postpartum depression. Although the Spanish version has been widely used, its factorial structure has not yet been studied . METHODS: A total of 1,204 women completed the EPDS 32 weeks after delivery. To avoid multiple testing, we split the sample into two halves, randomly drawing two subsamples of 602 participants each. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA), followed by an oblimin rotation with the first sub-sample. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using a Weighted Least Squares Means and Variance (WLSMV) estimation of the data. We explored different solutions between two and four factors. We compared the factors between two groups with depression and non-depression (evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) for the DSM-IV). RESULTS: The EFA indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of the CFA confirmed the three-factor model (χ2=99.203, p<0.001; RMSEA=0.06, 90% CI=0.04/0.07, CFI=0.87 and TLI=0.82). Women with depression in the first 32 weeks obtained higher scores for anxiety, depression and anhedonia dimensions (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of confirmatory analysis with the Spanish version of EPDS in a large sample of women without psychiatric care during pregnancy. A three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia was used. Women with depression had a higher score in the three dimensions of the EPDS.

7.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 46(5): 174-182, sept.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174685

RESUMO

Introducción. La Escala de Depresión Postnatal de Edimburgo (EPDS) es considerada el gold standard para el cribado de depresión postparto. Aunque la versión española ha sido ampliamente utilizada, su estructura factorial no ha sido todavía analizada. Metodología. Un total de 1.204 mujeres completaron la EPDS a las 32 semanas del parto. Para evitar pruebas múltiples dividimos la muestra en dos mitades de 602 participantes. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) con rotación oblimin con la primera sub-muestra. Posteriormente, con la segunda de las muestras se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC) mediante la estimación Weighted Least Squares Means and Variance (WLSMV). Se exploraron diferentes soluciones entre dos y cuatro factores. Comparamos los factores en dos grupos de participantes con depresión y sin depresión (evaluados con la Entrevista Diagnóstica para Estudios Genéticos (DIGS) para el DSM-IV). Resultados. El AFE mostró un modelo de tres factores compuesto por ansiedad, depresión y anhedonia. Los resultados del AFC confirmaron el modelo de tres factores (χ2=99,203, p<0,001; RMSEA=0,06, 90% CI=0,04/0,07, CFI=0,87 y TLI=0,82). Mujeres con depresión a las 32 semanas tuvieron puntuaciones más elevadas en ansiedad, depresión y anhedonia (p<0,001). Conclusiones. Primer estudio de análisis confirmatorio de la versión española de la EPDS, en una amplia muestra de mujeres sin tratamiento psiquiátrico durante el embarazo. Un modelo de tres factores compuesto por ansiedad, depresión y anhedonia ha sido obtenido. Mujeres con depresión tuvieron una mayor puntuación en las tres dimensiones de la EPDS


Introduction. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is considered the gold standard in screening for postpartum depression. Although the Spanish version has been widely used, its factorial structure has not yet been studied. Methods. A total of 1,204 women completed the EPDS 32 weeks after delivery. To avoid multiple testing, we split the sample into two halves, randomly drawing two subsamples of 602 participants each. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA), followed by an oblimin rotation with the first sub-sample. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using a Weighted Least Squares Means and Variance (WLSMV) estimation of the data. We explored different solutions between two and four factors. We compared the factors between two groups with depression and non-depression (evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) for the DSM-IV). Results. The EFA indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of the CFA confirmed the three-factor model (χ2=99.203, p<0.001) RMSEA=0.06, 90% CI=0.04/0.07, CFI=0.87 and TLI=0.82). Women with depression in the first 32 weeks obtained higher scores for anxiety, depression and anhedonia dimensions (p<0.0101). Conclusions. This is the first study of confirmatory analysis with the Spanish version of EPDS in a large sample of women without psychiatric care during pregnancy. A three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia was used. Women with depression had a higher score in the three dimensions of the EPDS


