Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 38
Filtrar
1.
Audiol Res ; 12(2): 132-142, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite clinical practice utilizing the Dumas test (SVINT), some questions remain unanswered, including the age-related changes in frequency (FN) and slow-phase angular velocity (SPAV). This study aims to retrospectively evaluate their variations in subjects affected by unilateral peripheral vestibular loss (UPVL). METHODS: We evaluated the selected samples based on the results of the SVINT, the results of the vestibular-evoked potentials (C-VEMP and O-VEMP), and the results of the head impulse test (HIT) and we compared the results against the age of the patients. We calculated the timing between the onset of UPVL and clinical evaluation in days. The presence or absence of VEMP indicated the UPVL severity. UPVL and BPPV patients with spontaneous or pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus were compared. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed changes in the FN and SPAV depending on age and the side of the application of the stimulus. We also observed that, in the UPVL, the severity of the disease modifies the SPAV, but not the frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The SVINT is a simple, reliable, and straightforward test that, if evaluated instrumentally, can show significant differences with aging. Further studies need to be performed to refine the clinical significance of the test and clarify its physiological background.

2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1375: 55-61, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038145

RESUMO

The adaptation of olfaction to extreme environments is an area of limited understanding. This study aimed to get insights into the factors that constrain olfactory function at high altitudes. To this end, we compared the results of smell tests performed on the same subjects at low (665 m) and high altitude (4,780 m) during the "Kanchenjunga Exploration and Physiology" project in the Himalayas. The most distinct adaptive differences found at high altitude were reductions in the odor intensity, color-odor bimodal association, and memory, and increases in flavor perception. Physiological adaptations of the sense of smell resulting from exposure to hypoxia at altitude may have explanatory validity in unraveling the mechanisms that shape changes in olfactory function in the processes of aging and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Altitude , Humanos , Hipóxia , Projetos Piloto , Olfato
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769816

RESUMO

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a multisystem, recurrent, environmental disorder that flares in response to different exposures (i.e., pesticides, solvents, toxic metals and molds) under the threshold limit value (TLV) calculated for age and gender in the general population. MCS is a syndrome characterized by cutaneous, allergic, gastrointestinal, rheumatological, endocrinological, cardiological and neurological signs and symptoms. We performed a systematic review of the literature to summarize the current clinical and therapeutic evidence and then oriented an eDelphi consensus. Four main research domains were identified (diagnosis, treatment, hospitalization and emergency) and discussed by 10 experts and an MCS patient. Thus, the first Italian MCS consensus had the double aim: (a) to improve MCS knowledge among healthcare workers and patients by standardizing the clinical and therapeutic management to MCS patients; and (b) to improve and shed light on MCS misconceptions not supported by evidence-based medicine (EBM).


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla , Consenso , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/terapia , Solventes
4.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679784

RESUMO

This study investigated the postpartum (PP) uterine involution in nine multiparous Martina Franca jennies with at term, normal, and singleton foaling. Transrectal ultrasonography performed at Days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 showed that the uterine tip diameters did not differ between the post-pregnant (PPH) and non-post-pregnant uterine horns (NPPH), whereas the diameter of the middle PPH was larger than the NPPH until Day 7 (p < 0.05). The diameter of the corpora-cornual junction resulted larger in the PPH than NPPH at Day 7 (p < 0.05). At Day 3, the microcaruncolae were not detected. Endometrial glands (GL) number increased, with the highest value on Day 28. Endometrial GL area and perimeter decreased (p < 0.001) from Day 1 to Day 28. Epithelial thickness increased from Days 1-3 to Day 7 (p < 0.001), and concurrently with the foal heat to Day 14 (p < 0.001), with a decrease at Days 21-28. A marked neutrophils reduction on Day 7 and eosinophil increase from the first three days to Days 7-14 was observed. The results suggest that, in Martina Franca jennies with normal foaling, the PP uterine involution can be considered complete on Day 14.

