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1.
Ultrasound ; 29(4): 270, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777549
2.
Emerg Med J ; 38(3): 178-183, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formalised emergency departments (ED) are in early development in sub-Saharan Africa and there are limited data on emergency airway management in those settings. This study evaluates characteristics and outcomes of ED endotracheal intubation, as well as risk factors for mortality, at a teaching hospital in Rwanda. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients requiring endotracheal intubation at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali ED conducted between 1 January and 31 December 2017. A standardised data collection tool was used to record patient demographics, preintubation clinical presentation, indication for intubation, vital signs. medications and equipment used, and periintubation complications. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Univariate associations were determined for risks of mortality. RESULTS: Of 198 intubations were analysed, 72.7% were male and the median age was 35 years (IQR 23-51). Airway protection was the most common indication for intubation (73.7%). Rapid sequence intubation was performed in 74.2% of cases; sedative-only facilitated intubation in 20.6% and non-drug assisted in 5.2%. The most common agents used were Ketamine for sedation (85.4%) and vecuronium for paralysis (65.7%). All patients were successfully intubated within three attempts, 85.4% on the first attempt. During intubation, 23.1% of patients experienced hypoxia, 6.7% aspiration and 3.6% cardiac arrest. Median ED length of stay was 2 days. Outcome data were available for 164 patients of whom 67.7% died. Bonferroni-corrected univariate analysis demonstrated that mortality was associated with higher postintubation shock index (p=0.0007) and lower postintubation systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p=0.0006). CONCLUSION: The first-attempt and overall success rates for intubation in this ED in Rwanda were comparable to those in high-income countries (HIC). Mortality postintubation is associated with lower postintubation SBP and higher postintubation shock index. The high complication and mortality rates suggest the need for better resources and training to address differences in compared with HIC.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Intubação Intratraqueal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Sinais Vitais
3.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 10(4): 234-238, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299755

RESUMO

Introduction: Every year, >5 million people worldwide die from trauma. In Kigali, Rwanda, 50% of prehospital care provided by SAMU, the public prehospital system, is for trauma. Our collaboration developed and implemented a context-specific, prehospital Emergency Trauma Care Course (ETCC) and train-the-trainers program for SAMU, based on established international best practices. Methods: A context-appropriate two-day ETCC was developed using established best practices consisting of traditional 30-minute lectures followed by 20-minute practical scenario-based team-driven simulation sessions. Also, hands-on skill sessions covered intravenous access, needle thoracostomy and endotracheal intubation among others. Two cohorts participated - SAMU staff who would form an instructor core and emergency staff from ten district, provincial and referral hospitals who are likely to respond to local emergencies in the community. The instructor core completed ETCC 1 and a one-day educator course and then taught the second cohort (ETCC2). Pre and post course assessments were conducted and analyzed using Student's t-test and matched paired t-tests. Results: ETCC 1 had 17 SAMU staff and ETCC 2 had 19 hospital staff. ETCC 1 mean scores increased from 40% to 63% and ETCC 2 increased from 41% to 78% after the course (p < 0.001 using matched pair analysis). A one-way ANOVA mean square analysis showed that regardless of the baseline level of training for each participant, all trainees reached similar post-course assessment scores, F (1) = 15.18, p = 0.0004. Discussion: This study demonstrates effective implementation of a context-appropriate prehospital trauma training program for prehospital staff in Kigali, Rwanda. The course resulted in improved knowledge for an instructor core and for staff from district and provincial hospitals confirming the effectiveness of a train-the-trainers model. This program may be effective to support capacity development for prehospital trauma care in the country using a qualified local source of instructors.

4.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 10(2): 68-73, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612911

RESUMO

Background: Studies from high-income countries (HIC) support restrictive blood transfusion thresholds in medical patients. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the etiologies of anemia and baseline health states differ greatly; optimal transfusion thresholds are unknown. This study evaluated the association of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion with mortality outcomes across hemoglobin levels amongst emergency center (EC) patients presenting with medical pathology in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed using a random sample of patients presenting to the EC at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali. Patients ≥15 years of age, treated for medical emergencies during 2013-16, with EC hemoglobin measurements were included. The relationship between EC PRBC transfusion and patient mortality was evaluated using logistic regression, with stratified analyses performed at hemoglobin levels of 7 mg/dL and 5 mg/dL. Results: Of 3609 cases sampled, 1116 met inclusion. The median age was 42 years (IQR 29, 60) and 45.2% were female. Transfusion occurred in 12.1% of patients. Hematologic (24.4%) and gastrointestinal pathologies (20.7%) were the primary diagnoses of those transfused. Proportional mortality was higher amongst those receiving transfusions, although not statistically significant (23.7% vs 17.0%, p = 0.06). No significant difference in adjusted odds of overall mortality by PRBC transfusion was found. In stratified analysis, patients receiving EC transfusions with a hemoglobin >5.0 mg/dL, had 2.21 times the odds of mortality (95% CI 1.51-3.21) as compared to those ≤5.0 mg/dL. Conclusions: No association between PRBC transfusion and odds of mortality was observed amongst EC patients in this LMIC setting. An increased mortality association was found for patients receiving PRBC transfusions with an initial hemoglobin >5 mg/dL. Results suggest benefits from PRBC transfusion are limited as compared to HIC. Further research evaluating emergent transfusion thresholds for medical pathologies should be performed in LMICs to guide practice.