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Anedonia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 277, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with an intensive use of mental health services, even in the absence of a full diagnosis. Early symptom detection and intervention may help alleviate adverse long-term outcomes. Iconic Therapy is an innovative manual-driven psychotherapy that treats BPD symptoms in a specific and intensive manner. Preliminary results are promising and the indication is that Iconic Therapy may be effective in reducing BPD symptoms. The aim of this study is to assess how effective Iconic Therapy is compared to Structured Support Therapy in a real clinical setting. METHODS/DESIGN: Our study will be a controlled 12-month pragmatic, two-armed RCT. A total of 72 young people (15 to 25 years old) with suicidal ideation/self-injuring behaviour and BPD traits and symptoms will participate in the study. The subjects will be randomised into two groups: Iconic Therapy or Structured Support Therapy. The participants will be assigned to either group on a 1:1 basis. Both the Iconic Therapy and the Structured Support Therapy programmes consist of 11 weekly sessions delivered by two trained psychologists in a group format of between 8 to 12 outpatients. The primary outcome will be measured by the change in symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include changes in suicidal ideation/ behaviour, non-suicidal self-injury, maladjustment to daily life and cost-effective analysis. The primary outcome will be a decrease in the severity of BPD symptoms as assessed by the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23). For the clinical evaluation, three study assessments will take place: at baseline, after treatment and at 12-month follow-up. We hypothesise that patients attending the Iconic Therapy group will show a significantly higher reduction in symptoms than those in the Structured Support Therapy group. Data will be analysed using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. DISCUSSION: By responding to the need for briefer and more comprehensive therapies for BPD, we foresee that Iconic Therapy may provide an alternative treatment whose specific therapeutic principles, visually represented on icons, will overcome classical Structured Support Therapy at reducing BPD symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03011190.

9.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ; 11(4): 199-207, 2018 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619597

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. METHOD: In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. RESULTS: The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. DISCUSSION: We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 228: 20-25, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci. METHODS: We conducted gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) using 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 397 Reactome pathways and 24,025 patients with BD and controls. RNA expression of implicated individual genes and gene sets were examined in post-mortem brains across lifespan. RESULTS: Two pathways showed a significant enrichment after correction for multiple comparisons in the GSEA: GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, for which 6 of 21 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0377), and NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, for which 11 out of 62 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0451). Most pathway genes showed peaks of RNA co-expression during fetal development and infancy and mapped to neocortical areas and parts of the limbic system. LIMITATIONS: Pathway associations were technically reproduced by two methods, although they were not formally replicated in independent samples. Gene expression was explored in controls but not in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pathway analysis in large GWAS data of BD and follow-up of gene expression patterns in healthy brains provide support for an involvement of neurodevelopmental processes in the etiology of this neuropsychiatric disease. Future studies are required to further evaluate the relevance of the implicated genes on pathway functioning and clinical aspects of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Algoritmos , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/metabolismo
11.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 47(3): 246-261, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871896

RESUMO

Internet-delivered psychotherapy has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of depression. Nevertheless, the study of the adherence in this type of the treatment reported divergent results. The main objective of this study is to analyze predictors of adherence in a primary care Internet-based intervention for depression in Spain. A multi-center, three arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted with 194 depressive patients, who were allocated in self-guided or supported-guided intervention. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were gathered using a case report form. The Mini international neuropsychiatric interview diagnoses major depression. Beck Depression Inventory was used to assess depression severity. The visual analogic scale assesses the respondent's self-rated health and Short Form Health Survey was used to measure the health-related quality of life. Age results a predictor variable for both intervention groups (with and without therapist support). Perceived health is a negative predictor of adherence for the self-guided intervention when change in depression severity was included in the model. Change in depression severity results a predictor of adherence in the support-guided intervention. Our findings demonstrate that in our sample, there are differences in sociodemographic and clinical variables between active and dropout participants and we provide adherence predictors in each intervention condition of this Internet-based program for depression (self-guided and support-guided). It is important to point that further research in this area is essential to improve tailored interventions and to know specific patients groups can benefit from these interventions.