5.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e15034, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536058

RESUMO

In the history of diagnostics, breath analysis was one of the first method used until the breakthrough of biochemical testing technology. Today, breath analysis has made a comeback with the development of gas analyzers and e-noses, demonstrating its power in its applicability for diagnosing a wide range of diseases. The physical basis of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), an emerging environmental disease, is difficult to understand because it is based on the scenario of chronic hypoxia, with a complex of chemical compounds that trigger the syndrome and result in multiple symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate MCS by analyzing exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The volatile, metabolic picture could be a putative gold standard for understanding and diagnosing the disease. The study was based on recording in resting condition using the noninvasive passive e-nose contactless breath test, the Olfactory Real-Time Volatile Organic Compounds (ORT-VOC) test in MCS, and control samples. The VOCs profile distinguished between disease and health. It also distinguished the gender-related volatile profile with significant robustness. The results trace a putative compensatory physiological pathway elicited by increased lactate, leading to acidosis, and hyperventilation, resulting in the production of specific VOCs. We conclude that breath testing is a valuable tool to investigate the hypoxia-related VOC profile, facilitating MCS diagnosis.


Assuntos
Expiração , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Testes Respiratórios/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e14992, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536067

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a public health emergency with cases increasing globally. Its clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic and acute respiratory disease to multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and effects of COVID-19 in the long term. Interestingly, regardless of variant, all COVID-19 share impairment of the sense of smell and taste. We would like to report, as far as we know, the first comprehensive neurophysiological evaluation of the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the olfactory system with potential-related neurological damage. The case report concerns a military doctor, with a monitored health history, infected in April 2020 by the first wave of the epidemic expansion while on military duty in Codogno (Milan). In this subject, we find the electrophysiological signal in the periphery, while its correlate is absent in the olfactory bulb region than in whole brain recordings. In agreement with this result is the lack of metabolic signs of brain activation under olfactory stimulation. Consequently, quantitative and qualitative diagnoses of anosmia were made by means of olfactometric tests. We strongly suggest a comprehensive series of olfactometric tests from the first sign of COVID-19 and subsequent patient assessments. In conclusion, electrophysiological and metabolic tests of olfactory function have made it possible to study the long-term effects and the establishment of neurological consequences.


Assuntos
Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Anosmia/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , Adulto , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiopatologia , Nervo Olfatório/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440283

RESUMO

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of endangered and critically endangered breeds has been studied to identify maternal lineages, characterize genetic inheritance, reconstruct phylogenetic relations among breeds, and develop biodiversity conservation and breeding programs. The aim of the study was to determine the variability remaining and the phylogenetic relationship of Martina Franca (MF, with total population of 160 females and 36 males), Ragusano (RG, 344 females and 30 males), Pantesco (PT, 47 females and 15 males), and Catalonian (CT) donkeys by collecting genetic data from maternal lineages. Genetic material was collected from saliva, and a 350 bp fragment of D-loop mtDNA was amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned and evaluated using standard bioinformatics software. A total of 56 haplotypes including 33 polymorphic sites were found in 77 samples (27 MF, 22 RG, 8 PT, 19 CT, 1 crossbred). The breed nucleotide diversity value (π) for all the breeds was 0.128 (MF: 0.162, RG: 0.132, PT: 0.025, CT: 0.038). Principal components analysis grouped most of the haplogroups into two different clusters, I (including all haplotypes from PT and CT, together with haplotypes from MF and RG) and II (including haplotypes from MF and RG only). In conclusion, we found that the primeval haplotypes, haplogroup variability, and a large number of maternal lineages were preserved in MF and RG; thus, these breeds play putative pivotal roles in the phyletic relationships of donkey breeds. Maternal inheritance is indispensable genetic information required to evaluate inheritance, variability, and breeding programs.


