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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in neuroblastoma-amplified sequence (NBAS) cause an autosomal recessive disorder with a wide range of symptoms affecting liver, skeletal system, and brain, among others. There is a continuously growing number of patients but a lack of systematic and quantitative analysis. METHODS: Individuals with biallelic variants in NBAS were recruited within an international, multicenter study, including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed with log-linear models and visualized by mosaic plots; facial profiles were investigated via DeepGestalt. The structure of the NBAS protein was predicted using computational methods. RESULTS: One hundred ten individuals from 97 families with biallelic pathogenic NBAS variants were identified, including 26 novel patients with 19 previously unreported variants, giving a total number of 86 variants. Protein modeling redefined the ß-propeller domain of NBAS. Based on the localization of missense variants and in-frame deletions, three clinical subgroups arise that differ significantly regarding main clinical features and are directly related to the affected region of the NBAS protein: ß-propeller (combined phenotype), Sec39 (infantile liver failure syndrome type 2/ILFS2), and C-terminal (short stature, optic atrophy, and Pelger-Huët anomaly/SOPH). CONCLUSION: We define clinical subgroups of NBAS-associated disease that can guide patient management and point to domain-specific functions of NBAS.

2.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557978

RESUMO

Complex I (CI) is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and couples the electron transfer with proton pumping. Mutations in genes encoding CI subunits can frequently cause inborn metabolic errors. We applied proteome and metabolome profiling of patient-derived cells harboring pathogenic mutations in two distinct CI genes to elucidate underlying pathomechanisms on the molecular level. Our results indicated that the electron transfer within CI was interrupted in both patients by different mechanisms. We showed that the biallelic mutations in NDUFS1 led to a decreased stability of the entire N-module of CI and disrupted the electron transfer between two iron-sulfur clusters. Strikingly interesting and in contrast to the proteome, metabolome profiling illustrated that the pattern of dysregulated metabolites was almost identical in both patients, such as the inhibitory feedback on the TCA cycle and altered glutathione levels, indicative for reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress. Our findings deciphered pathological mechanisms of CI deficiency to better understand inborn metabolic errors.

3.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2521-2531, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration rely on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Specific transcription factors, particularly PAX7, are key regulators of the function of these cells. Knockout of this factor in mice leads to poor postnatal survival; however, the consequences of a lack of PAX7 in humans have not been established. METHODS: Here, we study five individuals with myopathy of variable severity from four unrelated consanguineous couples. Exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in the PAX7 gene. Clinical examination, laboratory tests, and muscle biopsies were performed to characterize the disease. RESULTS: The disease was characterized by hypotonia, ptosis, muscular atrophy, scoliosis, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. The disease spectrum ranged from mild to severe and appears to be progressive. Muscle biopsies showed the presence of atrophic fibers and fibroadipose tissue replacement, with the absence of myofiber necrosis. A lack of PAX7 expression was associated with satellite cell pool exhaustion; however, the presence of residual myoblasts together with regenerating myofibers suggest that a population of PAX7-independent myogenic cells partially contributes to muscle regeneration. CONCLUSION: These findings show that biallelic variants in the master transcription factor PAX7 cause a new type of myopathy that specifically affects satellite cell survival.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 909-917, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059585

RESUMO

Diagnostics for suspected mitochondrial disease (MD) can be challenging and necessitate invasive procedures like muscle biopsy. This is due to the extremely broad genetic and phenotypic spectrum, disease genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the tissue specificity of mtDNA variants. Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized the diagnostics for MD. However, the nuclear and mtDNA are investigated with separate tests, increasing costs and duration of diagnostics. The full potential of ES is often not exploited as the additional analysis of "off-target reads" deriving from the mtDNA can be used to analyze both genomes. We performed mtDNA analysis by ES of 2111 cases in a clinical setting. We further assessed the recall rate and precision as well as the estimation of heteroplasmy by ES data by comparison with targeted mtDNA next generation sequencing in 49 cases. ES identified known pathogenic mtDNA point mutations in 38 individuals, increasing the diagnostic yield by nearly 2%. Analysis of mtDNA variants by ES had a high recall rate (96.2 ± 5.6%) and an excellent precision (99.5 ± 2.2%) when compared to the gold standard of targeted mtDNA next generation sequencing. ES estimated heteroplasmy levels with an average difference of 6.6 ± 3.8%, sufficient for clinical decision making. Taken together, the mtDNA analysis from ES is of sufficient quality for clinical diagnostics. We therefore propose ES, investigating both nuclear and mtDNA, as first line test in individuals with suspected MD. One should be aware, that a negative result does not exclude MD and necessitates further test (in additional tissues).

