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Front Public Health ; 6: 264, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283768


Background: Modifications of the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) curricula to include a laboratory track (L-Track), to become Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), began in 2004 in Kenya. The L-Track offered candidates training on laboratory competencies in management, policy, quality systems, and diagnostic methods as well as epidemiology, disease surveillance and outbreak response. Since then several FELTPs have discontinued the L-Track and instead offer all candidates, epidemiologists and laboratorians, a single FETP curriculum. Reasons for these changes are reported here. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to directors of 13 FELTP programs collecting information on the status of the programs, reasons for any changes, basic entry qualifications, source institutions and where residents were post enrollment or after graduation. Data from previous CDC internal assessments on FELTP L-Track was also reviewed. Results: Out of the 13 FELTPs included, directors from 10 FELTPs sent back information on their specific programs. The FELTPs in Kenya, Mozambique, Cameroon and Kazakhstan and Mali have discontinued a separate L-Track while those in Ghana, Georgia, Nigeria, Rwanda, and Tanzania continue to offer the separate L-Track. Reasons for discontinuation included lack of standardized curriculum, unclear strategies of the separate L-Track, and funding constraints. Two countries Kenya and Tanzania reported on the career progression of their graduates. Results show 84% (Kenya) and 51% (Tanzania) of candidates in the FELTP, L-Track were recruited from national/regional medical health laboratories. However post-graduation, 56% (Kenya) and 43% (Tanzania) were working as epidemiologists, program managers, program coordinators, or regulatory/inspection boards. Professional upward mobility was high; 87% (Kenya) and 73% (Tanzania) residents, reported promotions either in the same or in new institutions. Conclusions: The FELTP L-Track residents continue to offer critical contributions to public health workforce development with high upward mobility. While this may be a reflection of professional versatility and demand of the FELTP graduates, the move from core laboratory services underscores the challenges in filling and retaining qualified staff within the laboratory systems. Results suggest different strategies are needed to strengthen laboratory management and leadership programs with a clear focus on laboratory systems and laboratory networks to meet current and future clinical and public health laboratory workforce demands.

Antivir Ther ; 21(3): 247-51, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458150


BACKGROUND: Scaling-up antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings has raised concerns of emerging HIV drug resistance (DR) and its transmission to newly infected individuals. To assess the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in recently HIV-infected individuals, a WHO TDR threshold survey was conducted among young adults in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODS: Between May and July 2011, HIV subtype and genotyping were performed on dried blood spots (DBS) prepared from blood specimens collected from newly HIV-diagnosed and ART-naive individuals aged 15 to 21 years in eight HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) sites in Kigali. RESULTS: In total, 57 of the 68 DBS collected from eligible participants were successfully amplified. The median age of participants was 20 years and 86% were female. Most participants (96%) were infected with subtype A1 virus. Two participants (4%) had the K103N non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation and one (2%) had the M46L protease inhibitor (PI) mutation. The TDR prevalence was 3.5% (95% CI 0.4, 12.1) for NNRTI and 1.8% (95% CI 0.0, 9.4) for PI. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV TDR in VCT attendees in Kigali was characterized as low (<5%) for all drug classes according to the WHO HIV DR threshold survey methodology. Despite a decade of widespread ART in Rwanda, TDR prevalence remains low, and so the current first-line ART regimens should continue to be effective. However, as scale-up of ART continues, frequent HIV DR surveillance is needed to monitor the effectiveness of available ART regimens at the population level.

Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Prevalência , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
J Infect Dis ; 206 Suppl 1: S74-9, 2012 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169976


BACKGROUND: In 2008, Rwanda established an influenza sentinel surveillance (ISS) system to describe the epidemiology of influenza and monitor for the emergence of novel influenza A viruses. We report surveillance results from August 2008 to July 2010. METHODS: We conducted ISS by monitoring patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) at 6 hospitals. For each case, demographic and clinical data, 1 nasopharyngeal specimen, and 1 oropharyngeal specimen were collected. Specimens were tested by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses at the National Reference Laboratory in Rwanda. RESULTS: A total of 1916 cases (945 ILI and 971 SARI) were identified. Of these, 29.2% (n = 276) of ILI and 10.4% (n = 101) of SARI cases tested positive for influenza. Of the total influenza-positive cases (n = 377), 71.8% (n = 271) were A(H1N1) pdm09, 5.6% (n = 21) influenza A(H1), 7.7% (n = 29) influenza A(H3), 1.6% (n = 6) influenza A (unsubtyped), and 13.3% (n = 50) influenza B. The percentage of positivity for influenza viruses was highest in October-November and February-March, during peaks in rainfall. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of ISS enabled characterization of the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza in Rwanda for the first time. Future efforts should determine the population-based influenza burden to inform interventions such as targeted vaccination.

Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
J Agric Food Chem ; 54(20): 7405-12, 2006 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17002401


The presence of foreign matter in cotton seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale paid by the spinner to the grower, the efficiency of the spinning and ginning operations, and the quality of the final woven product. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit actions to eliminate or reduce its presence and improve efficiency and quality. Although several instruments are being successfully employed for the measurement of contamination in cotton fibers based on particle size/weight, no commercial instrument is capable of accurate qualitative identification of contaminants. To this end, ATR/FT-IR spectra of retrieved foreign matter were collected and subsequently rapidly matched to an authentic spectrum in a spectral database. The database includes contaminants typically classified as "trash", cotton plant parts (hull, shale, seed-coat fragments, bract, cacyx, leaf, bark, sticks, and stems) and grass plant parts (leaf and stem); "foreign objects and materials", synthetic materials (plastic bags, film, rubber, bale wrapping and strapping); organic materials (other fibers, yarns, paper, feathers, and leather); plus entomological and physiological sugars and inorganic materials (sand and rust). The spectral matching resulted in consistently high-score identification of the foreign matter based on chemical composition, irrespective of its particle size. The method is envisioned to be employed with stand-alone rugged infrared instrumentation to provide specific identification of extraneous materials in cotton as opposed to only general classification of the type by particle size or shape.

Gossypium , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Estruturas Vegetais , Controle de Qualidade , Indústria Têxtil/métodos