12.
Compr Psychiatry ; 72: 136-143, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders may differ from men in clinical course and outcome. Still, those differences can only be portrayed accurately by means of studies that derive information from multiple sources. One such study was performed in a well-defined area supported by a Mental Health Clinical Management Unit in Malaga, Spain. METHODS: Data from 1640 patients (1048 men and 592 women) that were in contact with services during 2008 were examined for the purpose of the present analysis. Gender differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and the role of gender for explaining clinical characteristics (diagnosis, disease severity and service use) beyond potential sociodemographic confounders were explored. RESULTS: The chi-squared analysis results revealed that in comparison to men, women were older, married or widowed/divorced and living as housewives with their families in cities. Genders also differed across diagnoses, with men being at higher risk for suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, while women being at higher risk for persistent delusional, acute/transitory and schizoaffective disorders. Furthermore, men had greater disease severity and higher chances to visit the mental health rehabilitation unit (MHRU). Further regression analyses revealed that after controlling for confounders, gender differences remained significant across diagnoses and severity. However, they lost their significance under the influence of marital, living and occupational status when predicting the use of MHRU. CONCLUSION: Results confirm the existence of gender differences and highlight the importance of other factors for designing effective psychosocial services that are tailor-made to the patients' needs.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 16(3): 266-275, sept.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-155893

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The heterogeneous clinical presentations of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) pose a significant challenge for sample characterization. Therefore the main goal of DSM-5 must be to identify subgroups of ASD, including comorbidity disorders and severity. The main goal of this study is to explore the psychiatric comorbidities and the severity of symptoms that could be relevant for the phenotype characterization in ASD and also to compare these results according to the different classification criteria between the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5. Method: A comparative study of severity and psychiatric comorbidities was carried out between a sample of participants that only met criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to the DSM-IV-TR and a sample of participants that also met ASD criteria according to DSM-5 classification. The recruitment of children was via educational (N=123). The psychiatric symptoms, comorbid disorders and severity of symptoms were assessed through The Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form, clinical interview and The Inventory of Autism Spectrum Disorder, respectively. The psychiatric comorbidities considered were: anxiety, eating behavioural problems, self-aggressiveness, hetero–aggressiveness, self-harm, obsessive compulsive disorder and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Results: Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding obsessive compulsive disorder, eating behavioural problems and severity. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that patients who meet the DSM-5 criteria have more severe symptoms, not only regarding the core autistic symptoms but also in relation with psychiatric comorbidities (AU)


Antecedentes/Objetivo: Los Trastornos del Espectro Autista (TEA) incluyen un grupo heterogéneo en cuanto a su presentación clínica, que supone un desafío a nivel de caracterización diagnóstica. Por consiguiente, el objetivo principal de la clasificación DSM-5 debería de ser identificar subgrupos de TEA incluyendo severidad y comorbilidades psiquiátricas. El objetivo principal de este estudio es explorar las comorbilidades diagnósticas que pueden ser relevantes como descriptores de fenotipos autistas así como la severidad de los síntomas de autismo y comparar los resultados de las diferentes criterios de clasificación entre el DSM-IV-TR y el DSM-5. Método: Se realiza un estudio comparativo de severidad y comorbilidades psiquiátricas entre una muestra con diagnóstico de Trastorno Generalizado del Desarrollo, según criterios DSM-IV-TR, y una muestra que cumplía también criterios para TEA según la clasificación DSM-5. La muestra fue obtenida en centros educativos (N=123). Las comorbilidades psiquiátricas y la severidad de los síntomas se evaluaron a través del The Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form, entrevista clínica y el Inventario de Trastorno del Espectro Autista, respectivamente. Las comorbilidades estudiadas fueron ansiedad, alteraciones de la conducta alimentaria, auto-agresividad, hetero-agresividad, autolesiones, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos para trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo, alteraciones de la conducta alimentaria y severidad. Conclusiones: Se apoya la hipótesis de que los individuos que cumplen criterios diagnósticos según DSM-5 tienen mayor severidad sintomática, no sólo con respecto a los síntomas autistas centrales, sino también en relación con comorbilidades psiquiátricas (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Psiquiatria/métodos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Obsessivo/psicologia , Comportamento Obsessivo/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Psiquiatria/classificação , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/classificação , Comportamento Obsessivo/patologia , Comportamento Obsessivo/reabilitação
14.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 44(5): 166-177, sept.-oct. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-156058