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 237-242, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681159

RESUMO

In humans, the important water soluble, vitamin-like nutrient choline, is taken up with the diet or recycled in the liver. Deficiencies of choline have only been reported in experimental situations or total parenteral nutrition. Currently, no recommended dietary allowances are published; only an adequate daily intake is defined. Choline is involved in three main physiological processes: structural integrity and lipid-derived signaling for cell membranes, cholinergic neurotransmission, and methylation. Choline is gaining increasing public attention due to studies reporting a relation of low choline levels to subclinical organ dysfunction (nonalcoholic fatty liver or muscle damage), stunting, and neural tube defects. Furthermore, positive effects on memory and a lowering of cardiovascular risks and inflammatory markers have been proposed. On the other hand, dietary choline has been associated with increased atherosclerosis in mice. This mini review will provide a summary of the biochemical pathways, in which choline is involved and their respective inborn errors of metabolism (caused by mutations in SLC5A7, CHAT, SLC44A1, CHKB, PCYT1A, CEPT1, CAD; DHODH, UMPS, FMO3, DMGDH, and GNMT). The broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from malodor, intellectual disability, to epilepsy, anemia, or congenital myasthenic syndrome is presented, highlighting the central role of choline within human metabolism.

6.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(1): e1-e6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589726

RESUMO

Mutations in the nuclear gene DGUOK, encoding deoxyguanosine kinase, cause an infantile hepatocerebral type of mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). We report 6 MDS patients harboring bi-allelic DGUOK mutations, of which 3 are novel, including a large intragenic Austrian founder deletion. One patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 6 months, supporting a link between mitochondrial DNA depletion and tumorigenesis; liver transplantation proved beneficial with regard to both tumor treatment and psychomotor development.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 1347174, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538797

RESUMO

Switching of cellular energy production from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis occurs in many types of tumors. However, the significance of energy metabolism for the development of prostate carcinoma is poorly understood. We investigated the expression of OXPHOS complexes in 94 human prostate carcinomas and paired benign tissue using immunohistochemistry. Overall mitochondrial mass was upregulated in carcinomas compared to benign prostate tissue in all Gleason grades. A significant direct correlation between the expression of OXPHOS complexes I, II, and V and the Gleason score was observed. However, 17% of prostate carcinomas and 18% of benign prostate tissues showed isolated or combined deficiency of OXPHOS complexes (one deficiency in 12% of the tumors, combined deficiencies in 5%). Complex I was absent in 9% of the samples, with only parts of the tumor affected. ATP5F1A, a complex V protein, was the most frequently affected subunit, in 10% of tumors and 11% of benign prostate tissues (but not both tissues in any single patient). A possible role of complex V in prostate cancer development is suggested by the significant positive correlation of ATP5F1A levels with earlier-onset prostate cancer (age at diagnosis and at prostatectomy) and free PSA percentage. The relatively high percentage (17%) of prostate carcinomas with regional foci of partial OXPHOS complex deficiencies could have important therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idade de Início , Humanos , Masculino , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 817-825, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401461

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification used to regulate protein function. ADP-ribosyltransferases transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ to the target protein, and ADP-ribosylhydrolases, such as ADPRHL2, reverse the reaction. We used exome sequencing to identify five different bi-allelic pathogenic ADPRHL2 variants in 12 individuals from 8 families affected by a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting in childhood or adolescence with key clinical features including developmental delay or regression, seizures, ataxia, and axonal (sensori-)motor neuropathy. ADPRHL2 was virtually absent in available affected individuals' fibroblasts, and cell viability was reduced upon hydrogen peroxide exposure, although it was rescued by expression of wild-type ADPRHL2 mRNA as well as treatment with a PARP1 inhibitor. Our findings suggest impaired protein ribosylation as another pathway that, if disturbed, causes neurodegenerative diseases.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234759