Assuntos
Equidae/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino
8.
Front Syst Neurosci ; 15: 650528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177474

RESUMO

The perception of putative pheromones or social odors (PPSO) in humans is a widely debated topic because the published results seem ambiguous. Our research aimed to evaluate how cross-modal processing of PPSO and gender voice can affect the behavioral and psychophysiological states of the subject during a listening task with a bodily contact medium, and how these effects could be gender related. Before the experimental session, three embodied media, were exposed to volatilized estratetraenol (Estr), 5α-androst-16-en-3 α-ol (Andr), and Vaseline oil. The experimental session consisted in listening to a story that were transmitted, with a male or female voice, by the communicative medium via a Bluetooth system during a listening task, recorded through 64-active channel electroencephalography (EEG). The sense of co-presence and social presence, elicited by the medium, showed how the established relationship with the medium was gender dependent and modulated by the PPSO. In particular, Andr induced greater responses related to co-presence. The gender of the participants was related to the co-presence desire, where women imagined higher medium co-presence than men. EEG findings seemed to be more responsive to the PPSO-gender voice interaction, than behavioral results. The mismatch between female PPSO and male voice elicited the greatest cortical flow of information. In the case of the Andr-male voice condition, the trained model appeared to assign more relevance to the flow of information to the right frontotemporal regions (involved in odor recognition memory and social behavior). The Estr-male voice condition showed activation of the bilateral frontoparietal network, which is linked to cognitive control, cognitive flexibility, and auditory consciousness. The model appears to distinguish the dissonance condition linked to Andr matched with a female voice: it highlights a flow of information to the right occipital lobe and to the frontal pole. The PPSO could influence the co-presence judgements and EEG response. The results seem suggest that could be an implicit pattern linked to PPSO-related gender differences and gender voice.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 589409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344476

RESUMO

One of the most striking reported symptoms in CoViD-19 is loss of smell and taste. The frequency of these impairments and their specificity as a potential central nervous system function biomarker are of great interest as a diagnostic clue for CoViD-19 infection as opposed to other similar symptomatologic diseases and because of their implication in viral pathogenesis. Here severe CoViD-19 was investigated by comparing self-report vs. testing of smell and taste, thus the objective severity of olfactory impairment and their possible correlation with other symptoms. Because a significant discrepancy between smell and taste testing vs. self-report results (p < 0.001) emerges in our result, we performed a statistical analysis highlighting disagreement among normosmia (p < 0.05), hyposmia, severe hyposmia, and anosmia (p < 0.001) and, in hypogeusia and severe hypogeusia, while no differences are observed in normogeusia and ageusia. Therefore, we analyzed the olfactory threshold by an objective test revealing the distribution of hyposmic (34%), severe hyposmic (48%), and anosmic (13%) patients in severe CoViD-19. In severe CoViD-19 patients, taste is lost in 4.3% of normosmic individuals, 31.9% of hyposmic individuals, 46.8% of severe hyposmic individuals, and 17% of anosmic individuals. Moreover, 95% of 100 CoViD-19 patients objectively tested were affected by smell dysfunction, while 47% were affected by taste dysfunction. Furthermore, analysis by objective testing also highlighted that the severity of smell dysfunction in CoViD-19 subjects did not correlate with age and sex. In conclusion, we report by objective testing that the majority of CoViD-19 patients report severe anosmia, that most of the subjects have olfactory impairment rather than taste impairment, and, finally, that the olfactory impairment correlate with symptom onset and hospitalization (p < 0.05). Patients who exhibit severe olfactory impairment had been hospitalized for about a week from symptom onset; double time has taken place in subjects with normosmia. Our results may be limited by the relatively small number of study participants, but these suggest by objective testing that hyposmia, severe hyposmia, and anosmia may relate directly to infection severity and neurological damage. The smell test assessment could be a potential screening symptom that might contribute to the decision to test suspected cases or guide quarantine instructions, further therapeutic approach, and evaluation of neurological damage.

10.
Brain Sci ; 9(4)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991670

RESUMO

Olfactory processing starts with the breath and elicits neuronal, metabolic and cortical responses. This process can be investigated centrally via the Olfactory Event-Related Potentials (OERPs) and peripherally via exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Despite this, the relationship between OERPs (i.e., N1 and Late Positive Component LPC) and exhaled VOCs has not been investigated enough. The aim of this research is to study OERPs and VOCs connection to two different stimuli: phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and Vaseline Oil (VO). Fifteen healthy subjects performed a perceptual olfactory task with PEA as a smell target stimulus and VO as a neutral stimulus. The results suggest that OERPs and VOCs distributions follow the same amplitude trend and that PEA is highly arousing in both psychophysiological measures. PEA shows ampler and faster N1, a component related to the sensorial aspect of the stimulus. The N1 topographic localization is different between PEA and VO: PEA stimulus evokes greater N1 in the left centroparietal site. LPC, a component elicited by the perceptual characteristic of the stimulus, shows faster latency in the Frontal lobe and decreased amplitude in the Central and Parietal lobe elicited by the PEA smell. Moreover, the delayed time between the onset of N1-LPC and the onset of VOCs seems to be about 3 s. This delay could be identified as the internal metabolic time in which the odorous stimulus, once perceived at the cortical level, is metabolized and subsequently exhaled. Furthermore, the VO stimulus does not allocate the attentive, perceptive and metabolic resource as with PEA.

11.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 255: 30-38, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751145

RESUMO

Inflammation, tissue hypoxia, and impaired hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) are the intricately entwined features of diabetes which perpetuate the disease and its sequelae. Hyperglycemia, notably, is an oxygen consuming process due to enhanced cellular metabolism. Oxidative stress underlies diabetic pathogenesis and also is a crucial modulator of the hypoxic chemoreflex. The present study seeks to determine if suppressed ventilation in diabetes could be improved by antioxidant treatment. The study was performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in awake rats. Two weeks into full-fledged diabetes, the rats were divided into mangiferin (potent natural antioxidant)-treated and untreated, with the observation continued for another two weeks. The HVR was investigated plethysmographically and compared with the pre-diabetic baseline in the same animal. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor-α were assayed in the serum. We demonstrate that mangiferin reversed the suppressed HVR and acted toward normalization of oxidative and inflammatory stress. In conclusion, mangiferin holds a therapeutic promise in breaking the mesh of chronic tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetes by enhancing ventilation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
12.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 70: 141-153, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803893

RESUMO

The dog is a unique species due to its wide variation among breeds in terms of size, morphology, behaviour and lifespan, coupled with a genetic structure that facilitates the dissection of the genetic architecture that controls these traits. Dogs and humans co-evolved and share recent evolutionary selection processes, such as adaptation to digest starch-rich diets. Many diseases of the dog have a human counterpart, and notably Alzheimer's disease, which is otherwise difficult to model in other organisms. Unlike laboratory animals, companion dogs share the human environment and lifestyle, are exposed to the same pollutants, and are faced with pathogens and infections. Dogs represented a very useful model to understand the relationship between size, insulin-like growth factor-1 genetic variation and lifespan, and have been used to test the effects of dietary restriction and immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Very recently, rapamycin was tested in companion dogs outside the laboratory, and this approach where citizens are involved in research aimed at the benefit of dog welfare might become a game changer in geroscience.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/veterinária , Doenças Cardiovasculares/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/genética , Genoma , Longevidade/genética , Neoplasias/veterinária , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Geriatria/métodos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais de Estimação/genética
13.
Oncotarget ; 7(15): 19193-200, 2016 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027240

