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1.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e10018, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468715

RESUMO

Pathological cardiac overload induces myocardial protein synthesis and hypertrophy, which predisposes to heart failure. To inhibit hypertrophy therapeutically, the identification of negative regulators of cardiomyocyte protein synthesis is needed. Here, we identified the tumor suppressor protein TIP30 as novel inhibitor of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Reduced TIP30 levels in mice entailed exaggerated cardiac growth during experimental pressure overload, which was associated with cardiomyocyte cellular hypertrophy, increased myocardial protein synthesis, reduced capillary density, and left ventricular dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis improved these defects. Our results are relevant for human disease, since we found diminished cardiac TIP30 levels in samples from patients suffering from end-stage heart failure or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, therapeutic overexpression of TIP30 in mouse hearts inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and improved left ventricular function during pressure overload and in cardiomyopathic mdx mice. Mechanistically, we identified a previously unknown anti-hypertrophic mechanism, whereby TIP30 binds the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) to prevent the interaction with its essential co-factor eEF1B2 and translational elongation. Therefore, TIP30 could be a therapeutic target to counteract cardiac hypertrophy.

2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424497

RESUMO

AIMS: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a poorly understood disease that predominantly affects women during middle-life, with features that include stenosis, aneurysm and dissection of medium-large arteries. Recently, plasma proteomics has emerged as an important means to understand cardiovascular diseases. Our objectives were: (1) To characterize plasma proteins and determine if any exhibit differential abundance in FMD subjects versus matched healthy controls; (2) To leverage these protein data to conduct systems analyses to provide biologic insights on FMD, and explore if this could be developed into a blood-based FMD test. METHODS AND RESULTS: Females with 'multifocal' FMD and matched healthy controls underwent clinical phenotyping, dermal biopsy and blood draw. Using dual-capture proximity-extension-assay and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectroscopy, we evaluated plasma levels of 981 proteins and 31 lipid sub-classes, respectively. In a discovery cohort (Ncases=90, Ncontrols=100), we identified 105 proteins and 16 lipid sub-classes (predominantly triglycerides and fatty acids) with differential plasma abundance in FMD cases versus controls. In an independent cohort (Ncases=23, Ncontrols=28), we successfully validated 37 plasma proteins and 10 lipid sub-classes with differential abundance. Among these, 5/37 proteins exhibited genetic control and Bayesian analyses identified 3 of these as potential upstream drivers of FMD. In a third cohort (Ncases=506, Ncontrols=876) the genetic locus of one of these upstream disease drivers, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), was independently validated as being associated with risk of having FMD (OR = 1.36; P = 0.0003). Immune-fluorescence staining identified that CD2AP is expressed by the endothelium of medium-large arteries. Finally, machine learning trained on the discovery cohort was used to develop a test for FMD. When independently applied to the validation cohort, the test showed a c-statistic of 0.73 and sensitivity of 78.3%. CONCLUSIONS: FMD exhibits a plasma proteogenomic and lipid signature that includes potential causative disease drivers, and which holds promise for developing a blood-based test for this disease. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a poorly understood disease with no specific therapies, which can cause stenosis, aneurysm and dissection of medium-large arteries. At present, FMD is usually diagnosed by imaging studies, and screening for this disease can be challenging. We performed a 'reverse-translational' clinical study leveraging plasma and DNA samples from FMD patients and healthy matched controls to better understand this disease. We found that FMD patients exhibit a plasma proteogenomic signature that includes promising disease candidates. While further development will be required, our proof-of-concept analyses suggest that it may also be possible to develop a blood-based test for FMD.

3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(9): 1859-1873, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is caused by mutations in FBN1 (fibrillin-1), an extracellular matrix (ECM) component, which is modified post-translationally by glycosylation. This study aimed to characterize the glycoproteome of the aortic ECM from patients with MFS and relate it to aortopathy. Approach and Results: ECM extracts of aneurysmal ascending aortic tissue from patients with and without MFS were enriched for glycopeptides. Direct N-glycopeptide analysis by mass spectrometry identified 141 glycoforms from 47 glycosites within 35 glycoproteins in the human aortic ECM. Notably, MFAP4 (microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4) showed increased and more diverse N-glycosylation in patients with MFS compared with control patients. MFAP4 mRNA levels were markedly higher in MFS aortic tissue. MFAP4 protein levels were also increased at the predilection (convexity) site for ascending aorta aneurysm in bicuspid aortic valve patients, preceding aortic dilatation. In human aortic smooth muscle cells, MFAP4 mRNA expression was induced by TGF (transforming growth factor)-ß1 whereas siRNA knockdown of MFAP4 decreased FBN1 but increased elastin expression. These ECM changes were accompanied by differential gene expression and protein abundance of proteases from ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family and their proteoglycan substrates, respectively. Finally, high plasma MFAP4 concentrations in patients with MFS were associated with a lower thoracic descending aorta distensibility and greater incidence of type B aortic dissection during 68 months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our glycoproteomics analysis revealed that MFAP4 glycosylation is enhanced, as well as its expression during the advanced, aneurysmal stages of MFS compared with control aneurysms from patients without MFS.