6.
Digit Health ; 5: 2055207619879349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632685

RESUMO

Objective: Critical care capabilities needed for the management of septic patients, such as continuous vital sign monitoring, are largely unavailable in most emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and accuracy of using a wireless wearable biosensor device for continuous vital sign monitoring in ED patients with suspected sepsis in an LMIC setting. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of pediatric (≥2 mon) and adult patients with suspected sepsis at the Kigali University Teaching Hospital ED. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature measurements were continuously recorded using a wearable biosensor device for the duration of the patients' ED course and compared to intermittent manually collected vital signs. Results: A total of 42 patients had sufficient data for analysis. Mean duration of monitoring was 32.8 h per patient. Biosensor measurements were strongly correlated with manual measurements for heart rate (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (r = 0.75, p < 0.001), although were less strong for temperature (r = 0.61, p < 0.001). Mean (SD) differences between biosensor and manual measurements were 1.2 (11.4) beats/min, 2.5 (5.5) breaths/min and 1.4 (1.0)°C. Technical or practical feasibility issues occurred in 12 patients (28.6%) although were minor and included biosensor detachment, connectivity problems, removal for a radiologic study or exam, and patient/parent desire to remove the device. Conclusions: Wearable biosensor devices can be feasibly implemented and provide accurate continuous heart rate and respiratory rate monitoring in acutely ill pediatric and adult ED patients with sepsis in an LMIC setting.

8.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 9(1): 14-20, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873346

RESUMO

Introduction: Although emergency medicine (EM) training programmes have begun to be introduced in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), minimal data exist on their effects on patient-centered outcomes in such settings. This study evaluated the impact of EM training and associated systems implementation on mortality among patients treated at the University Teaching Hospital-Kigali (UTH-K). Methods: At UTH-K an EM post-graduate diploma programme was initiated in October 2013, followed by a residency-training programme in August 2015. Prior to October 2013, care was provided exclusively by general practice physicians (GPs); subsequently, care has been provided through mutually exclusive shifts allocated between GPs and EM trainees. Patients seeking Emergency Centre (EC) care during November 2012-October 2013 (pre-training) and August 2015-July 2016 (post-training) were eligible for inclusion. Data were abstracted from a random sample of records using a structured protocol. The primary outcomes were EC and overall hospital mortality. Mortality prevalence and risk differences (RD) were compared pre- and post-training. Magnitudes of effects were quantified using regression models to yield adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: From 43,213 encounters, 3609 cases were assessed. The median age was 32 years with a male predominance (60.7%). Pre-training EC mortality was 6.3% (95% CI 5.3-7.5%), while post-training EC mortality was 1.2% (95% CI 0.7-1.8%), constituting a significant decrease in adjusted analysis (aOR = 0.07, 95% CI 0.03-0.17; p < 0.001). Pre-training overall hospital mortality was 12.2% (95% CI 10.9-13.8%). Post-training overall hospital mortality was 8.2% (95% CI 6.9-9.6%), resulting in a 43% reduction in mortality likelihood (aOR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.94; p = 0.016). Discussion: In the studied population, EM training and systems implementation was associated with significant mortality reductions demonstrating the potential patient-centered benefits of EM development in resource-limited settings.

9.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 35(9): 630-636, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28169980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric trauma is a significant public health problem in resource-constrained settings; however, the epidemiology of injuries is poorly defined in Rwanda. This study describes the characteristics of pediatric trauma patients transported to the emergency department (ED) of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali by emergency medical services in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali from December 2012 to February 2015. Patients 15 years or younger brought by emergency medical services for injuries to the ED were included. Prehospital and hospital-based data on demographics, injury characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were gathered. RESULTS: Data from 119 prehospital patients were accrued, with corresponding hospital data for 64 cases. The median age was 9.5 years, with most patients being male (67.2%). Injured children were most frequently brought from a street setting (69.6%). Road traffic injuries accounted for 69.4% of all mechanisms, with more than two thirds due to pedestrians being struck. Extremity trauma was the most common region of injury (53.1%), followed by craniofacial (46.8%). The most frequent ED interventions were analgesia (66.1%) and intravenous fluids (43.6%). Half of the 16 obtained head computed tomography scans demonstrated acute pathology. Twenty-eight patients (51.9%) were admitted, with 57.1% requiring surgery and having a median in-hospital care duration of 9 days (range, 1-122 days). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Rwandan pediatric trauma patients, injuries to the extremities and craniofacial regions were most common. Theses traumatic patterns were predominantly due to road traffic injury, suggesting that interventions addressing the prevention of this mechanism, and treatment of the associated injury patterns, may be beneficial in the Rwandan setting.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
11.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 8(2): 75-78, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456152