RESUMO

The mechanism of the natural aging of olfaction and its declinein the absence of any overt disease conditions remains unclear. Here, we investigated this mechanism through measurement of one of the parameters of olfactory function, the absolute threshold, in a healthy population from childhood to old age. The absolute olfactory threshold data were collected from an Italian observational study with 622 participants aged 5-105 years. A subjective testing procedure of constant stimuli was used, which was also compared to the 'staircase' method, with the calculation of the reliability. The n-butanol stimulus was used as an ascending series of nine molar concentrations that were monitored using an electronic nose. The data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics because of the multimodal distribution. We show that the age-related variations in the absolute olfactory threshold are not continuous; instead, there are multiple olfactory phenotypes. Three distinct age-related phenotypes were defined, termed as 'juvenile', 'mature' and 'elder'. The frequency of these three phenotypes depends on age. Our data suggest that the sense of smell does not decrease linearly with aging. Our findings provide the basis for further understanding of olfactory loss as an anticipatory sign of aging and neurodegenerative processes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , 1-Butanol/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Percepção Olfatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 885: 77-82, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747071

RESUMO

The carotid body is a highly specialized chemoreceptive organ of neural crest origin whose role is to detect changes in arterial oxygen content. The sensory units are the chemoreceptor cells, which are neuronal-like cells, surrounded by sustentacular or glial-like cells. It is suggested that the carotid body contains self-renewing multipotent stem cells, which are putatively represented by glial-like sustentacular cells. The mechanisms of renewal of neuronal-like cells are unclear. Recently, we have demonstrated the expression of galanin, a peptide promoting neurogenesis, in chemoreceptor cells in the human CB. Thus, in the present study we seek to determine whether galanin expression in chemoreceptor cells could be matched with that of nestin, a peptide that is a marker of multipotent neural stem cells, or rather with the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for glial cells. The latter would underscore the pluasibly essential role of sustentacular cells in the self-renewal capability of chemorecetors. We found that galanin expression is matched with nestin in chemoreceptor cells of the human carotid body, but not with that of GFAP. Thus, galanin expression in chemoreceptor cells could provide a signal for neurogenesis and chemoreceptor cell differentiation in the carotid body.


Assuntos
Corpo Carotídeo/química , Galanina/análise , Nestina/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 885: 25-30, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820728

RESUMO

Most chemically mediated sexual communication in humans remains uncharacterized. Yet the study of sexual communication is decisive for understanding sexual behavior and evolutive mechanisms in our species. Here we provide the evidence to consider 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) as a man's sexual pheromone. Our experiment provides support for the physiological effect of AND on nasal airway resistance (Rna) in women, as assessed by anterior rhinomanometry. We found that AND administration increased the area of turbinate during the ovulatory phase, resulting in an increase of Rna. Thus, we discovered that minute amounts of AND, acting through neuroendocrine brain control, regulate Rna and consequently affect the sexual physiology and behavior. Fascinatingly, this finding provides the evidence of the preservation of chemosexual communication in humans, which it has been largely neglected due to its unconscious perception and concealed nature. Therefore, chemical communication is a plesiomorphic evolutive phenomenon in humans.


Assuntos
Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/efeitos dos fármacos , Androstadienos/farmacologia , Nariz/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios Humano/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nariz/fisiologia
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 860: 25-39, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26303464

RESUMO

The carotid body (CB) increases in volume in response to chronic continuous hypoxia and the mechanisms underlying this adaptive response are not fully elucidated. It has been proposed that chronic hypoxia could lead to the generation of a sub-population of type II cells representing precursors, which, in turn, can give rise to mature type I cells. To test whether this process could explain not only the observed changes in cell number, but also the micro-anatomical pattern of tissue rearrangement, a mathematical modeling approach was devised to simulate the hypothetical sequence of cellular events occurring within the CB during chronic hypoxia. The modeling strategy involved two steps. In a first step a "population level" modeling approach was followed, in order to estimate, by comparing the model results with the available experimental data, "macroscopic" features of the cell system, such as cell population expansion rates and differentiation rates. In the second step, these results represented key parameters to build a "cell-centered" model simulating the self-organization of a system of CB cells under a chronic hypoxic stimulus and including cell adhesion, cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The cell patterns generated by the model showed consistency (from both a qualitative and quantitative point of view) with the observations performed on real tissue samples obtained from rats exposed to 16 days hypoxia, indicating that the hypothesized sequence of cellular events was adequate to explain not only changes in cell number, but also the tissue architecture acquired by CB following a chronic hypoxic stimulus.


Assuntos
Corpo Carotídeo/patologia , Hipóxia/patologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Modelos Teóricos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 860: 315-23, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26303496

RESUMO

The carotid body is a neural-crest-derived organ devoted to respiratory homeostasis through sensing changes in blood oxygen levels. The sensory units are the glomeruli composed of clusters of neuronal-like (type I) cells surrounded by glial-like (type II) cells. During chronic hypoxia, the carotid body shows growth, with increasing neuronal-like cell numbers. We are interested in the signals involved in the mechanisms that underlie such response, because they are not well understood and described. Considering that, in literature, galanin is involved in neurotrophic or neuroprotective role in cell proliferation and is expressed in animal carotid body, we investigated its expression in human. Here, we have shown the expression and localisation of galanin in the human carotid body.


Assuntos
Corpo Carotídeo/química , Galanina/análise , Neurônios/química , Adulto , Idoso , Corpo Carotídeo/citologia , Corpo Carotídeo/fisiologia , Galanina/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 209: 106-14, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25485998

RESUMO

Exposure to supraphysiological concentrations of oxygen is often applied in clinical practice to enhance oxygenation in acute or chronic lung injury. However, hyperoxic exposure is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production, which can be toxic to pulmonary endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells. Oxidative stress activates the pathways of the mitogen-activated protein kinases family: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), C-Jun-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2), and p38 kinase. Several studies have suggested that ERK activation in lung cells has a protective effect in response to hyperoxia, through stimulation of DNA repair and antioxidant mechanisms, and prolonged cell survival. Conversely, JNK1/2 and p38 kinase have been most frequently reported to have roles in induction of apoptotic responses. Moreover, exogenous factors, such as ATP, retinoic acid, substance P, thioredoxin, inosine and laminin, can have cytoprotective effects against hyperoxia-induced cell damage, through promotion of ERK activation and/or limiting JNK and p38 involvement.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia/enzimologia , Pulmão/enzimologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
19.
J Neuroimaging ; 25(4): 571-4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25255728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral vasomotor reserve (VMR) is the capability of cerebral arterioles to change their diameter in response to various stimuli, such hypercapnia. Changes of VMR due to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been poorly studied. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy subjects underwent anodal/cathodal and sham tDCS on right primary motor area. Before and after tDCS, we assessed VMR by Transcranial Color-Coded Sonography (TCCS) calculating trought Breath Holding Index (BHI) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV), in particular after Valsalva manouver. RESULTS: A-tDCS decreased VMR and BHI (p < 0.05), whereas C-tDCS increased VMR, and BHI (p < 0.05); Sham doesn't provide statistically significant of both VMR, BHI and HRV (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that tDCS induces a modification of bilateral VMR with a polarity-specific effect; based on this bilateral MFV and BHI modifications, we can speculate an involvement of the SNS in the VMR regulation.


Assuntos
Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Sistema Vasomotor/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 209: 47-51, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25542135

RESUMO

Centenarians are a model to study human longevity and the physiological process of aging. A plethora of studies on this model show the complexity of the system. Laboratory studies fail to find a biomarker of senescence. The real time exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. VOCs exhaled by centenarians have not been studied in the general population and across-age-groups. In the present study we investigated, in real time, the breath properties and VOC exhaled content in healthy centenarians as compared with non-centenarian seniors and young healthy subjects. We found distinctly different breath pattern and distribution profiles of VOCs in the centenarians. Thus, the VOCs measurement allowed to discriminate the differences between the age-groups. We propose a VOCs fingerprint as a biomarker underlying the physiological mechanisms of aging and longevity. Longevity should be considered physiologically as a new phase of life, characteristic of the well adapted subject.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Respiração , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...