4.
Circ Res ; 125(3): 328-340, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159652

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are proposed novel biomarkers of myocardial injury. Their release kinetics have not been explored without confounding by heparin nor has their relationship to myocardial protein biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To compare ncRNA types in heparinase-treated samples with established and emerging protein biomarkers for myocardial injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 158 circRNAs and 21 lncRNAs in human cardiac tissue identified 12 circRNAs and 11 lncRNAs as potential biomarkers with cardiac origin. Eleven miRNAs were included. At low spike-in concentrations of myocardial tissue, significantly higher regression coefficients were observed across ncRNA types compared with cardiac troponins and cMyBP-C (cardiac myosin-binding protein C). Heparinase treatment of serial plasma and serum samples of patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy removed spurious correlations between miRNAs in non-heparinase-treated samples. After transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy, muscle-enriched miRNAs (miR-1 and miR-133a) showed a steeper and earlier increase than cardiac-enriched miRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b). Putative cardiac lncRNAs, including LIPCAR (long intergenic noncoding RNA predicting cardiac remodeling and survival), did not rise, refuting a predominant cardiac origin. Cardiac circRNAs remained largely undetectable. In a validation cohort of acute myocardial infarction, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed noninferiority of cardiac-enriched miRNAs, but miRNAs failed to identify cases presenting with low troponin values. cMyBP-C was validated as a biomarker with highly sensitive properties, and the combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T and cMyBP-C returned the highest area under the curve values. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative assessment of ncRNAs and protein biomarkers for myocardial injury, cMyBP-C showed properties as the most sensitive cardiac biomarker while miRNAs emerged as promising candidates to integrate ncRNAs with protein biomarkers. Sensitivity of current miRNA detection is inferior to cardiac proteins but a multibiomarker combination of muscle-enriched miRNAs with cMyBP-C and cardiac troponins could open a new path of integrating complementary characteristics of different biomarker types.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(8): e011199, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968745

RESUMO

Background Little is known about plasma apolipoprotein profiles in very preterm-born and term-born preschool children compared with the adult population. This is of particular interest because apolipoprotein composition might contribute to cardiometabolic outcome in later life. Methods and Results Children aged 5 to 7 years born at term or with <32 weeks of gestation were included. Apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in plasma collected after an overnight fast using multiple-reaction monitoring-based mass spectrometry. Twelve apolipoproteins were measured in 26 former term and 38 former very preterm infants. Key findings were confirmed by assessing apolipoprotein levels using antibody-based assays. Comparing children born term and preterm, apolipoprotein A-I, A- IV , C- II , and C- III were significantly higher in the latter group. Term-born children showed plasma levels of apolipoprotein C- II and C- III quantitatively similar to the adult range (Bruneck study). Hierarchical clustering analyses suggested that a higher proportion of apolipoprotein C- III and C- II reside on high-density lipoprotein particles in children than in adults given the marked correlations of apolipoprotein C- III and C- II with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I in children but not adults. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were similar in children and adults but the pattern of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-associated apolipoproteins was different (lower apolipoprotein A-I and C-I but higher A- II , A- IV , and M). Conclusions Our study defines apolipoprotein profiles in preschoolers and reports potential effects of prematurity. Further large-scale studies are required to provide evidence whether this apolipoprotein signature of prematurity, including high apolipoprotein C- II and C- III levels, might translate into adverse cardiometabolic outcome in later life.

6.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 56(3): 458-469, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the intracellular proteome of ascending aortas from patients with stenotic bicuspid (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) to identify BAV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms of aortopathy and to verify the previously reported asymmetric expression of BAV aortopathy [concentrated at the convexity (CVX)] in its 'ascending phenotype' form. METHODS: Samples were collected from the CVX and concavity sides of non-aneurysmal ascending aortas in 26 TAV and 26 BAV patients undergoing stenotic aortic valve replacement. Aortic lysates were subjected to cellular protein enrichment by subfractionation, and to proteome comparison by 2-dimensional fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis. Differentially regulated protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and analysed in silico. Selected results were verified by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In BAV samples, 52 protein spots were differentially regulated versus TAV samples at the CVX and 10 spots at the concavity: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 35 and 10 differentially regulated proteins, respectively. Charge trains of individual proteins (e.g. annexins) suggested the presence of post-translational modifications possibly modulating their activity. At the CVX, 37 of the 52 different protein spots showed decreased expression in BAV versus TAV. The affected biological pathways included those involved in smooth muscle cell contractile phenotype, metabolism and cell stress. CONCLUSIONS: The observed differential proteomics profiles may have a significant impact on the pathogenesis of the aortopathy, pointing the way for further studies. At a preaneurysmal stage, an aorta with BAV shows more protein expression changes and potentially more post-translational modifications at the CVX of the ascending aorta than at the concavity, compared to that of TAV.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