RESUMO

Introducción. La agitación es un problema común en la atención psiquiátrica con graves consecuencias clínicas y económicas. Metodología. El objetivo del estudio fue definir y caracterizar los estados de agitación en la práctica habitual en una unidad de Psiquiatría de Agudos y urgencias psiquiátricas, y describir los paquetes de atención típicos. Se establecieron dos grupos nominales, uno con 7 profesionales de enfermería y otro con 10 de psiquiatría (urgencias y psiquiatría de agudos del Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu). Resultados. El equipo de enfermería describió dos estados principales que formaban los extremos de un espectro que iba de leve (pre-agitación) a grave (agitación). Se describió un tercer estado que se caracterizaba por un comportamiento desorganizado. Diversos paquetes de atención fueron descritos para cada estado de agitación que se dividían en paquetes de primera, segunda y tercera línea. La primera línea (contención verbal) se aplicaba en todos los estados de agitación. Si no fuese eficaz, se implementaban los de segunda y tercera línea, llegando hasta la contención mecánica. El equipo de psiquiatras describió tres estados de agitación: un estado inicial leve (ansiedad e irritabilidad), un estado moderado (pre-agitación sin agresividad) y un estado severo de agitación con agresividad y/o violencia. Conclusiones. Para evitar la progresión a un estado de agitación severa, ambos grupos coincidieron en la importancia de la contención verbal, apropiada para todos los estados. Esto iría seguido de las medidas ambientales y farmacológicas hasta llegar a la contención mecánica dependiendo de la gravedad de la situación (AU)


Introduction. Agitation is a common problem in psychiatric care with serious clinical and economic consequences. Methodology. The aim of the study was to define and characterize the agitation states present in usual medical practice in the acute and emergency units of a psychiatric hospital. Two nominal groups, one with 7 nurses and the other with 10 psychiatrists from the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, were established. Results. The nurses described two main states forming the endpoints of a spectrum: from mild (pre-agitation) to severe (agitation). A third state was outlined in which agitation was characterized by disorganized behavior problems. Various care packages were described for each agitation state. The care packages were divided into first, second and third line approaches. The first line approaches (i.e., verbal containment) were used on every (pre)agitated patient. If the first line approach was not effective, the second and third line approaches were implemented, culminating with physical restraint. The psychiatrists described 3 states: a mild initial state (anxiety and irritability), moderate (pre-agitation without aggressiveness) and a severe state of agitation with aggressiveness and/or violence. Conclusions. In order to avoid progression to a severely agitated state, both groups agreed on the importance of appropriate verbal containment for all states. This would be followed by environmental measures, medication and mechanical restrain depending on the severity of the state (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/terapia , Intervenção na Crise/métodos , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 44(5): 166-77, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644098

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Agitation is a common problem in psychiatric care with serious clinical and economic consequences. METHODOLOGY: The aim of the study was to define and characterize the agitation states present in usual medical practice in the acute and emergency units of a psychiatric hospital. Two nominal groups, one with 7 nurses and the other with 10 psychiatrists from the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, were established. RESULTS: The nurses described two main states forming the endpoints of a spectrum: from mild (pre-agitation) to severe (agitation). A third state was outlined in which agitation was characterized by disorganized behavior problems. Various care packages were described for each agitation state. The care packages were divided into first, second and third line approaches. The first line approaches (i.e., verbal containment) were used on every (pre)agitated patient. If the first line approach was not effective, the second and third line approaches were implemented, culminating with physical restraint. The psychiatrists described 3 states: a mild initial state (anxiety and irritability), moderate (pre-agitation without aggressiveness) and a severe state of agitation with aggressiveness and/or violence. CONCLUSIONS: In order to avoid progression to a severely agitated state, both groups agreed on the importance of appropriate verbal containment for all states. This would be followed by environmental measures, medication and mechanical restrain depending on the severity of the state.


