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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with HIV (PWH) have subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) despite low traditional atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk scores. Coronary plaque in PWH presents as a unique phenotype, but little is known about the contributions of specific inflammatory pathways to plaque phenotypes in PWH. METHODS: The REPRIEVE Mechanistic Substudy enrolled PWH on ART without known cardiovascular disease. We used a targeted discovery proteomics approach to evaluate 246 unique proteins representing cardiovascular, inflammatory and immune pathways. Proteomic signatures were determined for presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC > 0) and presence of coronary plaque. RESULTS: Data were available for 662 participants [51 ± 6 years, ASCVD risk score 4.9%±3.1%]. Among 12 proteins associated with both CAC and presence of coronary plaque, independent of ASCVD risk score, the ORs were highest for NRP1 [5.1(95% CI 2.3-11.4) for CAC and 2.9(95% CI 1.4-6.1) for presence of plaque]. Proteins uniquely related to presence of plaque were CST3, LTBR, MEPE, PLC, SERPINA5, and TNFSF13B; in contrast, DCN, IL-6RA, OSMR, ST2 and VCAM1 were only related to CAC. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct immune and inflammatory pathways are differentially associated with subclinical CAD phenotypes among PWH. This comprehensive set of targets should be further investigated to reduce atherosclerosis and ASCVD in PWH.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pretest probability (PTP) calculators utilize epidemiological-level findings to provide patient-level risk assessment of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, their limited accuracies question whether dissimilarities in risk factors necessarily result in differences in CAD. Using patient similarity network (PSN) analyses, we wished to assess the accuracy of risk factors and imaging markers to identify ≥50% luminal narrowing on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in stable chest-pain patients. METHODS: We created four PSNs representing: patient characteristics, risk factors, non-coronary imaging markers and calcium score. We used spectral clustering to group individuals with similar risk profiles. We compared PSNs to a contemporary PTP score incorporating calcium score and risk factors to identify ≥50% luminal narrowing on CCTA in the CT-arm of the PROMISE trial. We also conducted subanalyses in different age and sex groups. RESULTS: In 3556 individuals, the calcium score PSN significantly outperformed patient characteristic, risk factor, and non-coronary imaging marker PSNs (AUC: 0.81 vs. 0.57, 0.55, 0.54; respectively, p â€‹< â€‹0.001 for all). The calcium score PSN significantly outperformed the contemporary PTP score (AUC: 0.81 vs. 0.78, p â€‹< â€‹0.001), and using 0, 1-100 and â€‹> â€‹100 cut-offs provided comparable results (AUC: 0.81 vs. 0.81, p â€‹= â€‹0.06). Similar results were found in all subanalyses. CONCLUSION: Calcium score on its own provides better individualized obstructive CAD prediction than contemporary PTP scores incorporating calcium score and risk factors. Risk factors may not be able to improve the diagnostic accuracy of calcium score to predict ≥50% luminal narrowing on CCTA.

