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1.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 13(2): 85-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194175

RESUMO

Introduction: Routine viral load (VL) testing is fraught with challenges in resource-limited settings which lead to longer turnaround times for the return of VL results. We assessed the turnaround times for VL testing and factors associated with long turnaround (>30 days) in Marondera, Zimbabwe, between January and September 2018. Methods: This was an analytical study of routine program data. Data were extracted from electronic records and paper-based reports at two laboratories and at antiretroviral therapy (ART) facilities. The unit of analysis was the VL sample. Duration (in days) between sample collection and sample testing (pre-test turnaround time), duration between sample testing and receipt of VL result at ART the site (post-test turnaround time), and duration between sample collection and receipt of result at the ART site (overall turnaround time) were calculated. Days on which the VL testing machine was not functional, and workload (number of tests done per month) were used to assess associations. We used binomial log models to assess the factors associated with longer turnaround time. Results: A total of 3348 samples were received at the two VL testing laboratories, and 3313 were tested, of these, 1111 were analyzed for overall turnaround time. Pre-test, post-test, and overall turnaround times were 22 days (interquartile range (IQR): 11-41), 51 days (IQR: 30-89), and 67 days (IQR: 46-100), respectively. Laboratory workload (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.14) and machine break down (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.14-1.17) were associated with long turnaround time. Conclusions: Routine VL turnaround time was long. Decentralizing VL testing and enhancing laboratory capacity may help shorten the turnaround time.

2.
J Trop Med ; 2020: 4761051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518566

RESUMO

Globally, childhood tuberculosis (TB among those aged <15 years) is a neglected component of national TB programmes in high TB burden countries. Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa, is a high burden country for TB, TB-HIV, and drug-resistant TB. In this study, we assessed trends in annual childhood TB notifications in Harare (the capital of Zimbabwe) from 2009 to 2018 and the demographic, clinical profiles, and treatment outcomes of childhood TB patients notified from 2015-2017 by reviewing the national TB programme records and reports. Overall, there was a decline in the total number of TB patients (all ages) from 5,943 in 2009 to 2,831 in 2018. However, the number of childhood TB patients had declined exponentially 6-fold from 583 patients (117 per 100,000 children) in 2009 to 107 patients (18 per 100,000 children) in 2018. Of the 615 childhood TB patients notified between 2015 and 2017, 556 (89%) patient records were available. There were 53% males, 61% were aged <5 years, 92% were new TB patients, 85% had pulmonary TB, and 89% were treated for-drug sensitive TB, 3% for drug-resistant TB, and 40% were HIV positive (of whom 59% were on ART). Although 58% had successful treatment outcomes, the treatment outcomes of 40% were unknown (not recorded or not evaluated), indicating severe gaps in TB care. The disproportionate decline in childhood TB notifications could be due to the reduction in the TB burden among HIV positive individuals from the scale up of antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy. However, the country is experiencing economic challenges which could also contribute to the disproportionate decline in childhood TB notification and gaps in quality of care. There is an urgent need to understand the reasons for the declining trends and the gaps in care.

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