Assuntos
Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 18(8): e231, 2016 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27565118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is the most prevalent cause of illness-induced disability worldwide. Face-to-face psychotherapeutic interventions for depression can be challenging, so there is a need for other alternatives that allow these interventions to be offered. One feasible alternative is Internet-based psychological interventions. This is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of an Internet-based intervention on depression in primary health care in Spain. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of a low-intensity therapist-guided (LITG) Internet-based program and a completely self-guided (CSG) Internet-based program with improved treatment as usual (iTAU) care for depression. METHODS: Multicenter, three-arm, parallel, RCT design, carried out between November 2012 and January 2014, with a follow-up of 15 months. In total, 296 adults from primary care settings in four Spanish regions, with mild or moderate major depression, were randomized to LITG (n=96), CSG (n=98), or iTAU (n=102). Research completers at follow-up were 63.5%. The intervention was Smiling is Fun, an Internet program based on cognitive behavioral therapy. All patients received iTAU by their general practitioners. Moreover, LITG received Smiling is Fun and the possibility of psychotherapeutic support on request by email, whereas CSG received only Smiling is Fun. The main outcome was the Beck Depression Inventory-II at 3 months from baseline. Mixed-effects multilevel analysis for repeated measures were undertaken. RESULTS: There was no benefit for either CSG [(B coefficient=-1.15; P=.444)] or LITG [(B=-0.71; P=.634)] compared to iTAU, at 3 months. There were differences at 6 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-4.22; P=.007); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.34; P=.005)] and 15 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-5.10; P=.001); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.62; P=.002)]. There were no differences between CSG and LITG at any time. Adjusted and intention-to-treat models confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS: An Internet-based intervention for depression combined with iTAU conferred a benefit over iTAU alone in the Spanish primary health care system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01611818; https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol? selectaction=Edit&uid=U0001NPQ&ts=2&cx=gctdh2&sid=S0003KJ6 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6jbsUvUDz).


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Internet , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
17.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 16(3): 266-275, 2016 Sep-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487870

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The heterogeneous clinical presentations of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) pose a significant challenge for sample characterization. Therefore the main goal of DSM-5 must be to identify subgroups of ASD, including comorbidity disorders and severity. The main goal of this study is to explore the psychiatric comorbidities and the severity of symptoms that could be relevant for the phenotype characterization in ASD and also to compare these results according to the different classification criteria between the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5. Method: A comparative study of severity and psychiatric comorbidities was carried out between a sample of participants that only met criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to the DSM-IV-TR and a sample of participants that also met ASD criteria according to DSM-5 classification. The recruitment of children was via educational (N = 123). The psychiatric symptoms, comorbid disorders and severity of symptoms were assessed through The Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form, clinical interview and The Inventory of Autism Spectrum Disorder, respectively. The psychiatric comorbidities considered were: anxiety, eating behavioural problems, self-aggressiveness, hetero-aggressiveness, self-harm, obsessive compulsive disorder and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Results: Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding obsessive compulsive disorder, eating behavioural problems and severity. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that patients who meet the DSM-5 criteria have more severe symptoms, not only regarding the core autistic symptoms but also in relation with psychiatric comorbidities.

18.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 19(3): 455-61, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26399872

RESUMO

The transition to motherhood is stressful as it requires several important changes in family dynamics, finances, and working life, along with physical and psychological adjustments. This study aimed at determining whether some forms of coping might predict postpartum depressive symptomatology. A total of 1626 pregnant women participated in a multi-centric longitudinal study. Different evaluations were performed 8 and 32 weeks after delivery. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). The brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE) scale was used to measure coping strategies 2-3 days postpartum. Some coping strategies differentiate between women with and without postpartum depression. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships between the predictors of coping strategies and major depression (according to DSM-IV criteria). In this model, the predictor variables during the first 32 weeks were self-distraction (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.33), substance use (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.35-0.97), and self-blame (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.34). In healthy women with no psychiatric history, some passive coping strategies, both cognitive and behavioral, are predictors of depressive symptoms and postpartum depression and help differentiate between patients with and without depression.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment ; 8(2): 83-91, abr.-jun. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-136992

