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1.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120315322, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The superoxide-generating Nox2 (NADPH oxidase-2) is expressed in multiple cell types. Previous studies demonstrated distinct roles for cardiomyocyte, endothelial cell, and leukocyte cell Nox2 in ANG II (angiotensin II)-induced cardiovascular remodeling. However, the in vivo role of fibroblast Nox2 remains unclear. Approach and Results: We developed a novel mouse model with inducible fibroblast-specific deficiency of Nox2 (Fibro-Nox2KO mice) and investigated the responses to chronic ANG II stimulation. Fibro-Nox2KO mice showed no differences in basal blood pressure or vessel wall morphology, but the hypertensive response to ANG II infusion (1.1 mg/[kg·day] for 14 days) was substantially reduced as compared to control Nox2-Flox littermates. This was accompanied by a significant attenuation of aortic and resistance vessel remodeling. The conditioned medium of ANG II-stimulated primary fibroblasts induced a significant increase in vascular smooth muscle cell, which was inhibited by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of fibroblast Nox2. Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome of ANG II-treated primary fibroblasts identified GDF6 (growth differentiation factor 6) as a potential growth factor that may be involved in these effects. Recombinant GDF6 induced a concentration-dependent increase in vascular smooth muscle cell growth while chronic ANG II infusion in vivo significantly increased aortic GDF6 protein levels in control mice but not Fibro-Nox2KO animals. Finally, silencing GDF6 in fibroblasts prevented the induction of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by fibroblast-conditioned media in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that fibroblast Nox2 plays a crucial role in the development of ANG II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertension in vivo. Mechanistically, fibroblast Nox2 may regulate paracrine signaling to medial vascular smooth muscle cells via factors, such as GDF6.

2.
Neurology ; 95(15): e2047-e2055, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether connective tissue disorder is evident in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection and therefore identify patients at risk of recurrence using a cutting-edge quantitative proteomics approach. METHODS: In the ReSect study, all patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection treated at the Innsbruck University Hospital since 1996 were invited to attend a standardized clinical follow-up examination. Protein abundance in skin punch biopsies (n = 50) was evaluated by a cutting-edge quantitative proteomics approach (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) that has hitherto not been applied to such patients. RESULTS: Patients with 1-time single-vessel (n = 19) or multiple-vessel (n = 13) dissections did not differ between each other or compared to healthy controls (n = 12) in protein composition. Patients with recurrent spontaneous cervical artery dissection (n = 6), however, showed significantly different expression of 25 proteins compared to the other groups combined. Literature review and Gene Ontology term annotation check revealed that 13 of the differently expressed proteins play a major role in the structural integrity of connective tissue or are linked to connective tissue disorders. These proteins showed clustering to a collagen/elastin cluster and one consisting of desmosome related proteins. CONCLUSION: This study unravels an extracellular matrix protein signature of recurrent spontaneous cervical artery dissection. In the long run and after large-scale validation, our findings may well assist in identifying patients at risk of recurrent spontaneous cervical artery dissection and thus guide therapy.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(16): e015342, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805183

RESUMO

Background Patients with repair of tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) who are approaching adulthood often exhibit pulmonary valve regurgitation, leading to right ventricle (RV) dilatation and dysfunction. The regurgitation can be corrected by pulmonary valve replacement (PVR), but the optimal surgical timing remains under debate, mainly because of the poorly understood nature of RV remodeling in patients with rToF. The goal of this study was to probe for pathologic molecular, cellular, and tissue changes in the myocardium of patients with rToF at the time of PVR. Methods and Results We measured contractile function of permeabilized myocytes, collagen content of tissue samples, and the expression of mRNA and selected proteins in RV tissue samples from patients with rToF undergoing PVR for severe pulmonary valve regurgitation. The data were compared with nondiseased RV tissue from unused donor hearts. Contractile performance and passive stiffness of the myofilaments in permeabilized myocytes were similar in rToF-PVR and RV donor samples, as was collagen content and cross-linking. The patients with rToF undergoing PVR had enhanced mRNA expression of genes associated with connective tissue diseases and tissue remodeling, including the small leucine-rich proteoglycans ASPN (asporin), LUM (lumican), and OGN (osteoglycin), although their protein levels were not significantly increased. Conclusions RV myofilaments from patients with rToF undergoing PVR showed no functional impairment, but the changes in extracellular matrix gene expression may indicate the early stages of remodeling. Our study found no evidence of major damage at the cellular and tissue levels in the RV of patients with rToF who underwent PVR according to current clinical criteria.