RESUMO

Mutations in the nuclear gene DGUOK, encoding deoxyguanosine kinase, cause an infantile hepatocerebral type of mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). We report 6 MDS patients harboring bi-allelic DGUOK mutations, of which 3 are novel, including a large intragenic Austrian founder deletion. One patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 6mo, supporting a link between mitochondrial DNA depletion and tumorigenesis; liver transplantation proved beneficial with regard to both tumor treatment and psychomotor development.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 592-601, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245030

RESUMO

Isolated complex I deficiency is a common biochemical phenotype observed in pediatric mitochondrial disease and often arises as a consequence of pathogenic variants affecting one of the ∼65 genes encoding the complex I structural subunits or assembly factors. Such genetic heterogeneity means that application of next-generation sequencing technologies to undiagnosed cohorts has been a catalyst for genetic diagnosis and gene-disease associations. We describe the clinical and molecular genetic investigations of four unrelated children who presented with neuroradiological findings and/or elevated lactate levels, highly suggestive of an underlying mitochondrial diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing identified bi-allelic variants in NDUFA6, encoding a 15 kDa LYR-motif-containing complex I subunit that forms part of the Q-module. Functional investigations using subjects' fibroblast cell lines demonstrated complex I assembly defects, which were characterized in detail by mass-spectrometry-based complexome profiling. This confirmed a marked reduction in incorporated NDUFA6 and a concomitant reduction in other Q-module subunits, including NDUFAB1, NDUFA7, and NDUFA12. Lentiviral transduction of subjects' fibroblasts showed normalization of complex I. These data also support supercomplex formation, whereby the ∼830 kDa complex I intermediate (consisting of the P- and Q-modules) is in complex with assembled complex III and IV holoenzymes despite lacking the N-module. Interestingly, RNA-sequencing data provided evidence that the consensus RefSeq accession number does not correspond to the predominant transcript in clinically relevant tissues, prompting revision of the NDUFA6 RefSeq transcript and highlighting not only the importance of thorough variant interpretation but also the assessment of appropriate transcripts for analysis.

11.
J Med Genet ; 55(11): 753-764, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of febrile illness-induced encephalopathy and rhabdomyolysis has thus far only been described in disorders that affect cellular energy status. In the absence of specific metabolic abnormalities, diagnosis can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and characterise pathogenic variants in two individuals from unrelated families, both of whom presented clinically with a similar phenotype that included neurodevelopmental delay, febrile illness-induced encephalopathy and episodes of rhabdomyolysis, followed by developmental arrest, epilepsy and tetraplegia. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was used to identify pathogenic variants in the two individuals. Biochemical and cell biological analyses were performed on fibroblasts from these individuals and a yeast two-hybrid analysis was used to assess protein-protein interactions. RESULTS: Probands shared a homozygous TRAPPC2L variant (c.109G>T) resulting in a p.Asp37Tyr missense variant. TRAPPC2L is a component of transport protein particle (TRAPP), a group of multisubunit complexes that function in membrane traffic and autophagy. Studies in patient fibroblasts as well as in a yeast system showed that the p.Asp37Tyr protein was present but not functional and resulted in specific membrane trafficking delays. The human missense mutation and the analogous mutation in the yeast homologue Tca17 ablated the interaction between TRAPPC2L and TRAPPC10/Trs130, a component of the TRAPP II complex. Since TRAPP II activates the GTPase RAB11, we examined the activation state of this protein and found increased levels of the active RAB, correlating with changes in its cellular morphology. CONCLUSIONS: Our study implicates a RAB11 pathway in the aetiology of the TRAPPC2L disorder and has implications for other TRAPP-related disorders with similar phenotypes.

12.
Neuropediatrics ; 49(6): 373-378, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114719

RESUMO

Neonatal-onset movement disorders, especially in combination with seizures, are rare and often related to mitochondrial disorders. 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA-uria) is a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. In particular, consistently elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid is the hallmark of a small but growing group of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) due to defective phospholipid remodeling or mitochondrial membrane-associated disorders (mutations in TAZ, SERAC1, OPA3, CLPB, DNAJC19, TMEM70, TIMM50). Exome/genome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of the clinically and genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorders. Here, we report 11 individuals, of whom 2 are previously unpublished, with biallelic variants in high temperature requirement protein A2 (HTRA2) encoding a mitochondria-localized serine protease. All individuals presented a recognizable phenotype with neonatal- or infantile-onset neurodegeneration and death within the first month of life. Hallmark features were central hypopnea/apnea leading to respiratory insufficiency, seizures, neutropenia, 3-MGA-uria, tonus dysregulation, and dysphagia. Tremor, jitteriness, dystonia, and/or clonus were also common. HTRA2 defect should be grouped under the IEM with 3-MGA-uria as discriminating feature. Clinical characteristics overlap with other disorders of this group suggesting a common underlying pathomechanism. Urinary organic acid analysis is a noninvasive and inexpensive test that can guide further genetic testing in children with suggestive clinical findings.

13.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In general, a mitochondrial disorder is diagnosed on the basis of symptom combinations and confirmed by genetic findings. However, patients carrying the m.3243A>G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA leucine 1 (MT-TL1) do not always meet all the proposed criteria for the most frequently encountered mitochondrial syndrome "MELAS," an acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and at least one Stroke-like episode. We here present various phenotypic characteristics of the mitochondrial mutation m.3243A>G with particular focus on cardiac manifestations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed nine patients (1 month to 68 years old; median 42 years; four female and five male) from nine different families with this m.3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1. The classical "MELAS" criteria are met by only three of these patients. Electrocardiography (ECG) shows preexcitation pattern with short PR intervals and delta waves (Wolff-Parkinson-White) in three patients and sick sinus syndrome plus atrioventricular block I in one patient. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was found in eight patients with moderate to severe regurgitation of various valves. CONCLUSION: Cardiac manifestation can encompass hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, as well as preexcitation syndromes or conduction delay. In general, the clinical presentation to meet the "MELAS" criteria varies due to heteroplasmy. Thus, cardiologists should screen patients with unexplained cardiac features in the context of deafness, short stature and learning disabilities for mtDNA mutations, especially the m.3243A>G mutation. A clear diagnosis is essential as a basis for prognostic advice concerning the disease course and clinical impact on family testing.

14.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 120, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member 9 (ACAD9) is essential for the assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Disease causing biallelic variants in ACAD9 have been reported in individuals presenting with lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: We describe the genetic, clinical and biochemical findings in a cohort of 70 patients, of whom 29 previously unpublished. We found 34 known and 18 previously unreported variants in ACAD9. No patients harbored biallelic loss of function mutations, indicating that this combination is unlikely to be compatible with life. Causal pathogenic variants were distributed throughout the entire gene, and there was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Most of the patients presented in the first year of life. For this subgroup the survival was poor (50% not surviving the first 2 years) comparing to patients with a later presentation (more than 90% surviving 10 years). The most common clinical findings were cardiomyopathy (85%), muscular weakness (75%) and exercise intolerance (72%). Interestingly, severe intellectual deficits were only reported in one patient and severe developmental delays in four patients. More than 70% of the patients were able to perform the same activities of daily living when compared to peers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that riboflavin treatment improves complex I activity in the majority of patient-derived fibroblasts tested. This effect was also reported for most of the treated patients and is mirrored in the survival data. In the patient group with disease-onset below 1 year of age, we observed a statistically-significant better survival for patients treated with riboflavin.

15.
Neuropediatrics ; 49(5): 330-338, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay have been considered the core clinical phenotype in patients with bi-allelic PRUNE1 mutations. METHODS: Linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a multiplex family and extraction of further cases from a WES repository containing 571 children with severe developmental disabilities and neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: We identified bi-allelic PRUNE1 mutations in twelve children from six unrelated families. All patients who survived beyond the first 6 months of life had early-onset global developmental delay, bilateral spastic paresis, dysphagia and difficult-to-treat seizures, while congenital or later-evolving microcephaly was not a consistent finding. Brain MRI showed variable anomalies with progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophies and T2-hyperintense brain stem lesions. Peripheral neuropathy was documented in five cases. Disease course was progressive in all patients and eight children died in the first or early second decade of life. In addition to the previously reported missense mutation p.(Asp106Asn), we observed a novel homozygous missense variant p.(Leu172Pro) and a homozygous contiguous gene deletion encompassing most of the PRUNE1 gene and part of the neighboring BNIPL gene. CONCLUSIONS: PRUNE1 deficiency causes severe early-onset disease affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Microcephaly is probably not a universal feature.

16.
Cells ; 7(5)2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747424

RESUMO

The papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, with disruptive mutations in mitochondrial complex I subunits reported at very low frequency. Furthermore, metabolic diversity of PTC has been postulated owing to variable messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes encoding subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) complexes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metabolic diversity of the OXPHOS system at the protein level by using immunohistochemical staining. Analysis of 18 human PTCs revealed elevated mitochondrial biogenesis but significantly lower levels of OXPHOS complex I in the tumor tissue (p < 0.0001) compared to the adjacent normal tissue. In contrast, OXPHOS complexes II⁻V were increased in the majority of PTCs. In three PTCs, we found pathologic mutations within mitochondrially encoded complex I subunits. Our data indicate that PTCs are characterized by an oncocytic metabolic signature that is in low complex I is combined with elevated mitochondrial mass and high complex II⁻V levels, which might be an important factor for tumor formation.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 685-695, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576219

RESUMO

Biogenesis of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, which produces the bulk of ATP for almost all eukaryotic cells, depends on the translation of 13 mtDNA-encoded polypeptides by mitochondria-specific ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix. These mitoribosomes are dual-origin ribonucleoprotein complexes, which contain mtDNA-encoded rRNAs and tRNAs and ∼80 nucleus-encoded proteins. An increasing number of gene mutations that impair mitoribosomal function and result in multiple OXPHOS deficiencies are being linked to human mitochondrial diseases. Using exome sequencing in two unrelated subjects presenting with sensorineural hearing impairment, mild developmental delay, hypoglycemia, and a combined OXPHOS deficiency, we identified mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S2, which has not previously been implicated in disease. Characterization of subjects' fibroblasts revealed a decrease in the steady-state amounts of mutant MRPS2, and this decrease was shown by complexome profiling to prevent the assembly of the small mitoribosomal subunit. In turn, mitochondrial translation was inhibited, resulting in a combined OXPHOS deficiency detectable in subjects' muscle and liver biopsies as well as in cultured skin fibroblasts. Reintroduction of wild-type MRPS2 restored mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly. The combination of lactic acidemia, hypoglycemia, and sensorineural hearing loss, especially in the presence of a combined OXPHOS deficiency, should raise suspicion for a ribosomal-subunit-related mitochondrial defect, and clinical recognition could allow for a targeted diagnostic approach. The identification of MRPS2 as an additional gene related to mitochondrial disease further expands the genetic and phenotypic spectra of OXPHOS deficiencies caused by impaired mitochondrial translation.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 494-504, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478781

RESUMO

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, δ subunit (ATP5F1D; formerly ATP5D) is a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase and plays an important role in coupling proton translocation and ATP production. Here, we describe two individuals, each with homozygous missense variants in ATP5F1D, who presented with episodic lethargy, metabolic acidosis, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, and hyperammonemia. Subject 1, homozygous for c.245C>T (p.Pro82Leu), presented with recurrent metabolic decompensation starting in the neonatal period, and subject 2, homozygous for c.317T>G (p.Val106Gly), presented with acute encephalopathy in childhood. Cultured skin fibroblasts from these individuals exhibited impaired assembly of F1FO ATP synthase and subsequent reduced complex V activity. Cells from subject 1 also exhibited a significant decrease in mitochondrial cristae. Knockdown of Drosophila ATPsynδ, the ATP5F1D homolog, in developing eyes and brains caused a near complete loss of the fly head, a phenotype that was fully rescued by wild-type human ATP5F1D. In contrast, expression of the ATP5F1D c.245C>T and c.317T>G variants rescued the head-size phenotype but recapitulated the eye and antennae defects seen in other genetic models of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation deficiency. Our data establish c.245C>T (p.Pro82Leu) and c.317T>G (p.Val106Gly) in ATP5F1D as pathogenic variants leading to a Mendelian mitochondrial disease featuring episodic metabolic decompensation.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 460-467, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429571