8.
10.
Circ Res ; 123(12): 1279-1281, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566059
11.
JCI Insight ; 3(21)2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385722

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a major contributor to organ disease for which no specific therapy is available. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been implicated in the fibrogenetic response, and inhibitors of miR-21 are currently undergoing clinical trials. Here, we explore how miR-21 inhibition may attenuate fibrosis using a proteomics approach. Transfection of miR-21 mimic or inhibitor in murine cardiac fibroblasts revealed limited effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) protein secretion. Similarly, miR-21-null mouse hearts showed an unaltered ECM composition. Thus, we searched for additional explanations as to how miR-21 might regulate fibrosis. In plasma samples from the community-based Bruneck Study, we found a marked correlation of miR-21 levels with several platelet-derived profibrotic factors, including TGF-ß1. Pharmacological miR-21 inhibition with an antagomiR reduced the platelet release of TGF-ß1 in mice. Mechanistically, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, a negative regulator of platelet TGF-ß1 secretion, was identified as a direct target of miR-21. miR-21-null mice had lower platelet and leukocyte counts compared with littermate controls but higher megakaryocyte numbers in the bone marrow. Thus, to our knowledge this study reports a previously unrecognized effect of miR-21 inhibition on platelets. The effect of antagomiR-21 treatment on platelet TGF-ß1 release, in particular, may contribute to the antifibrotic effects of miR-21 inhibitors.

12.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000899, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364565

RESUMO

Aims: Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is effective treatment for selected patients with heart failure (HF) but has ~30% non-response rate. We evaluated whether specific biomarkers can predict outcome. Methods: A prospective single-centre pilot study of consecutive unselected patients undergoing CRT for HF between November 2013 and December 2015 evaluating cardiac extracellular matrix biomarkers and micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) expression before and after CRT assessing ability to predict functional response and survival. Each underwent three assessments (pre-implant, 6 weeks and 6 months postimplant) including: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, echocardiography, electrocardiography, 6 min walk test (6MWT), Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP). Plasma markers of cardiac fibrosis assessed were: N-terminal pro-peptides of collagen I and III, collagen I C-terminal telopeptides (CTx) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) as well as a panel of miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-30d, miRNA-122, miRNA-133a, miRNA-210 and miRNA-486). Results: A total of 52 patients were recruited; mean age (±SD) was 72.4±9.4 years; male=43 (82.7%), ischaemic aetiology=30 (57.7%), mean QRS duration=166.4±23.5 ms, left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology = 39 (75.0%), mean NYHA=2.7±0.6, 6MWT=238.8±130.6 m, MLHFQ=46.4±21.3 and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)=24.3%±8.0%. Mean follow-up=1.7±0.3 and 5.8±0.7 months. There were 27 (55.1%) functional responders (3 no definable 6-month response; 2 missed assessments and 1 long-term lead displacement). No marker predicted response, however, CTx and LBBB trended most towards predicting functional response. Conclusion: No specific biomarkers reached significance for predicting functional response to CRT. CTx showed a trend towards predicting response and warrants further study. Trial registration number: NCT02541773.

13.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 3(3): 363-365, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062223
14.
RNA ; 24(8): 1005-1017, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871895

RESUMO

MicroRNA regulation of key biological and developmental pathways is a rapidly expanding area of research, accompanied by vast amounts of experimental data. This data, however, is not widely available in bioinformatic resources, making it difficult for researchers to find and analyze microRNA-related experimental data and define further research projects. We are addressing this problem by providing two new bioinformatics data sets that contain experimentally verified functional information for mammalian microRNAs involved in cardiovascular-relevant, and other, processes. To date, our resource provides over 4400 Gene Ontology annotations associated with over 500 microRNAs from human, mouse, and rat and over 2400 experimentally validated microRNA:target interactions. We illustrate how this resource can be used to create microRNA-focused interaction networks with a biological context using the known biological role of microRNAs and the mRNAs they regulate, enabling discovery of associations between gene products, biological pathways and, ultimately, diseases. This data will be crucial in advancing the field of microRNA bioinformatics and will establish consistent data sets for reproducible functional analysis of microRNAs across all biological research areas.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(10): 1273-1280, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912308

RESUMO

Disturbed metabolism as a consequence of obesity and diabetes may cause cardiac diseases (recently highlighted in the cardiovascular research spotlight issue on metabolic cardiomyopathies).1 In turn, the metabolism of the heart may also be disturbed in genetic and acquired forms of hypertrophic cardiac disease. Herein, we provide an overview of recent insights on metabolic changes in genetic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and discuss several therapies, which may be explored to target disturbed metabolism and prevent onset of cardiac hypertrophy.This article is part of the Mini Review Series from the Varenna 2017 meeting of the Working Group of Myocardial Function of the European Society of Cardiology.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(2): 371-380, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955838

RESUMO

Background: Spermidine administration is linked to increased survival in several animal models. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the potential association between spermidine content in diet and mortality in humans. Design: This prospective community-based cohort study included 829 participants aged 45-84 y, 49.9% of whom were male. Diet was assessed by repeated dietitian-administered validated food-frequency questionnaires (2540 assessments) in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. During follow-up between 1995 and 2015, 341 deaths occurred. Results: All-cause mortality (deaths per 1000 person-years) decreased across thirds of increasing spermidine intake from 40.5 (95% CI: 36.1, 44.7) to 23.7 (95% CI: 20.0, 27.0) and 15.1 (95% CI: 12.6, 17.8), corresponding to an age-, sex- and caloric intake-adjusted 20-y cumulative mortality incidence of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.51), 0.41 (95% CI: 0.38, 0.45), and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.41), respectively. The age-, sex- and caloric ratio-adjusted HR for all-cause death per 1-SD higher spermidine intake was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.83; P < 0.001). Further adjustment for lifestyle factors, established predictors of mortality, and other dietary features yielded an HR of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.86; P < 0.001). The association was consistent in subgroups, robust against unmeasured confounding, and independently validated in the Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention Program in Subjects at High Individual Risk (SAPHIR) Study (age-, sex-, and caloric ratio-adjusted HR per 1-SD higher spermidine intake: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.95; P = 0.019). The difference in mortality risk between the top and bottom third of spermidine intakes was similar to that associated with a 5.7-y (95% CI: 3.6, 8.1 y) younger age. Conclusion: Our findings lend epidemiologic support to the concept that nutrition rich in spermidine is linked to increased survival in humans. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03378843.

18.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(10): 1281-1286, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800267

RESUMO

Non-coding RNAs are increasingly recognized not only as regulators of various biological functions but also as targets for a new generation of RNA therapeutics and biomarkers. We hereby review recent insights relating to non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (e.g. miR-126, miR-146a), long non-coding RNAs (e.g. MIR503HG, GATA6-AS, SMILR), and circular RNAs (e.g. cZNF292) and their role in vascular diseases. This includes identification and therapeutic use of hypoxia-regulated non-coding RNAs and endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate intrinsic smooth muscle cell signalling, age-related non-coding RNAs, and non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of mitochondrial biology and metabolic control. Finally, we discuss non-coding RNA species with biomarker potential.This article is part of the Mini Review Series from the Varenna 2017 meeting of the Working Group of Myocardial Function of the European Society of Cardiology.

19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(7): 1537-1548, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), a degenerative disease of the aortic wall, is accompanied by changes in the structure and composition of the aortic ECM (extracellular matrix). The ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family of proteases has recently been implicated in TAA formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of ADAMTS-5 to TAA development. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A model of aortic dilatation by AngII (angiotensin II) infusion was adopted in mice lacking the catalytic domain of ADAMTS-5 (Adamts5Δcat). Adamts5Δcat mice showed an attenuated rise in blood pressure while displaying increased dilatation of the ascending aorta (AsAo). Interestingly, a proteomic comparison of the aortic ECM from AngII-treated wild-type and Adamts5Δcat mice revealed versican as the most upregulated ECM protein in Adamts5Δcat mice. This was accompanied by a marked reduction of ADAMTS-specific versican cleavage products (versikine) and a decrease of LRP1 (low-density lipoprotein-related protein 1). Silencing LRP1 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells reduced the expression of ADAMTS5, attenuated the generation of versikine, but increased soluble ADAMTS-1. A similar increase in ADAMTS-1 was observed in aortas of AngII-treated Adamts5Δcat mice but was not sufficient to maintain versican processing and prevent aortic dilatation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the emerging role of ADAMTS proteases in TAA. ADAMTS-5 rather than ADAMTS-1 is the key protease for versican regulation in murine aortas. Further studies are needed to define the ECM substrates of the different ADAMTS proteases and their contribution to TAA formation.

20.
Mol Ther ; 26(4): 938-940, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571964
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