4.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1820-1834, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683451

RESUMO

In western countries, cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in the ageing population. Recent epidemiological data suggest that cancer is more frequent in patients with prevalent or incident CV disease, in particular, heart failure (HF). Indeed, there is a tight link in terms of shared risk factors and mechanisms between HF and cancer. HF induced by anticancer therapies has been extensively studied, primarily focusing on the toxic effects that anti-tumour treatments exert on cardiomyocytes. In this Cardio-Oncology update, members of the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart discuss novel evidence interconnecting cardiac dysfunction and cancer via pathways in which cardiomyocytes may be involved but are not central. In particular, the multiple roles of cardiac stromal cells (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells are highlighted. Also, the gut microbiota is depicted as a new player at the crossroads between HF and cancer. Finally, the role of non-coding RNAs in Cardio-Oncology is also addressed. All these insights are expected to fuel additional research efforts in the field of Cardio-Oncology.

5.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature birth entails an adverse cardiovascular risk profile, but the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Here, we employed an unbiased cardiovascular proteomics approach to profile former very preterm-born preschoolers. METHODS: This observational study investigated differences in plasma concentrations of 79 proteins, including putative cardiovascular biomarkers between very preterm- and term-born children on average 5.5 years old (53.1% male) using multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Very preterm-born (n = 38; median gestational age 29.6 weeks) compared to term-born (n = 26; 40.2 weeks) children featured lower plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 (PLF4; -61.6%, P < 0.0001), platelet basic protein (CXCL7; -57.8%, P < 0.0001), and hemoglobin subunit beta (-48.3%, P < 0.0001). Results remained virtually unchanged when adjusting for complete blood count parameters, including platelet count. Conversely, whole blood hemoglobin was higher (+7.62%, P < 0.0001) in preterm-born children. CONCLUSIONS: Very preterm birth was associated with decreased markers of platelet activation among preschoolers. These findings are consistent with reduced platelet reactivity persisting from very preterm birth to a preschool age. IMPACT: Former very preterm-born preschoolers featured reduced levels of platelet activation markers.While lower platelet reactivity in very preterm-born compared to term-born infants in the first days of life was established, it was unknown when, if at all, reactivity normalizes. The current study suggests that platelet hyporeactivity due to very preterm birth persists at least up to a preschool age."Immaturity of the hemostatic system" may be a persistent sequel of preterm birth, but larger studies are needed to investigate its potential clinical implications.

6.
Atherosclerosis ; 307: 87-96, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646580

RESUMO

The importance of platelets for cardiovascular disease was established as early as the 19th century. Their therapeutic inhibition stands alongside the biggest achievements in medicine. Still, certain aspects of platelet pathophysiology remain unclear. This includes platelet resistance to antiplatelet therapy and the contribution of platelets to vascular remodelling and extends beyond cardiovascular disease to haematological disorders and cancer. To address these gaps in our knowledge, a better understanding of the underlying molecular processes is needed. This will be enabled by technologies that capture dysregulated molecular processes and can integrate them into a broader network of biological systems. The advent of -omics technologies, such as mass spectrometry proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics; highly multiplexed affinity-based proteomics; microarray- or RNA-sequencing-(RNA-seq)-based transcriptomics, and most recently ribosome footprint-based translatomics, has enabled a more holistic understanding of platelet biology. Most of these methods have already been applied to platelets, and this review will summarise this information and discuss future developments in this area of research.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 295(36): 12605-12617, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647007

RESUMO

In the heart, the serine carboxypeptidase cathepsin A (CatA) is distributed between lysosomes and the extracellular matrix (ECM). CatA-mediated degradation of extracellular peptides may contribute to ECM remodeling and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of CatA overexpression on LV remodeling. A proteomic analysis of the secretome of adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts upon digestion by CatA identified the extracellular antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) as a novel substrate of CatA, which decreased EC-SOD abundance 5-fold. In vitro, both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts expressed and secreted CatA protein, and only cardiac fibroblasts expressed and secreted EC-SOD protein. Cardiomyocyte-specific CatA overexpression and increased CatA activity in the LV of transgenic mice (CatA-TG) reduced EC-SOD protein levels by 43%. Loss of EC-SOD-mediated antioxidative activity resulted in significant accumulation of superoxide radicals (WT, 4.54 µmol/mg tissue/min; CatA-TG, 8.62 µmol/mg tissue/min), increased inflammation, myocyte hypertrophy (WT, 19.8 µm; CatA-TG, 21.9 µm), cellular apoptosis, and elevated mRNA expression of hypertrophy-related and profibrotic marker genes, without affecting intracellular detoxifying proteins. In CatA-TG mice, LV interstitial fibrosis formation was enhanced by 19%, and the type I/type III collagen ratio was shifted toward higher abundance of collagen I fibers. Cardiac remodeling in CatA-TG was accompanied by an increased LV weight/body weight ratio and LV end diastolic volume (WT, 50.8 µl; CatA-TG, 61.9 µl). In conclusion, CatA-mediated EC-SOD reduction in the heart contributes to increased oxidative stress, myocyte hypertrophy, ECM remodeling, and inflammation, implicating CatA as a potential therapeutic target to prevent ventricular remodeling.

8.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(6): 583-596, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470385

RESUMO

The development of more sensitive protein biomarker assays results in continuous improvements in detectability, extending the range of clinical applications to the detection of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, these efforts have not yet led to improvements in risk assessment compared with existing risk scores. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been assessed as biomarkers, and miRNAs have attracted most attention. More recently, other ncRNA classes have been identified, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). Here, we compare emerging ncRNA biomarkers in the cardiovascular field with protein biomarkers for their potential in clinical application, focusing on myocardial injury.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(17): 2189-2203, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354385

RESUMO

Medium-sized and large arteries consist of 3 layers: the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. The tunica media accounts for the bulk of the vessel wall and is the chief determinant of mechanical compliance. It is primarily composed of circumferentially arranged layers of vascular smooth muscle cells that are separated by concentrically arranged elastic lamellae; a form of extracellular matrix (ECM). The tunica media is separated from the tunica intima and tunica adventitia, the innermost and outermost layers, respectively, by the internal and external elastic laminae. This second part of a 4-part JACC Focus Seminar discusses the contributions of the ECM to vascular homeostasis and pathology. Advances in genetics and proteomics approaches have fostered significant progress in our understanding of vascular ECM. This review highlights the important role of the ECM in vascular disease and the prospect of translating these discoveries into clinical disease biomarkers and potential future therapies.

10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365197

RESUMO

Echocardiography is a reliable and reproducible method to assess non-invasively cardiac function in clinical and experimental research. Significant progress in the development of echocardiographic equipment and transducers has led to the successful translation of this methodology from humans to rodents, allowing for the scoring of disease severity and progression, testing of new drugs, and monitoring cardiac function in genetically modified or pharmacologically treated animals. However, as yet, there is no standardization in the procedure to acquire echocardiographic measurements in small animals. This position paper focuses on the appropriate acquisition and analysis of echocardiographic parameters in adult mice and rats, and provides reference values, representative images and videos for the accurate and reproducible quantification of left ventricular function in healthy and pathological conditions.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423125

RESUMO

Given the high morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), novel biomarkers for platelet reactivity are urgently needed. Ischemic events in CVDs are causally linked to platelets, small anucleate cells important for hemostasis. The major side-effect of antiplatelet therapy are life-threatening bleeding events. Current platelet function tests are not sufficient in guiding treatment decisions. Platelets host a broad spectrum of microRNAs (miRNAs) and are a major source of cell-free miRNAs in the blood stream. Platelet-related miRNAs have been suggested as biomarkers of platelet activation and assessment of antiplatelet therapy responsiveness. Platelets release miRNAs upon activation, possibly leading to alterations of plasma miRNA levels in conjunction with CVD or inadequate platelet inhibition. Unlike current platelet function tests, which measure platelet activation ex vivo, signatures of platelet-related miRNAs potentially enable the assessment of in vivo platelet reactivity. Evidence suggests that some miRNAs are responsive to platelet inhibition, making them promising biomarker candidates. In this review, we explain the secretion of miRNAs upon platelet activation and discuss the potential use of platelet-related miRNAs as biomarkers for CVD and antiplatelet therapy monitoring, but also highlight remaining gaps in our knowledge and uncertainties regarding clinical utility. We also elaborate on technical issues and limitations concerning plasma miRNA quantification.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460515

RESUMO

Significance: Levels of platelet noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are altered by disease, and ncRNAs may exert functions inside and outside of platelets. Their role in physiologic hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis remains to be explored. Recent Advances: The number of RNA classes identified in platelets has been growing since the past decade. Apart from coding messenger RNAs, the RNA landscape in platelets comprises ncRNAs such as microRNAs, circular RNAs, long ncRNAs, YRNAs, and potentially environmentally derived exogenous ncRNAs. Recent research has focused on the function of platelet RNAs beyond platelets, mediated through protective RNA shuttles or even cellular uptake of entire platelets. Multiple studies have also explored the potential of platelet RNAs as novel biomarkers. Critical Issues: Platelet preparations can contain contaminating leukocytes. Even few leukocytes may contribute a substantial amount of RNA. As biomarkers, platelet RNAs have shown associations with platelet activation, but it remains to be seen whether their measurements could improve diagnostics. It also needs to be clarified whether platelet RNAs influence processes beyond platelets. Future Directions: Technological advances such as single-cell RNA-sequencing might help to identify hyperreactive platelet subpopulations on a single-platelet level, avoid the common problem of leukocyte contamination in platelet preparations, and allow simultaneous profiling of native megakaryocytes and their platelet progeny to clarify to what extent the platelet RNA content reflects their megakaryocyte precursors or changes in the circulation.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326325

RESUMO

There is evidence for the effects of platelet inhibition on innate immune activation. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated as markers of platelet and leukocyte activation. In the present study, we assessed the effects of P2Y12 inhibitors on platelet and leukocyte miRNAs during endotoxemia. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive oral ticagrelor (n = 10), clopidogrel (n = 8) or no drug (n = 8) for one week, followed by an intravenous bolus of 2 ng/kg endotoxin. Serum was collected at baseline, after one week of antiplatelet treatment and 6 and 24 h after endotoxin administration. MiRNAs were screened using LNA-based qPCR, followed by TaqMan-qPCR validation of candidates. Clinical validation was performed in 41 sepsis patients. Platelet-enriched miR-197, miR-223 and miR-223* were decreased in volunteers following antiplatelet therapy. Endotoxin increased platelet miRNAs, whilst the opposite effect was seen for leukocyte-enriched miR-150. Neither of these endotoxin-mediated effects were altered by P2Y12 inhibitors. Sepsis patients with fatal outcomes (n = 12) had reduced miR-150 levels compared with survivors (n = 29). In conclusion, we show that miR-150 is downregulated in experimental endotoxemia and can predict survival in sepsis but is unaffected by P2Y12 inhibition. While P2Y12 inhibition reduces platelet-associated miRNAs in healthy volunteers, it fails to attenuate the response of platelet miRNAs to endotoxemia.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128588

RESUMO

Providing therapies tailored to each patient is the vision of precision medicine, enabled by the increasing ability to capture extensive data about individual patients. In this position paper, we argue that the second enabling pillar towards this vision is the increasing power of computers and algorithms to learn, reason, and build the 'digital twin' of a patient. Computational models are boosting the capacity to draw diagnosis and prognosis, and future treatments will be tailored not only to current health status and data, but also to an accurate projection of the pathways to restore health by model predictions. The early steps of the digital twin in the area of cardiovascular medicine are reviewed in this article, together with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities ahead. We emphasize the synergies between mechanistic and statistical models in accelerating cardiovascular research and enabling the vision of precision medicine.

17.
Circulation ; 141(15): 1249-1265, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adult mammalian heart has limited regenerative capacity, mostly attributable to postnatal cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest. In the last 2 decades, numerous studies have explored cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulatory mechanisms to enhance myocardial regeneration after myocardial infarction. Pkm2 (Pyruvate kinase muscle isoenzyme 2) is an isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase. The role of Pkm2 in cardiomyocyte proliferation, heart development, and cardiac regeneration is unknown. METHODS: We investigated the effect of Pkm2 in cardiomyocytes through models of loss (cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 deletion during cardiac development) or gain using cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 modified mRNA to evaluate Pkm2 function and regenerative affects after acute or chronic myocardial infarction in mice. RESULTS: Here, we identify Pkm2 as an important regulator of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. We show that Pkm2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes during development and immediately after birth but not during adulthood. Loss of function studies show that cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 deletion during cardiac development resulted in significantly reduced cardiomyocyte cell cycle, cardiomyocyte numbers, and myocardial size. In addition, using cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 modified RNA, our novel cardiomyocyte-targeted strategy, after acute or chronic myocardial infarction, resulted in increased cardiomyocyte cell division, enhanced cardiac function, and improved long-term survival. We mechanistically show that Pkm2 regulates the cardiomyocyte cell cycle and reduces oxidative stress damage through anabolic pathways and ß-catenin. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Pkm2 is an important intrinsic regulator of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle and oxidative stress, and highlight its therapeutic potential using cardiomyocyte-specific Pkm2 modified RNA as a gene delivery platform.

18.
Heart ; 106(10): 738-745, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether apolipoprotein CIII-lipoprotein(a) complexes (ApoCIII-Lp(a)) associate with progression of calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS). METHODS: Immunostaining for ApoC-III was performed in explanted aortic valve leaflets in 68 patients with leaflet pathological grades of 1-4. Assays measuring circulating levels of ApoCIII-Lp(a) complexes were measured in 218 patients with mild-moderate AS from the AS Progression Observation: Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) trial. The progression rate of AS, measured as annualised changes in peak aortic jet velocity (Vpeak), and combined rates of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiac death were determined. For further confirmation of the assay data, a proteomic analysis of purified Lp(a) was performed to confirm the presence of apoC-III on Lp(a). RESULTS: Immunohistochemically detected ApoC-III was prominent in all grades of leaflet lesion severity. Significant interactions were present between ApoCIII-Lp(a) and Lp(a), oxidised phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) or on apolipoprotein (a) (OxPL-apo(a)) with annualised Vpeak (all p<0.05). After multivariable adjustment, patients in the top tertile of both apoCIII-Lp(a) and Lp(a) had significantly higher annualised Vpeak (p<0.001) and risk of AVR/cardiac death (p=0.03). Similar results were noted with OxPL-apoB and OxPL-apo(a). There was no association between autotaxin (ATX) on ApoB and ATX on Lp(a) with faster progression of AS. Proteomic analysis of purified Lp(a) showed that apoC-III was prominently present on Lp(a). CONCLUSION: ApoC-III is present on Lp(a) and in aortic valve leaflets. Elevated levels of ApoCIII-Lp(a) complexes in conjunction with Lp(a), OxPL-apoB or OxPL-apo(a) identify patients with pre-existing mild-moderate AS who display rapid progression of AS and higher rates of AVR/cardiac death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00800800.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 633, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005803

RESUMO

Despite proven efficacy of pharmacotherapies targeting primarily global neurohormonal dysregulation, heart failure (HF) is a growing pandemic with increasing burden. Treatments mechanistically focusing at the cardiomyocyte level are lacking. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are transcriptional regulators and essential drivers of disease progression. We previously demonstrated that miR-132 is both necessary and sufficient to drive the pathological cardiomyocytes growth, a hallmark of adverse cardiac remodelling. Therefore, miR-132 may serve as a target for HF therapy. Here we report further mechanistic insight of the mode of action and translational evidence for an optimized, synthetic locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor (antimiR-132). We reveal the compound's therapeutic efficacy in various models, including a clinically highly relevant pig model of HF. We demonstrate favourable pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, dose-dependent PK/PD relationships and high clinical potential for the antimiR-132 treatment scheme.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , MicroRNAs/genética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/genética , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacocinética , Suínos
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014333, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067586

RESUMO

Background Genome-wide association studies have shown an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17514846 on chromosome 15q26.1 and coronary artery disease susceptibility. The underlying biological mechanism is, however, not fully understood. rs17514846 is located in the FES Upstream Region (FURIN) gene, which is expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). We investigated whether rs17514846 has an influence on FURIN expression in ECs and whether FURIN affects EC behavior. Methods and Results Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that cultured vascular ECs from individuals carrying the coronary artery disease risk allele of rs17514846 had higher FURIN expression than cells from noncarriers. In support, luciferase reporter analyses in ECs indicated that the risk allele had higher transcriptional activity than the nonrisk allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using EC nuclear protein extracts detected a DNA-protein complex with allele-specific differential binding of a nuclear protein. Knockdown of FURIN in ECs reduced endothelin-1 secretion, nuclear factor-κB activity, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and MCP1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) expression and monocyte-endothelial adhesion and transmigration. A population-based study showed an association of the rs17514846 risk allele with higher circulating MCP1 levels and greater carotid intima-media thickness. Conclusions The coronary artery disease risk variant at the 15q26.1 locus modulates FURIN expression in vascular ECs. FURIN levels in ECs affect monocyte-endothelial adhesion and migration.

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