RESUMO

Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most frequently identified biochemical defect in childhood mitochondrial diseases. Clinical symptoms range from fatal infantile lactic acidosis to Leigh syndrome and other encephalomyopathies or cardiomyopathies. To date, disease-causing variants in genes coding for 27 complex I subunits, including 7 mitochondrial DNA genes, and in 11 genes encoding complex I assembly factors have been reported. Here, we describe rare biallelic variants in NDUFB8 encoding a complex I accessory subunit revealed by whole-exome sequencing in two individuals from two families. Both presented with a progressive course of disease with encephalo(cardio)myopathic features including muscular hypotonia, cardiac hypertrophy, respiratory failure, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Blood lactate was elevated. Neuroimaging disclosed progressive changes in the basal ganglia and either brain stem or internal capsule. Biochemical analyses showed an isolated decrease in complex I enzymatic activity in muscle and fibroblasts. Complementation studies by expression of wild-type NDUFB8 in cells from affected individuals restored mitochondrial function, confirming NDUFB8 variants as the cause of complex I deficiency. Hereby we establish NDUFB8 as a relevant gene in childhood-onset mitochondrial disease.

20.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(1): 28-42, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases, a group of multi-systemic disorders often characterized by tissue-specific phenotypes, are usually progressive and fatal disorders resulting from defects in oxidative phosphorylation. MTO1 (Mitochondrial tRNA Translation Optimization 1), an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed in high-energy demand tissues has been linked to human early-onset combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, often referred to as combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-10 (COXPD10). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty five cases of MTO1 deficiency were identified and reviewed through international collaboration. The cases of two female siblings, who presented at 1 and 2years of life with seizures, global developmental delay, hypotonia, elevated lactate and complex I and IV deficiency on muscle biopsy but without cardiomyopathy, are presented in detail. RESULTS: For the description of phenotypic features, the denominator varies as the literature was insufficient to allow for complete ascertainment of all data for the 35 cases. An extensive review of all known MTO1 deficiency cases revealed the most common features at presentation to be lactic acidosis (LA) (21/34; 62% cases) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (15/34; 44% cases). Eventually lactic acidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are described in 35/35 (100%) and 27/34 (79%) of patients with MTO1 deficiency, respectively; with global developmental delay/intellectual disability present in 28/29 (97%), feeding difficulties in 17/35 (49%), failure to thrive in 12/35 (34%), seizures in 12/35 (34%), optic atrophy in 11/21 (52%) and ataxia in 7/34 (21%). There are 19 different pathogenic MTO1 variants identified in these 35 cases: one splice-site, 3 frameshift and 15 missense variants. None have bi-allelic variants that completely inactivate MTO1; however, patients where one variant is truncating (i.e. frameshift) while the second one is a missense appear to have a more severe, even fatal, phenotype. These data suggest that complete loss of MTO1 is not viable. A ketogenic diet may have exerted a favourable effect on seizures in 2/5 patients. CONCLUSION: MTO1 deficiency is lethal in some but not all cases, and a genotype-phenotype relation is suggested. Aside from lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy, developmental delay and other phenotypic features affecting multiple organ systems are often present in these patients, suggesting a broader spectrum than hitherto reported. The diagnosis should be suspected on clinical features and the presence of markers of mitochondrial dysfunction in body fluids, especially low residual complex I, III and IV activity in muscle. Molecular confirmation is required and targeted genomic testing may be the most efficient approach. Although subjective clinical improvement was observed in a small number of patients on therapies such as ketogenic diet and dichloroacetate, no evidence-based effective therapy exists.

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