3.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) between academic and non-academic sites across Europe over the last decade. METHODS: We analyzed a large multicenter registry (ESCR MR/CT Registry) of stable symptomatic patients who received CCTA 01/2010-01/2020 at 47 (22%) academic and 165 (78%) non-academic sites across 19 European countries. We compared image quality, radiation dose, contrast-media-related adverse events, patient characteristics, CCTA findings, and downstream testing between academic and non-academic sites. RESULTS: Among 64,317 included patients (41% female; 60 ± 13 years), academic sites accounted for most cases in 2010-2014 (52%), while non-academic sites dominated in 2015-2020 (71%). Despite less contemporary technology, non-academic sites maintained low radiation doses (4.76 [2.46-6.85] mSv) with a 30% decline of high-dose scans ( > 7 mSv) over time. Academic and non-academic sites both reported diagnostic image quality in 98% of cases and low rate of scan-related adverse events (0.4%). Academic and non-academic sites examined similar patient populations (41% females both; age: 61 ± 14 vs. 60 ± 12 years; pretest probability for obstructive CAD: low 21% vs. 23%, intermediate 73% vs. 72%, high 6% both, CAD prevalence on CCTA: 40% vs. 41%). Nevertheless, non-academic sites referred more patients to non-invasive ischemia testing (6.5% vs. 4.2%) and invasive coronary angiography/surgery (8.5% vs. 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-academic and academic sites provide safe, high-quality CCTA across Europe, essential to successfully implement the recently updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes. However, despite examining similar populations with comparable CAD prevalence, non-academic sites tend to refer more patients to downstream testing. KEY POINTS: • Smaller non-academic providers increasingly use CCTA to rule out obstructive coronary artery disease. • Non-academic and academic sites provide comparably safe, high-quality CCTA across Europe. • Compared to academic sites, non-academic sites tend to refer more patients to downstream testing.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(3): 259-267, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935857

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Race and ethnicity have been studied as risk factors in cardiovascular disease. How risk factors, epicardial coronary artery disease, and cardiac events differ between Black and White individuals undergoing noninvasive testing for coronary artery disease is not known. OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in cardiovascular risk burden, coronary plaque, and major adverse cardiac events between Black and White individuals assigned to receive coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) or functional testing for stable chest pain. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nested observational cohort study within the PROMISE trial was conducted at 193 outpatient sites in North America. A total of 1071 non-Hispanic Black (hereafter Black) and 7693 non-Hispanic White (hereafter White) participants with stable chest pain undergoing noninvasive cardiovascular testing were included. This analysis was conducted from February 13, 2015, to November 2, 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina over a median follow-up of 24.4 months. RESULTS: Among 1071 Black individuals (12.2%) (women, 646 [60.3%]; mean [SD] age, 59 [8] years) and 7693 White individuals (87.8%) (women, 4029 [52.4%]; mean [SD] age, 61.1 [8.4] years), Black participants had a higher cardiovascular risk burden (more hypertension and diabetes), yet there was a similarly low major adverse cardiovascular events rate over a median 2-year follow-up (32 [3.0%] vs 243 [3.2%]; P = .84). Sensitivity analyses restricted to the 79.8% (6993 of 8764) individuals with a normal or mildly abnormal noninvasive testing result and the 54.3% (4559 of 8396) not receiving statin therapy yielded similar findings. In comparison of Black and White individuals in the CCTA group (n = 3323), significant coronary stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 7.21; 95% CI, 1.94-26.76 vs HR, 4.30; 95% CI, 2.62-7.04) and high-risk plaque (HR, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.00-12.06 vs HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.37-3.57) were associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in both Black and White patients. However, with respect to epicardial coronary artery disease burden, Black individuals had a less-prevalent coronary artery calcium score greater than 0 (45.1% vs 63.2%; P < .001), coronary stenosis greater than or equal to 50% (32 [8.7%] vs 430 [14.6%]; P = .001), and high-risk plaque (139 [37.6%] vs 1547 [52.4%]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this study suggest that, despite a greater cardiovascular risk burden in Black persons, rates of coronary artery calcium, stenosis, and high-risk plaque observed via CCTA were lower in Black persons than White persons. This result suggests differences in cardiovascular risk burden and coronary plaque in Black and White individuals with stable chest pain.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Placa Aterosclerótica , Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19586, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599265

RESUMO

Deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) can predict mortality from chest radiographs, yet, it is unknown whether radiologists can perform the same task. Here, we investigate whether radiologists can visually assess image gestalt (defined as deviation from an unremarkable chest radiograph associated with the likelihood of 6-year mortality) of a chest radiograph to predict 6-year mortality. The assessment was validated in an independent testing dataset and compared to the performance of a CNN developed for mortality prediction. Results are reported for the testing dataset only (n = 100; age 62.5 ± 5.2; male 55%, event rate 50%). The probability of 6-year mortality based on image gestalt had high accuracy (AUC: 0.68 (95% CI 0.58-0.78), similar to that of the CNN (AUC: 0.67 (95% CI 0.57-0.77); p = 0.90). Patients with high/very high image gestalt ratings were significantly more likely to die when compared to those rated as very low (p ≤ 0.04). Assignment to risk categories was not explained by patient characteristics or traditional risk factors and imaging findings (p ≥ 0.2). In conclusion, assessing image gestalt on chest radiographs by radiologists renders high prognostic accuracy for the probability of mortality, similar to that of a specifically trained CNN. Further studies are warranted to confirm this concept and to determine potential clinical benefits.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Radiografia Torácica , Radiologistas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2114923, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185068

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased among people with HIV (PWH), but little is known regarding the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and associated biological factors in PWH with low to moderate traditional CVD risk. Objectives: To determine unique factors associated with CVD in PWH and to assess CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and critical pathways of arterial inflammation and immune activation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study among male and female PWH, aged 40 to 75 years, without known CVD, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy, and with low to moderate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equation, was part of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE), a large, ongoing primary prevention trial of statin therapy among PWH conducted at 31 US sites. Participants were enrolled from May 2015 to February 2018. Data analysis was conducted from May to December 2020. Exposure: HIV disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the prevalence and composition of CAD assessed by coronary CTA and, secondarily, the association of CAD with traditional risk indices and circulating biomarkers, including insulin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL) 6, soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Results: The sample included 755 participants, with a mean (SD) age of 51 (6) years, 124 (16%) female participants, 267 (35%) Black or African American participants, 182 (24%) Latinx participants, a low median (interquartile range) ASCVD risk (4.5% [2.6%-6.8%]), and well-controlled viremia. Overall, plaque was seen in 368 participants (49%), including among 52 of 175 participants (30%) with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk of less than 2.5%. Luminal obstruction of at least 50% was rare (25 [3%]), but vulnerable plaque and high Leaman score (ie, >5) were more frequently observed (172 of 755 [23%] and 118 of 743 [16%], respectively). Overall, 251 of 718 participants (35%) demonstrated coronary artery calcium score scores greater than 0. IL-6, LpPLA2, oxLDL, and MCP-1 levels were higher in those with plaque compared with those without (eg, median [IQR] IL-6 level, 1.71 [1.05-3.04] pg/mL vs 1.45 [0.96-2.60] pg/mL; P = .008). LpPLA2 and IL-6 levels were associated with plaque in adjusted modeling, independent of traditional risk indices and HIV parameters (eg, IL-6: adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of a large primary prevention cohort of individuals with well-controlled HIV and low to moderate ASCVD risk, CAD, including noncalcified, nonobstructive, and vulnerable plaque, was highly prevalent. Participants with plaque demonstrated higher levels of immune activation and arterial inflammation, independent of traditional ASCVD risk and HIV parameters.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(11): 2186-2195, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a risk prediction model for patients with nonobstructive CAD. BACKGROUND: Among stable chest pain patients, most cardiovascular (CV) events occur in those with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, developing tailored risk prediction approaches in this group of patients, including CV risk factors and CAD characteristics, is needed. METHODS: In PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) computed tomographic angiography patients, a core laboratory assessed prevalence of CAD (nonobstructive 1% to 49% left main or 1% to 69% stenosis any coronary artery), degree of stenosis (minimal: 1% to 29%; mild: 30% to 49%; or moderate: 50% to 69%), high-risk plaque (HRP) features (positive remodeling, low-attenuation plaque, and napkin-ring sign), segment involvement score (SIS), and coronary artery calcium (CAC). The primary end point was an adjudicated composite of unstable angina pectoris, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and death. Cox regression analysis determined independent predictors in nonobstructive CAD. RESULTS: Of 2,890 patients (age 61.7 years, 46% women) with any CAD, 90.4% (n = 2,614) had nonobstructive CAD (mean age 61.6 yrs, 46% women, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD] risk 16.2%). Composite events were independently predicted by ASCVD risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.03; p = 0.001), degree of stenosis (30% to 69%; HR: 1.91; p = 0.011), and presence of ≥2 HRP features (HR: 2.40; p = 0.008). Addition of ≥2 HRP features to: 1) ASCVD and CAC; 2) ASCVD and SIS; or 3) ASCVD and degree of stenosis resulted in a statistically significant improvement in model fit (p = 0.0036; p = 0.0176; and p = 0.0318; respectively). Patients with ASCVD ≥7.5%, any HRP, and mild/moderate stenosis had significantly higher event rates than those who did not meet those criteria (3.0% vs. 6.2%; p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced coronary plaque features have incremental value over total plaque burden for the discrimination of clinical events in low-risk stable chest pain patients with nonobstructive CAD. This may be a first step to improve prevention in this cohort with the highest absolute risk for CV events.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(12): 1487-1499, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have different analytic characteristics. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to quantify differences between assays for common analytical benchmarks and to determine whether they may result in differences in the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The authors included patients with suspected ACS enrolled in the ROMICAT (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography) I and II trials, with blood samples taken at emergency department presentation (ROMICAT-I and -II) or at 2 and 4 h thereafter (ROMICAT-II). hs-cTn concentrations were measured using 3 assays (Roche Diagnostics, Elecsys 2010 platform; Abbott Diagnostics, ARCHITECT i2000SR; Siemens Diagnostics, HsVista). Per blood sample, we determined concordance across analytic benchmarks (99th percentile). Per-patient, the authors determined concordance of management recommendations (rule-out/observe/rule-in) per the 0/2-h algorithm, and their association with diagnostic test findings (coronary artery stenosis >50% on coronary computed tomography angiography or inducible ischemia on perfusion imaging) and ACS. RESULTS: Among 1,027 samples from 624 patients (52.8 ± 10.0 years; 39.4% women), samples were classified as 99th percentile (7.2% vs. 6.0% vs. 6.2%) by Roche, Abbott, and Siemens, respectively. A total of 37.4% (n = 384 of 1,027) of blood samples were classified into the same analytical benchmark category, with low concordance across benchmarks (99th percentile 43.6%). Serial samples were available in 242 patients (40.1% women; mean age: 52.8 ± 8.0 years). The concordance of management recommendations across assays was 74.8% (n = 181 of 242) considering serial hs-cTn measurements. Of patients who were recommended to discharge, 19.6% to 21.1% had positive diagnostic test findings and 2.8% to 4.3% had ACS at presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers should be aware that there are significant differences between hs-cTn assays in stratifying individual samples and patients with intermediate likelihood of ACS according to analytical benchmarks that may result in different management recommendations. (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Computer Assisted Tomography [ROMICAT]; NCT00990262) (Multicenter Study to Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Computed Tomography [ROMICAT-II]; NCT01084239).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 1038-1045, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, whether distinct metabolic phenotypes differ in risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and MACE is unknown. We sought to determine the association of distinct metabolic phenotypes with CAD and MACE. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included patients from the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) who underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and metabolically healthy as less than or equal to one metabolic syndrome component except diabetes, distinguishing four metabolic phenotypes: metabolically healthy/unhealthy and nonobese/obese (MHN, MHO, MUN, and MUO). Differences in severe calcification (coronary artery calcification [CAC] ≥400), severe CAD (≥70% stenosis), high-risk plaque (HRP), and MACE were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Of 4,381 patients (48.4% male, 60.5 ± 8.1 years of age), 49.4% were metabolically healthy (30.7% MHN and 18.7% MHO) and 50.6% unhealthy (22.3% MUN and 28.4% MUO). MHO had similar coronary CT findings as compared with MHN (severe CAC/CAD and HRP; P > 0.36 for all). Among metabolically unhealthy patients, those with obesity had similar CT findings as compared with nonobese (P > 0.10 for all). However, both MUN and MUO had unfavorable CAD characteristics as compared with MHN (P ≤ 0.017 for all). A total of 130 events occurred during follow-up (median 26 months). Compared with MHN, MUN (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61 [95% CI 1.02-2.53]) but not MHO (HR 1.06 [0.62-1.82]) or MUO (HR 1.06 [0.66-1.72]) had higher risk for MACE. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable chest pain, four metabolic phenotypes exhibit distinctly different CAD characteristics and risk for MACE. Individuals who are metabolically unhealthy despite not being obese were at highest risk in our cohort.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Síndrome Metabólica , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur Radiol ; 31(8): 6200-6210, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The size of the heart may predict major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with stable chest pain. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of 3D whole heart volume (WHV) derived from non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Among participants randomized to the CT arm of the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE), we used deep learning to extract WHV, defined as the volume of the pericardial sac. We compared the WHV across categories of cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) characteristics and determined the association of WHV with MACE (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina; median follow-up: 26 months). RESULTS: In the 3798 included patients (60.5 ± 8.2 years; 51.5% women), the WHV was 351.9 ± 57.6 cm3/m2. We found smaller WHV in no- or non-obstructive CAD, women, people with diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and metabolic syndrome. Larger WHV was found in obstructive CAD, men, and increased atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score (p < 0.05). In a time-to-event analysis, small WHV was associated with over 4.4-fold risk of MACE (HR (per one standard deviation) = 0.221; 95% CI: 0.068-0.721; p = 0.012) independent of ASCVD risk score and CT-derived CAD characteristics. In patients with non-obstructive CAD, but not in those with no- or obstructive CAD, WHV increased the discriminatory capacity of ASCVD and CT-derived CAD characteristics significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Small WHV may represent a novel imaging marker of MACE in stable chest pain. In particular, WHV may improve risk stratification in patients with non-obstructive CAD, a cohort with an unmet need for better risk stratification. KEY POINTS: • Heart volume is easily assessable from non-contrast cardiac computed tomography. • Small heart volume may be an imaging marker of major adverse cardiac events independent and incremental to traditional cardiovascular risk factors and established CT measures of CAD. • Heart volume may improve cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with non-obstructive CAD.


Assuntos
Volume Cardíaco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 715, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514711

RESUMO

Coronary artery calcium is an accurate predictor of cardiovascular events. While it is visible on all computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, this information is not routinely quantified as it requires expertise, time, and specialized equipment. Here, we show a robust and time-efficient deep learning system to automatically quantify coronary calcium on routine cardiac-gated and non-gated CT. As we evaluate in 20,084 individuals from distinct asymptomatic (Framingham Heart Study, NLST) and stable and acute chest pain (PROMISE, ROMICAT-II) cohorts, the automated score is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of risk factors (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios up to 4.3), shows high correlation with manual quantification, and robust test-retest reliability. Our results demonstrate the clinical value of a deep learning system for the automated prediction of cardiovascular events. Implementation into clinical practice would address the unmet need of automating proven imaging biomarkers to guide management and improve population health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Cálcio/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(7): 1480-1488.e14, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic steatosis has been associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) but it is not clear whether steatosis is independently associated with risk of MACE. We investigated whether steatosis is associated with risk of MACE independently of the presence and extent of baseline coronary artery disease, assessed by comprehensive contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: We conducted a nested cohort study of 3756 subjects (mean age, 60.6 years; 48.4% men) who underwent coronary CTA at 193 sites in North America, from July 2010 through September 2013, as part of the PROMISE study, which included noninvasive cardiovascular analyses of symptomatic outpatients without coronary artery disease. Independent core laboratory readers measured hepatic and splenic attenuation, using non-contrast computed tomography images to identify steatosis, and evaluated coronary plaques and stenosis in coronary CTA images. We collected data on participants' cardiovascular risk factors, presence of metabolic syndrome, and body mass index. The primary endpoint was an adjudicated composite of MACE (death, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina) during a median follow-up time of 25 months. RESULTS: Among the 959 subjects who had steatosis (25.5% of the cohort), 42 had MACE (4.4%), whereas among the 2797 subjects without steatosis, 73 had MACE (2.6%) (hazard ratio [HR] for MACE in subjects with steatosis, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.16-2.48; P = .006 for MACE in subjects with vs without steatosis). This association remained after adjustment for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores, significant stenosis, and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.16-2.54; P = .007) or obesity (adjusted HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.59; P = .005). Steatosis remained independently associated with MACE after adjustment for all CTA measures of plaques and stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic steatosis is associated with MACE independently of other cardiovascular risk factors or extent of coronary artery disease. Strategies to reduce steatosis might reduce risk of MACE. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01174550.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028312, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315111

RESUMO

Importance: Both noninvasive anatomic and functional testing strategies are now routinely used as initial workup in patients with low-risk stable chest pain (SCP). Objective: To determine whether anatomic approaches (ie, coronary computed tomography angiography [CTA] and coronary CTA supplemented with noninvasive fractional flow reserve [FFRCT], performed in patients with 30% to 69% stenosis) are cost-effective compared with functional testing for the assessment of low-risk SCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness analysis used an individual-based Markov microsimulation model for low-risk SCP. The model was developed using patient data from the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial. The model was validated by comparing model outcomes with outcomes observed in the PROMISE trial for anatomic (coronary CTA) and functional (stress testing) strategies, including diagnostic test results, referral to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), coronary revascularization, incident major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), and costs during 60 days and 2 years. The validated model was used to determine whether anatomic approaches are cost-effective over a lifetime compared with functional testing. Exposure: Choice of index test for evaluation of low-risk SCP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Downstream ICA and coronary revascularization, MACE (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction), cost, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of competing strategies. Results: The model cohort included 10 003 individual patients (median [interquartile range] age, 60.0 [54.4-65.9] years; 5270 [52.7%] women; 7693 [77.4%] White individuals), who entered the model 100 times. The Markov model accurately estimated the test assignment, results of anatomic and functional index testing, referral to ICA, revascularization, MACE, and costs at 60 days and 2 years compared with observed data in PROMISE (eg, coronary CTA: ICA, 12.2% [95% CI, 10.9%-13.5%] vs 12.3% [95% CI, 12.2%-12.4%]; revascularization, 6.2% [95% CI, 5.5%-6.9%] vs 6.4% [95% CI, 6.3%-6.5%]; functional strategy: ICA, 8.1% [95% CI, 7.4%-8.9%] vs 8.2% [95% CI, 8.1%-8.3%]; revascularization, 3.2% [95% CI, 2.7%-3.7%] vs 3.3% [95% CI, 3.2%-3.4%]; 2-year MACE rates: coronary CTA, 2.1% [95% CI, 1.7%-2.5%] vs 2.3% [95% CI, 2.2%-2.4%]; functional strategy, 2.2% [95% CI, 1.8%-2.6%] vs 2.4% [95% CI, 2.3%-2.4%]). Anatomic approaches led to higher ICA and revascularization rates at 60 days, 2 years, and 5 years compared with functional testing but were more effective in patient selection for ICA (eg, 60-day revascularization-to-ICA ratio, CTA: 53.7% [95% CI, 53.3%-54.0%]; CTA with FFRCT: 59.5% [95% CI, 59.2%-59.8%]; functional testing: 40.7% [95% CI, 40.4%-50.0%]). Over a lifetime, anatomic approaches gained an additional 6 months in perfect health compared with functional testing (CTA, 25.16 [95% CI, 25.14-25.19] QALYs; CTA with FFRCT, 25.14 [95% CI, 25.12-25.17] QALYs; functional testing, 24.68 [95% CI, 24.66-24.70] QALYs). Anatomic strategies were less costly and more effective; thus, CTA with FFRCT dominated and CTA alone was cost-effective (ICERs ranged from $1912/QALY for women and $3,559/QALY for men) compared with functional testing. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, anatomic approaches were cost-effective in more than 65% of scenarios, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000/QALY. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that anatomic strategies may present a more favorable initial diagnostic option in the evaluation of low-risk SCP compared with functional testing.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/economia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Teste de Esforço/economia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/economia , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(21): 2421-2432, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in symptomatic patients referred for diagnostic testing has declined, warranting optimization of individualized diagnostic strategies. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to present a simple, clinically applicable tool enabling estimation of the likelihood of obstructive CAD by combining a pre-test probability (PTP) model (Diamond-Forrester approach using sex, age, and symptoms) with clinical risk factors and coronary artery calcium score (CACS). METHODS: The new tool was developed in a cohort of symptomatic patients (n = 41,177) referred for diagnostic testing. The risk factor-weighted clinical likelihood (RF-CL) was calculated through PTP and risk factors, while the CACS-weighted clinical likelihood (CACS-CL) added CACS. The 2 calculation models were validated in European and North American cohorts (n = 15,411) and compared with a recently updated PTP table. RESULTS: The RF-CL and CACS-CL models predicted the prevalence of obstructive CAD more accurately in the validation cohorts than the PTP model, and markedly increased the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of obstructive CAD: for the PTP model, 72 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 71 to 74); for the RF-CL model, 75 (95% CI: 74 to 76); and for the CACS-CL model, 85 (95% CI: 84 to 86). In total, 38% of the patients in the RF-CL group and 54% in the CACS-CL group were categorized as having a low clinical likelihood of CAD, as compared with 11% with the PTP model. CONCLUSIONS: A simple risk factor and CACS-CL tool enables improved prediction and discrimination of patients with suspected obstructive CAD. The tool empowers reclassification of patients to low likelihood of CAD, who need no further testing.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Circulation ; 142(24): 2299-2311, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treat an expanding range of cancers. Consistent basic data suggest that these same checkpoints are critical negative regulators of atherosclerosis. Therefore, our objectives were to test whether ICIs were associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a higher risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events. METHODS: The study was situated in a single academic medical center. The primary analysis evaluated whether exposure to an ICI was associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in 2842 patients and 2842 controls matched by age, a history of cardiovascular events, and cancer type. In a second design, a case-crossover analysis was performed with an at-risk period defined as the 2-year period after and the control period as the 2-year period before treatment. The primary outcome was a composite of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and ischemic stroke). Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. In addition, in an imaging substudy (n=40), the rate of atherosclerotic plaque progression was compared from before to after the ICI was started. All study measures and outcomes were blindly adjudicated. RESULTS: In the matched cohort study, there was a 3-fold higher risk for cardiovascular events after starting an ICI (hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.0-5.5]; P<0.001). There was a similar increase in each of the individual components of the primary outcome. In the case-crossover, there was also an increase in cardiovascular events from 1.37 to 6.55 per 100 person-years at 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.8 [95% CI, 3.5-6.5]; P<0.001). In the imaging study, the rate of progression of total aortic plaque volume was >3-fold higher with ICIs (from 2.1%/y before 6.7%/y after). This association between ICI use and increased atherosclerotic plaque progression was attenuated with concomitant use of statins or corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular events were higher after initiation of ICIs, potentially mediated by accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors and increased awareness of cardiovascular risk before, during, and after treatment should be considered among patients on an ICI.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Boston/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for preventive statin treatment in patients with stable chest pain may be difficult as symptoms can be unspecific. It is unclear if coronary CT angiography (CTA)-detected coronary artery disease (CAD) can optimize statin prescription. METHODS: In stable chest pain patients randomized to CTA in the PROMISE trial, statin eligibility was defined per 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines. Primary outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction or unstable angina over 26 months median follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) of non-obstructive (1-69% stenosis) and obstructive (≥70% stenosis) CAD for events were determined using Cox proportional hazard models. Calculated HR were then incorporated into the ACC/AHA pooled cohort equation (PCE) to revised ASCVD risk and assess re-classification of statin eligibility. RESULTS: Among 3986 patients (60.5 ± 8.2 years; 51% female), 72.9% (2904/3986) were statin eligible. Event rates in statin-eligible vs. ineligible patients were 3.3% vs. 2.3% (HR = 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.2), p = 0.142). Although the proportion of statin-eligible patients increased with CAD severity, 54% without CAD were statin eligible. Incorporating information on CAD into PCE reclassified 12.7% of patients (1.3% towards statin, 11.4% towards no statin). Similar results were found in stratified analysis of statin naïve patients (reclassification of 13.9%, 1.0% towards statin, and 12.9% towards no statin). As a result, revised ASCVD risk improved model discrimination in all patients (c-statistic: 0.59 (95 %CI 0.55-0.62) vs. 0.52 (95 %CI 0.49-0.56); p 0.001), while reducing statin use by 10.1% (62.7% vs. 72.9% statin eligible, p 0.001). CONCLUSION: In stable chest pain patients, integration of CAD into guideline recommendations was associated with greater accuracy to reclassify those at increased risk for incident events and a more efficient use of statins.

