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1.
Epilepsy Behav ; 124: 108338, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine proportions of 30-day cardiac readmissions in adults with epilepsy compared to multiple sclerosis (MS) or those with neither condition. Predictors and causes of readmissions were also examined. METHODS: We used the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database and ICD-9-CM codes to identify people with epilepsy, MS, and without epilepsy or MS. Multinomial logistic regressions were fitted to: (1) examine association between 30-day readmissions and epilepsy, MS or neither, and (2) to describe causes and predictors of 30-day readmission for cardiac readmissions in epilepsy. RESULTS: Out of 6,870,508 adults admitted in 2014, 202,938 (2.98%) had epilepsy and 29,556 (0.45%) had MS. The proportion of 30-day readmission for epilepsy and MS were, respectively: (1) due to cardiac causes (0.17% vs. 0.13%); (2) due to other causes (13.89% vs. 10.61%). The odds of 30-day cardiac readmission in those with epilepsy and MS were lower compared to those without either condition (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.57-0.73, p < 0.0001; OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.84, p = 0.003). Among those with epilepsy, increasing age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04, p < 0.0001) and a Charlson comorbidity index ≥1 (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.24-2.60, p = 0.002) were associated with higher odds of 30-day cardiac readmission. A higher proportion of those with epilepsy readmitted within 30-days due to cardiac causes died in hospital (10.09%) compared to those with MS (not reportable due to cell frequency <10) or without epilepsy or MS (5.61%). CONCLUSION: Those admitted to a hospital and living with epilepsy had a higher proportion of cardiac readmissions and death in hospital when compared to those living with MS, and the determinants are likely multifactorial. These findings are important and need to be further explored to identify strategies to prevent readmissions due to any cause and treatments that could reduce mortality.

2.
J Anesth ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ankle arthrodesis and total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) are often associated with significant postoperative pain. While this may be mitigated by the use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNB), large-scale data are lacking. Using national data, we aimed to evaluate PNB utilization pattern and its impact on outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the nationwide database (2006-2016) on TAA (n = 5,290) and ankle arthrodesis (n = 14,709) procedures. PNB use was defined from billing; outcomes included opioid utilization, length and cost of stay, discharge to a skilled nurse facility, and opioid-related complications. Mixed-effects models estimated the association between PNB use and outcomes, separate by procedure type and inpatient/outpatient setting. We report odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Overall, PNB was utilized in 8.7% of TAA and 9.9% of ankle arthrodesis procedures, with increased utilization from 2006 to 2016 of 2.6% to 11.3% and 5.2% to 12.0%, respectively. After adjustment for relevant covariates, PNB use was significantly associated with decreased total opioid utilization specifically in the inpatient setting in TAA ( - 16.9% CI  - 23.9%;  - 9.1%) and ankle arthrodesis procedures ( - 18.9% CI  - 24.4;  - 13.0%), this was particularly driven by a decrease in opioid utilization on the day of surgery. No clinically relevant effects were observed for other outcomes. CONCLUSION: PNB utilization is associated with substantial reductions in opioid utilization, particularly in the inpatient setting. Our study is in support of a wider use of this analgesic technique, which may translate into more benefits in terms of clinical outcomes and resource utilization. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

3.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While radiation therapy (RT) improves function, and quality of life for patients with advanced cancers, patients frequently experience a period of acute toxicity during which functional abilities may decline. Little is understood about changes in functional outcomes after RT in older adults. This study aims to examine changes in daily function at 1 and 6 months following RT. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 117 patients who underwent palliative RT on a prospective registry. Activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scores ranging from 0 to 6 and 0-8, respectively, were collected at baseline, one-month, and six months post-RT. Patients were classified as low deficit for ADL/IADL if they had 0-1 deficits and high deficit if they had 2+ deficits. RESULTS: One-hundred seventy RT courses were identified; 99 were evaluable at each time point. The median age was 67 years. At baseline, 29.5 and 29.9% of patients were classified as high-deficit for ADL and IADL functioning, respectively. At one-month, the majority of patients who were low-deficit at baseline remained so for both measures while approximately one quarter of high-deficit patients showed improvement. Most patients identified as low-deficit at one-month remained so at six-months, while no high-deficit patients improved from one- to six-months. Factors associated with high ADL and IADL deficits included: time (six months), increasing age, and Hispanic/other race. Compared to those with ECOG score of 3, patients with lower scores (0-2) had lower odds of high deficit. CONCLUSION: ADL and IADL tools may be useful in describing changes in daily function after palliative RT and in identifying groups of patients who may benefit from additional supportive geriatric care interventions.

4.
Clin Spine Surg ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321395

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly used components of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) combinations and their relative effectiveness. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Data is lacking on use and effectiveness of various ERAS combinations which are increasingly used in spine surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posterior lumbar fusion cases were extracted from the Premier Healthcare claims database (2006-2016). Seven commonly included components in spine ERAS protocols were identified: (1) multimodal analgesia, (2) tranexamic acid, (3) antiemetics on the day of surgery, (4) early physical therapy, (5) no urinary catheter, (6) no patient-controlled analgesia, and (7) no wound drains. Outcomes were: length of stay, "any complication," blood transfusion, and hospitalization cost. Mixed-effects models measured associations between the most common ERAS combinations and outcomes, separately for 2006-2012 and 2013-2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. RESULTS: Among 97,419 (74%; 2006-2012) and 34,932 (26%; 2013-2016) cases ERAS component variations decreased over time. The most commonly used combinations included multimodal analgesia, antiemetics, early physical therapy, avoidance of a urinary catheter, patient-controlled analgesia and drains (10% n=9401 and 19% n=6635 in 2006-2012 and 2013-2016, respectively), and did not include tranexamic acid. Multivariable models revealed minor differences between ERAS combinations in terms of length of stay and costs. The most pronounced beneficial effects in 2006-2012 were seen for the second most commonly (compared with less often) used ERAS combination(s) in terms of blood transfusion (OR: 0.65; CI: 0.59-0.71) and "any complication" (OR: 0.73; CI: 0.66-0.80), both P<0.05. In 2013-2016 the third most commonly used ERAS combination showed the strongest effect: blood transfusion OR: 0.63; CI: 0.50-0.78, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: ERAS component variations decreased over time; maximum benefits were particularly seen in terms of transfusion and complication risk reduction. These findings may inform future ERAS utilization and clinical trials comparing various ERAS protocols.

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230883

RESUMO

Clinical biomarkers that accurately predict mortality are needed for the effective management of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. In this study, we determine whether changes in D-dimer levels after anticoagulation are independently predictive of in-hospital mortality. Adult patients hospitalised for severe COVID-19 who received therapeutic anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis were identified from a large COVID-19 database of the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City (NY, USA). We studied the ability of post-anticoagulant D-dimer levels to predict in-hospital mortality, while taking into consideration 65 other clinically important covariates including patient demographics, comorbidities, vital signs and several laboratory tests. 1835 adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 who received therapeutic anticoagulation during hospitalisation were included. Overall, 26% of patients died in the hospital. Significantly different in-hospital mortality rates were observed in patient groups based on mean D-dimer levels and trend following anticoagulation: 49% for the high mean-increase trend group; 27% for the high-decrease group; 21% for the low-increase group; and 9% for the low-decrease group (p<0.001). Using penalised logistic regression models to simultaneously analyse 67 clinical variables, the high increase (adjusted odds ratios (ORadj): 6.58, 95% CI 3.81-11.16), low increase (ORadj: 4.06, 95% CI 2.23-7.38) and high decrease (ORadj: 2.37; 95% CI 1.37-4.09) D-dimer groups (reference: low decrease group) had the highest odds for in-hospital mortality among all clinical features. Changes in D-dimer levels and trend following anticoagulation are highly predictive of in-hospital mortality and may help guide resource allocation and future studies of emerging treatments for severe COVID-19.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 73: 101974, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243048

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple Myeloma (MM), the second leading blood malignancy, has complex and costly disease management. We studied patterns of treatment disparities and unplanned interruptions among the MM patients after the Affordable Care Act to assess their prevalence and effect on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study of 1002 MM patients at a tertiary referral center used standard guidelines as a reference to identify underuse of effective treatments. We used multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportionate hazard to study the prognostic effect on survival. RESULTS: Median age in the cohort was 63.0 [IQR: 14] years. Non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients were older (p = 0.007) and more likely to present with stage I disease (p = 0.02). Underuse of maintenance therapy (aOR = 1.98; 95 % CI 1.12-3.48) and interruptions in treatment were associated with race/ethnicity and insurance (aOR = 4.14; 95 % CI: 1.78-9.74). Only underuse of induction therapy was associated with overall patient survival. CONCLUSION: Age, race, ethnicity and primary insurance contribute to the underuse of treatment and in unplanned interruptions in MM treatment. Addressing underuse causes in such patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/etnologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108167, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine proportions, causes, and predictors of 30-day readmissions among older adults with epilepsy. Understanding predictors of readmissions may inform future interventions aimed at reducing avoidable hospitalizations in this vulnerable population. METHODS: Individuals 65 years or older with epilepsy were identified using previously validated ICD-9-CM codes in any diagnostic position in the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. Proportions of 30-day readmissions and causes of readmissions in older adults with epilepsy were compared to both older adults without and younger adults (18-64 years old) with epilepsy. We identified predictors of readmission in older adults with epilepsy using logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 92,030 older adults with, 3,166,852 older adults without, and 168,622 younger adults with epilepsy. Proportions of readmissions were higher in older adults with (16.2%) than older adults without (12.5%) and younger adults with epilepsy (15.1%). The main cause of readmission for older adults with and without epilepsy was septicemia, and epilepsy/seizure in younger adults with epilepsy. Predictors of 30-day readmissions in older adults with epilepsy were: non-elective admissions (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.27-1.48), public insurance (Medicaid vs. private insurance OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.02-1.39; Medicare vs. private insurance OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.00-1.22), lower median household income for patient's zip code ($1-$39,999 vs. $66,000 + OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22), hospital location in large metropolitan areas (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.05-1.42), higher Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index (OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.10-1.02), and male sex (OR 1.04, 95%CI 1.00-1.09). SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that targeted interventions to reduce the risk of infection may potentially reduce readmission in older people with epilepsy, similarly to those without. Provision of coordinated care and appropriate discharge planning may reduce readmissions particularly in those who are males, are of lower socioeconomic status and with more comorbidities.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Readmissão do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Anesth Analg ; 133(3): 755-764, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence demonstrates an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and adverse perioperative outcomes. However, large-scale data on open colectomies are lacking. Moreover, the interaction of obesity with OSA is unknown. This study examines the impact of OSA, obesity, or a combination of both, on perioperative complications in patients undergoing open colectomy. We hypothesized that while both obesity and OSA individually increase the likelihood for perioperative complications, the overlap of the 2 conditions is associated with the highest risk. METHODS: Patients undergoing open colectomies were identified using the national Premier Healthcare claims-based Database (2006-2016; n = 340,047). Multilevel multivariable models and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analysis quantified the impact of OSA, obesity, or both on length and cost of hospitalization, respiratory and cardiac complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and inhospital mortality. RESULTS: Nine thousand twenty-eight (2.7%) patients had both OSA and obesity diagnoses; 10,137 (3.0%) had OSA without obesity; and 33,692 (9.9%) had obesity without OSA. Although there were overlapping confidence intervals in the binary outcomes, the risk increase was found highest for OSA with obesity, intermediate for obesity without OSA, and lowest for OSA without obesity. The strongest effects were seen for respiratory complications: odds ratio (OR), 2.41 (2.28-2.56), OR, 1.40 (1.31-1.49), and OR, 1.50 (1.45-1.56), for OSA with obesity, OSA without obesity, and obesity without OSA, respectively (all P < .0001). RERI analysis revealed a supraadditive effect of 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.68) for respiratory complications, 0.11 (-0.04 to 0.26) for cardiac complications, 0.30 (0.14-0.45) for ICU utilization, 0.34 (0.21-0.47) for mechanical ventilation utilization, and 0.26 (0.15-0.37) for mortality in patients with both OSA and obesity, compared to the sum of the conditions' individual risks. Inhospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with both OSA and obesity (OR [CI], 1.21 [1.07-1.38]) but not in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both OSA and obesity are individually associated with adverse perioperative outcomes, with a supraadditive effect if both OSA and obesity are present. Interventions, screening, and perioperative precautionary measures should be tailored to the respective risk profile. Moreover, both conditions appear to be underreported compared to the general population, highlighting the need for stringent perioperative screening, documentation, and reporting.


Assuntos
Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Idoso , Colectomia/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify and rank the importance of key determinants of end-of-life (EOL) healthcare costs, and to understand how the key factors impact different percentiles of the distribution of healthcare costs. METHODS: We applied a principled, machine learning based variable selection algorithm, using Quantile Regression Forests, to identify key determinants for predicting the 10 th (low), 50 th (median) and 90 th (high) quantiles of EOL healthcare costs, including costs paid for by Medicare, Medicaid, Medicare Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO), private HMO, and patient's out-of-pocket expenditures. RESULTS: Our sample included 7,539 Medicare beneficiaries who died between 2002 and 2017. The 10 th, 50 th and 90 th quantiles of EOL healthcare cost are $5,244, $35,466 and $87,241 respectively. Regional characteristics, specifically, the EOL-expenditure index, a measure for regional variation in Medicare spending driven by physician practice, and the number of total specialists in the hospital referral region, were the top two influential determinants for predicting the 50 th and 90 th quantiles of EOL costs, but were not determinants of the 10 th quantile. Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with lower EOL healthcare costs among decedents with lower total EOL healthcare costs but were associated with higher costs among decedents with the highest total EOL healthcare costs. CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with EOL healthcare costs varied across different percentiles of the cost distribution. Regional characteristics and decedent race/ethnicity exemplified factors that did not impact EOL costs uniformly across its distribution, suggesting the need to use a "higher-resolution" analysis for examining the association between risk factors and healthcare costs.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discern whether there is evidence that individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) had the greater odds of preexisting health conditions and/or poorer health behaviors than matched controls without TBI. SETTING: Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit at Mount Sinai Hospital. Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) control data were collected via random-digit-dialing phone survey. PARTICIPANTS: TBI cases were enrolled in the TBI Health Study and met at least 1 of the following 4 injury severity criteria: abnormal computed tomography scan; Glasgow Coma Scale score between 3 and 12; loss of consciousness greater than 30 minutes; or post-TBI amnesia longer than 24 hours. Sixty-two TBI cases and 171 matched MIDUS controls were included in the analyses; controls were excluded if they reported having a history of head injury. DESIGN: Matched case-control study. MAIN MEASURES: Self-reported measures of depression symptoms, chronic pain, health status, alcohol use, smoking status, abuse of controlled substances, physical activity, physical health composite score, and behavioral health composite score. RESULTS: Pre-index injury depression was nearly 4 times higher in TBI cases than in matched controls (OR= 3.98, 95% CI, 1.71-9.27; P = .001). We found no significant differences in the odds of self-reporting 3 or more medical health conditions in year prior to index injury (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.82-2.81; P = .183) or reporting more risky health behaviors (OR = 1.48; 95% CI; 0.75-2.91; P = .254]) in individuals with TBI than in controls. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that the odds of depression in the year prior to index injury far exceed those reported in matched controls. Further study in larger samples is required to better understand the relative odds of prior health problems in those who sustain a TBI, with a goal of elucidating the implications of preinjury health on post-TBI disease burden.

11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108126, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dementia and epilepsy often co-occur and are associated with poor health outcomes and increased healthcare utilization. The literature on the association between readmission and co-occurrence of dementia and epilepsy is scant. Our objective was to determine if dementia in patients with epilepsy >40 years old is associated with 30-day hospital readmission, in-hospital mortality, discharge disposition, and length-of-stay. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database, containing data from hospital discharges across the US and readmissions. Epilepsy and dementia were identified using previously validated ICD-9-CM codes. Primary outcome was 30-day readmission, analyzed with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. Secondary outcomes were discharge disposition, in-hospital mortality, and length-of-stay, analyzed with univariable multinomial logistic, univariable logistic, and univariable ordinary least squared regressions, respectively. The top ten causes of readmission in each group were compared as well. All analyses accounted for survey weights, cluster, and stratum. RESULTS: Patients with epilepsy with dementia (n = 15,588) had longer hospital stays [15% (95%CI 10-20%)], and higher odds of readmission [OR 1.11 (95%CI 1.05-1.17)], transfer to another facility [OR 2.18 (95%CI 1.93-2.46)], and in-hospital mortality [OR 1.50 (95%CI 1.25-1.79)] compared to those without dementia (n = 186,289).The top two causes of readmission were septicemia (dementia: 14.81%; no dementia: 9.45%) and epilepsy/convulsions (dementia: 5.91%; no dementia: 6.25%). Other top 10 causes of readmissions in those with epilepsy and dementia which were not present in those without dementia included delirium (5.21%), urinary tract infections (4.98%), and aspiration pneumonitis (4.29%). SIGNIFICANCE: Dementia in epilepsy is associated with worse outcomes, including higher in-hospital mortality and higher readmissions. Potentially preventable causes of readmission in those with epilepsy and dementia were identified, including septicemia, delirium, urinary tract infection, and aspiration pneumonitis. Future studies are needed to inform interventions aimed at decreasing premature mortality and reducing potentially preventable readmissions in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Demência , Epilepsia , Adulto , Demência/complicações , Demência/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Heart Lung ; 50(5): 618-621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pre-hospitalization antiplatelet medication use and COVID-19 disease severity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Inpatient units at The Mount Sinai Hospital. PATIENTS: Adults age ≥18 admitted between March 1, 2020 and April 9, 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 infection with at least 28 days follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: We captured baseline demographic, pre-hospitalization antiplatelet medication use, and clinical encounter data for all patients who met inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was peak score on a 6-point modified ordinal scale (MOS), which is based on World Health Organization blueprint R&S groups, used to grade severity of illness through clinical outcomes of interest. Scores indicate the following: 1 - COVID-19 infection not requiring hospitalization, 2 - requiring hospitalization but not supplemental oxygen, 3 - hospitalization requiring supplemental oxygen, 4 - hospitalization requiring high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), 5 - hospitalization requiring intubation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), 6 - death. Multivariable adjusted partial proportional odds model (PPOM) was performed to examine the association between pre-hospitalization antiplatelet medication use and likelihood of each MOS score. MAIN RESULTS: Of 762 people admitted with COVID-19, 239 (31.4%) used antiplatelet medications pre-hospitalization while 523 (68.6%) did not. Antiplatelet users were older and had more co-morbidities at baseline. Before adjusting for covariates, patients who used antiplatelet medications pre-hospitalization were more likely than non-users to have peak MOS score 6 (death, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.21-2.52), peak MOS score ≥5 (intubation/ECMO or death, OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.00-1.98) and peak MOS score ≥4 (HFNC, NIPPV, intubation/ECMO or death, OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.94). On multivariable adjusted PPOM analysis controlling for 13 covariates, there were no longer any significant differences in peak MOS scores between users and non-users. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for covariates, pre-hospital antiplatelet use was not associated with COVID-19 severity in hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Med Care ; 59(8): 694-698, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns exist regarding exacerbation of existing disparities in health care access with the rapid implementation of telemedicine during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, data on pre-existing disparities in telemedicine utilization is currently lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study: (1) the prevalence of outpatient telemedicine visits before the COVID-19 pandemic by patient subgroups based on age, comorbidity burden, residence rurality, and median household income; and (2) associated diagnosis categories. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SUBJECT: Commercial claims data from the Truven MarketScan database (2014-2018) representing n=846,461,609 outpatient visits. MEASURES: We studied characteristics and utilization of outpatient telemedicine services before the COVID-19 pandemic by patient subgroups based on age, comorbidity burden, residence rurality, and median household income. Disparities were assessed in unadjusted and adjusted (regression) analyses. RESULTS: With overall telemedicine uptake of 0.12% (n=1,018,092/846,461,609 outpatient visits) we found that pre-COVID-19 disparities in telemedicine use became more pronounced over time with lower use in patients who were older, had more comorbidities, were in rural areas, and had lower median household incomes (all trends and effect estimates P<0.001). CONCLUSION: These results contextualize pre-existing disparities in telemedicine use and are crucial in the monitoring of potential disparities in telemedicine access and subsequent outcomes after the rapid expansion of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/tendências , COVID-19/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/tendências , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3): pkab002, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056540

RESUMO

Dementia and cancer occur commonly in older adults. Yet, little is known about the effect of dementia on cancer treatment and outcomes in patients diagnosed with cancer, and no guidelines exist. We performed a mixed studies review to assess the current knowledge and gaps on the impact of dementia on cancer treatment decision-making, cancer treatment, and mortality. A search in PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO identified 55 studies on older adults with a dementia diagnosis before a cancer diagnosis and/or comorbid cancer and dementia published in English from January 2004 to February 2020. We described variability using range in quantitative estimates, ie, odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs), and risk ratios (RR) when appropriate and performed narrative review of qualitative data. Patients with dementia were more likely to receive no curative treatment (including hospice or palliative care) (OR, HR, and RR range = 0.40-4.4, n = 8), while less likely to receive chemotherapy (OR and HR range = 0.11-0.68, n = 8), radiation (OR range = 0.24-0.56, n = 2), and surgery (OR range = 0.30-1.3, n = 4). Older adults with cancer and dementia had higher mortality than those with cancer alone (HR and OR range = 0.92-5.8, n = 33). Summarized findings from qualitative studies consistently revealed that clinicians, caregivers, and patients tended to prefer less aggressive care and gave higher priority to quality of life over life expectancy for those with dementia. Current practices in treatment-decision making for patients with both cancer and dementia are inconsistent. There is an urgent need for treatment guidelines for this growing patient population that considers patient and caregiver perspectives.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the influence of increasing levels of discussion (both asked and advised, either asked or advised but not both, and neither asked nor advised) on quit behavior. METHODS: We included 4133 adult current smokers from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. The primary outcomes were quit intent and quit attempt, and the secondary outcomes were methods used for quitting. We used an instrumental variable analysis, as well as propensity score weighted and multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Compared to no discussion, having both or only one discussion, respectively, increased quit intent (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.63-1.66 and OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.99-1.05), quit attempt (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.75-1.77 and OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.57-1.63). Among those who attempted to quit (n = 1536), having both or only one discussion increased the use of pharmacologic (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.97-2.02 and OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.49-1.63) or behavioral (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.94-2.08 and OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 2.74-3.08) quit methods. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing levels of provider-patient discussion encourages quit behavior, and should be an integral part of reducing the health and economic burden of smoking. Strategies that promote the adherence and compliance of providers to communicate with patients may help increase the success of smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Intenção , Fumantes , Fumar , Fumar Tabaco
16.
Prev Med ; 148: 106584, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930432

RESUMO

Using insurance as a single indicator of healthcare access in examining the association between race/ethnicity and healthcare encounter-based interventions for smoking may not be adequate. In this study, we assessed the role of healthcare access using multifactorial measures in accounting for racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of provider-patient discussions, defined as either being asked about smoking or advised to quit smoking by providers. We identified adult current smokers from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. We first conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to identify the underlying patterns of healthcare access measured by 13 indicators of healthcare access and utilization. We then used a propensity score - based weighting approach to examine racial/ethnic disparities in receiving provider-patient discussions about smoking or quitting in stratified groups by the distinct healthcare access clusters. Out of the 4134 adult current smokers who visited a doctor or a healthcare provider during the past 12 months, 3265 (79.90%) participants were classified as having high healthcare access and 869 (20.10%) participants as having low healthcare access. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics had significantly lower odds of being asked about smoking (OR 0.46, 95% CI (0.27-0.77)) and being advised to quit (OR 0.57, 95% CI (0.34-0.97)) in the low access group, but neither association was significant in the high access group. In addition to increasing health insurance coverage, reducing other healthcare access barriers for Hispanics will likely facilitate provider-patient discussion and promote tobacco cessation among Hispanic smokers.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Fumar , Estados Unidos
17.
Anesthesiology ; 135(1): 57-68, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increasing use of tranexamic acid in total hip and knee arthroplasties, safety concerns remain. Using national claims data, this study examined tranexamic acid use in patients with preexisting comorbidities. The hypothesis was that tranexamic acid use is not associated with increased complication risk in hip and knee arthroplasty patients with comorbidities. METHODS: Among 765,011 total hip/knee arthroplasties (2013 to 2016, Premier Healthcare claims), tranexamic acid use was assessed in three high-risk groups: group I with patients with a history of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, seizures, or ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (n = 27,890); group II with renal disease (n = 44,608); and group III with atrial fibrillation (n = 45,952). The coprimary outcomes were blood transfusion and new-onset "composite complications" (venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, seizures, and ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack). Associations between tranexamic acid use and outcomes were measured separately by high-risk group. The odds ratios and Bonferroni-adjusted 99.9% CIs are reported. RESULTS: Overall, 404,974 patients (52.9%) received tranexamic acid, with similar frequencies across high-risk groups I (13,004 of 27,890 [46.6%]), II (22,424 of 44,608 [50.3%]), and III (22,379 of 45,952 [48.7%]). Tranexamic acid use was associated with decreased odds of blood transfusion in high-risk groups I (721 of 13,004 [5.5%] vs. 2,293 of 14,886 [15.4%]; odds ratio, 0.307; 99.9% CI, 0.258 to 0.366), group II (2,045 of 22,424 [9.1%] vs. 5,159 of 22,184 [23.3%]; odds ratio, 0.315; 99.9% CI, 0.263 to 0.378), and group III (1,325 of 22,379 [5.9%] vs. 3,773 of 23,573 [16.0%]; odds ratio, 0.321; 99.9% CI, 0.266 to 0.389); all adjusted comparisons P < 0.001. No increased odds of composite complications were observed in high-risk group I (129 of 13,004 [1.0%] vs. 239 of 14,886 [1.6%]; odds ratio, 0.89, 99.9% CI, 0.49 to 1.59), group II (238 of 22,424 [1.1%] vs. 369 of 22,184 [1.7%]; odds ratio, 0.98; 99.9% CI, 0.58 to 1.67), and group III (187 of 22,379 [0.8%] vs. 290 of 23,573 [1.2%]; odds ratio, 0.93; 99.9% CI, 0.54 to 1.61); all adjusted comparisons P > 0.999. CONCLUSIONS: Although effective in reducing blood transfusions, tranexamic acid is not associated with increased complications, irrespective of patient high-risk status at baseline.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Humanos , Risco
18.
Epilepsia ; 62(5): 1148-1157, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether epilepsy is associated with increased odds of 30-day readmission due to psychiatric illness during the postpartum period. METHODS: The 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database and the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify postpartum women up to 50 years old in the United States, including the subgroup with epilepsy. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission and was categorized as (1) readmission due to psychiatric illness, (2) readmission due to all other causes, or (3) no readmission. Secondary outcome was diagnosis at readmission. The association of the primary outcome and presence of epilepsy was examined using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1 558 875 women with admissions for delivery identified, 6745 (.45%) had epilepsy. Thirteen of every 10 000 women had 30-day psychiatric readmissions in the epilepsy group compared to one of every 10 000 in the no-epilepsy group (p < .0001). Of every 10 000 women with epilepsy, 256 had 30-day readmissions due to other causes compared to 115 of every 10 000 women in the no-epilepsy group (p < .0001). The odds ratio for readmission due to psychiatric illness was 10.13 (95% confidence interval = 5.48-18.72) in those with epilepsy compared to those without. Top psychiatric causes for 30-day readmissions among women with epilepsy were mood disorders, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, and substance-related disorders. SIGNIFICANCE: This large-scale study demonstrated that postpartum women with epilepsy have higher odds of readmission due to a psychiatric illness compared to women without epilepsy. Postpartum treatment strategies and interventions to prevent psychiatric readmissions are necessary in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 757-770, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654443

RESUMO

Introduction: Statistical methods to assess the impact of an intervention are increasingly used in clinical research settings. However, a comprehensive review of the methods geared toward practitioners is not yet available. Methods and Materials: We provide a comprehensive review of three methods to assess the impact of an intervention: difference-in-differences (DID), segmented regression of interrupted time series (ITS), and interventional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). We also compare the methods, and provide illustration of their use through three important healthcare-related applications. Results: In the first example, the DID estimate of the difference in health insurance coverage rates between expanded states and unexpanded states in the post-Medicaid expansion period compared to the pre-expansion period was 5.93 (95% CI, 3.99 to 7.89) percentage points. In the second example, a comparative segmented regression of ITS analysis showed that the mean imaging order appropriateness score in the emergency department at a tertiary care hospital exceeded that of the inpatient setting with a level change difference of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.73) and a trend change difference of 0.02 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.03) after the introduction of a clinical decision support tool. In the third example, the results from an interventional ARIMA analysis show that numbers of creatinine clearance tests decreased significantly within months of the start of eGFR reporting, with a magnitude of drop equal to -0.93 (95% CI, -1.22 to -0.64) tests per 100,000 adults and a rate of drop equal to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) tests per 100,000 per adults per month. Discussion: When choosing the appropriate method to model the intervention effect, it is necessary to consider the structure of the data, the study design, availability of an appropriate comparison group, sample size requirements, whether other interventions occur during the study window, and patterns in the data.

20.
Clin Transplant ; 35(4): e14239, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527453

RESUMO

The impact of pre-transplant (SOT) carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) colonization or infection on post-SOT outcomes is unclear. We conducted a multi-center, international, cohort study of SOT recipients, with microbiologically diagnosed CRE colonization and/or infection pre-SOT. Sixty adult SOT recipients were included (liver n = 30, hearts n = 17). Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 47, 78%) was the most common pre-SOT CRE species. Median time from CRE detection to SOT was 2.32 months (IQR 0.33-10.13). Post-SOT CRE infection occurred in 40% (n = 24/60), at a median of 9 days (IQR 7-17), and most commonly due to K pneumoniae (n = 20/24, 83%). Of those infected, 62% had a surgical site infection, and 46% had bloodstream infection. Patients with post-SOT CRE infection more commonly had a liver transplant (16, 67% vs. 14, 39%; p =.0350) or pre-SOT CRE BSI (11, 46% vs. 7, 19%; p =.03). One-year post-SOT survival was 77%, and those with post-SOT CRE infection had a 50% less chance of survival vs. uninfected (0.86, 95% CI, 0.76-0.97 vs. 0.34, 95% CI 0.08-1.0, p =.0204). Pre-SOT CRE infection or colonization is not an absolute contraindication to SOT and is more common among abdominal SOT recipients, those with pre-SOT CRE BSI, and those with early post-SOT medical and surgical complications.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos , Transplante de Órgãos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplantados
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