RESUMO

Introduction: Healthcare systems must be equipped to handle major incidents. Few have been described in the African setting, including in Rwanda. The purpose of this case report was to describe and discuss two major incident simulations in Rwanda with different challenges. Case report: We report two recent major incident exercises conducted in Rwanda, in 2017. The exercises exemplify two different types of multiple casualty incidents requiring the deployment of extra-ordinary resources, one due to the location of the incident (off-shore), and the other due to the large volume of casualties. Both exercises required extensive multi-agency planning and training beforehand, as part of an increasing awareness of the need for preparedness for these types of incidents. Conclusion: The exercises demonstrated the need for a standardised, physiological method of triage based on clinical needs; this is in order to maximise the number of lives saved. Triage training should be an integral part of further major incident exercises, which should be conducted regularly.

12.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 8(3): 123-125, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815341

RESUMO

Even though the African Federation for Emergency Medicine (AFEM) has been successfully developing emergency care in Africa for the past nine years, a considerable amount of potential AFEM members from the African-Francophone countries are not able to access AFEM resources. In response, an AFEM Francophone Working Group has been created to coordinate all existing and new initiatives to promote emergency care in African-Francophone countries.

13.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 6(4): 168-169, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456088
14.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 6(4): 198-201, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456095

RESUMO

Introduction: The majority of HIV-TB co-infection worldwide is reported in Africa. The risk of developing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) increases as immune deficiency progresses but is difficult to diagnose. Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) can be an effective adjunct to identify and treat EPTB-associated findings using the focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB (FASH) protocol. Case report: Three HIV-infected patients without known history of EPTB presented to a Rwandan district hospital with fever and unclear infection. Initial testing did not reveal a source. Each patient was then evaluated with the FASH protocol by a Rwandan emergency physician with POCUS training. All patients had findings suggestive of EPTB by ultrasound. Anti-TB treatment was initiated, and all subsequently demonstrated symptom improvement. Discussion: This case series demonstrates the additional clinical information obtained. It describes how management was changed using POCUS and the FASH in a resource-limited setting in Rwanda and calls for further FASH protocol validation studies.

15.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 6(4): 191-197, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456094

RESUMO

Introduction: Injury accounts for 9.6% of the global mortality burden, disproportionately affecting those living in low- and middle-income countries. In an effort to improve trauma care in Rwanda, the Ministry of Health developed a prehospital service, Service d'Aide Médicale Urgente (SAMU), and established an emergency medicine training program. However, little is known about patients receiving prehospital and emergency trauma care or their outcomes. The objective was to develop a linked prehospital-hospital database to evaluate patient characteristics, mechanisms of injury, prehospital and hospital resource use, and outcomes among injured patients receiving acute care in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at University Teaching Hospital - Kigali, the primary trauma centre in Rwanda. Data was included on all injured patients transported by SAMU from December 2012 to February 2015. SAMU's prehospital database was linked to hospital records and data were collected using standardised protocols by trained abstractors. Demographic information, injury characteristics, acute care, hospital course and outcomes were included. Results: 1668 patients were transported for traumatic injury during the study period. The majority (77.7%) of patients were male. The median age was 30 years. Motor vehicle collisions accounted for 75.0% of encounters of which 61.4% involved motorcycles. 48.8% of patients sustained injuries in two or more anatomical regions. 40.1% of patients were admitted to the hospital and 78.1% required surgery. The overall mortality rate was 5.5% with nearly half of hospital deaths occurring in the emergency centre. Conclusion: A linked prehospital and hospital database provided critical epidemiological information describing trauma patients in a low-resource setting. Blunt trauma from motor vehicle collisions involving young males constituted the majority of traumatic injury. Among this cohort, hospital resource utilisation was high as was mortality. This data can help guide the implementation of interventions to improve trauma care in the Rwandan setting.

16.
Int J Emerg Med ; 8: 20, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26101554

RESUMO

The 1994 Rwandan war and genocide left more than 1 million people dead; millions displaced; and the country's economic, social, and health infrastructure destroyed. Despite remaining one of the poorest countries in the world, Rwanda has made remarkable gains in health, social, and economic development over the last 20 years, but modern emergency care has been slow to progress. Rwanda has recently established the Human Resources for Health program to rapidly build capacity in multiple sectors of its healthcare delivery system, including emergency medicine. This project involves multiple medical and surgical residencies, nursing programs, allied health professional trainings, and hospital administrative support. A real strength of the program is that trainers work with international faculty at Rwanda's referral hospital, but also as emergency medicine specialty trainers when returning to their respective district hospitals. Rwanda's first emergency medicine trainees are playing a unique and important role in the implementation of emergency care systems and education in the country's district hospitals. While there has been early vital progress in building emergency medicine's foundations in Rwanda, there remains much work to be done. This will be accomplished with careful planning and strong commitment from the country's healthcare and emergency medicine leaders.

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