18.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(9): 704-713, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening with chest computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer death. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening with CT require detailed smoking information and miss many incident lung cancers. An automated deep-learning approach based on chest radiograph images may identify more smokers at high risk for lung cancer who could benefit from screening with CT. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a convolutional neural network (CXR-LC) that predicts long-term incident lung cancer using data commonly available in the electronic medical record (EMR) (chest radiograph, age, sex, and whether currently smoking). DESIGN: Risk prediction study. SETTING: U.S. lung cancer screening trials. PARTICIPANTS: The CXR-LC model was developed in the PLCO (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian) Cancer Screening Trial (n = 41 856). The final CXR-LC model was validated in additional PLCO smokers (n = 5615, 12-year follow-up) and NLST (National Lung Screening Trial) heavy smokers (n = 5493, 6-year follow-up). Results are reported for validation data sets only. MEASUREMENTS: Up to 12-year lung cancer incidence predicted by CXR-LC. RESULTS: The CXR-LC model had better discrimination (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC]) for incident lung cancer than CMS eligibility (PLCO AUC, 0.755 vs. 0.634; P < 0.001). The CXR-LC model's performance was similar to that of PLCOM2012, a state-of-the-art risk score with 11 inputs, in both the PLCO data set (CXR-LC AUC of 0.755 vs. PLCOM2012 AUC of 0.751) and the NLST data set (0.659 vs. 0.650). When compared in equal-sized screening populations, CXR-LC was more sensitive than CMS eligibility in the PLCO data set (74.9% vs. 63.8%; P = 0.012) and missed 30.7% fewer incident lung cancers. On decision curve analysis, CXR-LC had higher net benefit than CMS eligibility and similar benefit to PLCOM2012. LIMITATION: Validation in lung cancer screening trials and not a clinical setting. CONCLUSION: The CXR-LC model identified smokers at high risk for incident lung cancer, beyond CMS eligibility and using information commonly available in the EMR. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(1): e190119, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To extract radiomic features from coronary artery calcium (CAC) on CT images and to determine whether this approach could improve the ability to identify individuals at risk for a composite endpoint of clinical events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants from the Offspring and Third Generation cohorts of the community-based Framingham Heart Study underwent noncontrast cardiac CT (2002-2005) and were followed for more than a median of 9.1 years for composite major events. A total of 624 participants with CAC Agatston score (AS) of greater than 0 and good or excellent CT image quality were included for manual CAC segmentation and extraction of a predefined set of radiomic features reflecting intensity, shape, and texture. In a discovery cohort (n = 318), machine learning was used to select the 20 most informative and nonredundant CAC radiomic features, classify features predicting events, and define a radiomic-based score (RS). Performance of the RS was tested independently for the prediction of events in a validation cohort (n = 306). RESULTS: The RS had a median value of 0.08 (interquartile range, 0.007-0.71) and a weak and modest correlation with Framingham risk score (FRS) (r = 0.2) and AS (r = 0.39), respectively. The continuous RS unadjusted, adjusted for age and sex, FRS, AS, and FRS plus AS were significantly associated with events (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.2, P < .001; HR = 1.8, P = .002; HR = 2.0, P < .001; HR = 1.7, P = .02; and HR = 1.8, P = .01, respectively). In participants with AS of less than 300, RS association with events remained significant when unadjusted and adjusted for age and sex, FRS, AS, and FRS plus AS (HR = 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, 2.3, and 2.6; P < .001, respectively). In the same subgroup of participants, adding the RS to AS resulted in a significant improvement in the discriminatory ability for events as compared with the AS (area under the receiver operating curve: 0.80 vs 0.68, respectively; P = .03). CONCLUSION: A radiomic-based score, including the complex properties of CAC, may constitute an imaging biomarker to be further developed to identify individuals at risk for major adverse cardiovascular events in a community-based cohort. Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2020.

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