RESUMO

Introducción: Numerosos estudios internacionales han mostrado la eficacia de las intervenciones familiares psicoeducativas en la prevención de recaídas de personas con esquizofrenia. Aún existe controversia sobre los resultados en variables de carácter clínico y funcional, así como su aplicabilidad en la práctica clínica habitual. Objetivos: Evaluar la eficacia y la aplicabilidad de un programa de intervención unifamiliar, en comparación con el tratamiento habitual, en una muestra ambulatoria de pacientes con esquizofrenia, durante un periodo de 18 meses. Metodología: Ochenta y ocho familias fueron aleatorizadas en 2 grupos. El grupo experimental (n = 44) recibió un programa de intervención familiar durante 12 meses. El grupo control (n = 44) mantuvo su tratamiento habitual. Se realizaron evaluaciones en el momento inicial, a los 12 meses y a los 18 meses. La medida principal de resultado fue el número de hospitalizaciones, y como medidas secundarias se utilizaron la gravedad de la sintomatología clínica (BPRS) y el funcionamiento social (DAS II). Resultados: De los 88 pacientes reclutados, 74 completaron la evaluación a los 12 meses y 71 la evaluación final a los 18 meses. Los pacientes que siguieron intervención familiar redujeron un 40% el riesgo de hospitalización respecto a los pacientes que se mantuvieron con tratamiento habitual (p = 0,4018; IC 95%: 0,1833-0,6204). La sintomatología clínica mostró una mejoría significativa a los 12 meses (p = 0,0046) que dejó de serlo a los 18 meses (p = 0,4397). El nivel de discapacidad también se redujo de forma significativa, tanto a los 12 (p = 0,0511) como a los 18 meses (p = 0,0001) en el grupo tratado respecto al control. Conclusiones: Las intervenciones familiares psicoeducativas reducen el riesgo de hospitalización y mejoran el estado clínico y el funcionamiento social de las personas con esquizofrenia (AU)


Background: According to most relevant guidelines, family psycho-educational interventions are considered to be one the most effective psychosocial treatments for people with schizophrenia. The main outcome measure in controlled and randomized studies has been prevention of relapses and admissions, and encouragement of compliance, although some questions remain about its applicability and results in clinical practice. Objectives: The aim of study was to evaluate the efficacy and implementation of a single family psychoeducational intervention in ‘real’ conditions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 88 families were randomized in two groups. The family intervention group received a 12 months psychoeducational treatment, and the other group followed normal standard treatment. Assessments were made at baseline, at 12 and at 18 months. The main outcome measure was hospitalization, and secondary outcome measures were clinical condition (BPRS-E) and social disability (DAS-II). Results: A total of 71 patients finished the study (34 family intervention group and 37 control group). Patients who received family intervention reduced the risk of hospitalization by 40% (P = .4018; 95% CI: 0.1833-0.6204). Symptomatology improved significantly at 12 months (P = .4018; 95% CI: 0.1833-0.6204), but not at 18 months (P = .4018; 95% CI: 0.1833-0.6204). Social disability was significantly reduced in the family intervention group at 12 months and 18 months. Conclusions: Family psychoeducational intervention reduces hospitalization risk and improves clinical condition and social functioning of people with schizophrenia (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 15: 106, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common disorders in Psychiatric and Primary Care settings and is associated with significant disability and economic costs. Low-intensity psychological interventions applied by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) could be an efficacious and cost-effective therapeutic option for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study is to assess 3 low-intensity psychological interventions applied by ICTs (healthy lifestyle, positive affect and mindfulness) in Primary Care; significant efficacy for depression treatment has previously showed in specialized clinical settings by those interventions, but ICTs were not used. METHOD: Multicenter controlled randomized clinical trial in 4 parallel groups. Interventions have been designed and on-line device adaptation has been carried out. Subsequently, the randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted. A sample of N = 240 mild and moderate depressed patients will be recruited and assessed in Primary Care settings. Patients will be randomly assigned to a) healthy lifestyle psychoeducational program + improved primary care usual treatment (ITAU), b) focused program on positive affect promotion + ITAU c) mindfulness + ITAU or d) ITAU. The intervention format will be one face to face session and four ICTs on-line modules. Patients will be diagnosed with MINI psychiatric interview. Main outcome will be PHQ-9 score. They will be also assessed by SF-12 Health Survey, Client Service Receipt Inventory, EuroQoL-5D questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Pemberton Happiness Index. Patients will be assessed at baseline, post, 6 and 12 post-treatment months. An intention to treat and per protocol analysis will be performed. DISCUSSION: Low-intensity psychological interventions applied by Information and Communication Technologies have been not used before in Spain and could be an efficacious and cost-effective therapeutic option for depression treatment. The strength of the study is that it is the first multicenter controlled randomized clinical trial of three low intensity and self-guided interventions applied by ICTs (healthy lifestyle psychoeducational program; focused program on positive affect promotion and brief intervention based on mindfulness) in Primary Care settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN82388279 . Registered 16 April 2014.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA