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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883330

RESUMO

AIMS: The relative benefits of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA)-guided management in women and men with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease (CHD) are uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this post hoc analysis of an open-label parallel-group multicentre trial, we recruited 4146 patients referred for assessment of suspected angina from 12 cardiology clinics across the UK. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to standard care alone or standard care plus CTCA. Fewer women had typical chest pain symptoms (n = 582, 32.0%) when compared with men (n = 880, 37.9%; P < 0.001). Amongst the CTCA-guided group, more women had normal coronary arteries [386 (49.6%) vs. 263 (26.2%)] and less obstructive CHD [105 (11.5%) vs. 347 (29.8%)]. A CTCA-guided strategy resulted in more women than men being reclassified as not having CHD {19.2% vs. 13.1%; absolute risk difference, 5.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-8.7, P < 0.001]} or having angina due to CHD [15.0% vs. 9.0%; absolute risk difference, 5.6 (2.3-8.9, P = 0.001)]. After a median of 4.8 years follow-up, CTCA-guided management was associated with similar reductions in the risk of CHD death or non-fatal myocardial infarction in women [hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.24-1.04], and men (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95; Pinteraction = 0.572). CONCLUSION: Following the addition of CTCA, women were more likely to be found to have normal coronary arteries than men. This led to more women being reclassified as not having CHD, resulting in more downstream tests and treatments being cancelled. There were similar prognostic benefits of CTCA for women and men.

2.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 201, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are less likely to prescribe guideline-recommended treatments to people with multimorbidity than to people with a single condition. Doubts as to the applicability of clinical trials of drug treatments (the gold standard for evidence-based medicine) when people have co-existing diseases (comorbidity) may underlie this apparent reluctance. Therefore, for a range of index conditions, we measured the comorbidity among participants in clinical trials of novel drug therapies and compared this to the comorbidity among patients in the community. METHODS: Data from industry-sponsored phase 3/4 multicentre trials of novel drug therapies for chronic medical conditions were identified from two repositories: Clinical Study Data Request and the Yale University Open Data Access project. We identified 116 trials (n = 122,969 participants) for 22 index conditions. Community patients were identified from a nationally representative sample of 2.3 million patients in Wales, UK. Twenty-one comorbidities were identified from medication use based on pre-specified definitions. We assessed the prevalence of each comorbidity and the total number of comorbidities (level of multimorbidity), for each trial and in community patients. RESULTS: In the trials, the commonest comorbidities in order of declining prevalence were chronic pain, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, affective disorders, acid-related disorders, asthma/COPD and diabetes. These conditions were also common in community-based patients. Mean comorbidity count for trial participants was approximately half that seen in community-based patients. Nonetheless, a substantial proportion of trial participants had a high degree of multimorbidity. For example, in asthma and psoriasis trials, 10-15% of participants had ≥ 3 conditions overall, while in osteoporosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease trials 40-60% of participants had ≥ 3 conditions overall. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidity and multimorbidity are less common in trials than in community populations with the same index condition. Comorbidity and multimorbidity are, nevertheless, common in trials. This suggests that standard, industry-funded clinical trials are an underused resource for investigating treatment effects in people with comorbidity and multimorbidity.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2032-2043, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major disparities between women and men in the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome are well recognized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific diagnostic thresholds for myocardial infarction in women and men with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial across 10 hospitals. Myocardial injury was defined as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration >99th centile of 16 ng/l in women and 34 ng/l in men. The primary outcome was recurrent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 48,282 patients (47% women) were included. Use of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific thresholds increased myocardial injury in women by 42% and in men by 6%. Following implementation, women with myocardial injury remained less likely than men to undergo coronary revascularization (15% vs. 34%) and to receive dual antiplatelet (26% vs. 43%), statin (16% vs. 26%), or other preventive therapies (p < 0.001 for all). The primary outcome occurred in 18% (369 of 2,072) and 17% (488 of 2,919) of women with myocardial injury before and after implementation, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.92 to 1.33), compared with 18% (370 of 2,044) and 15% (513 of 3,325) of men (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 1.01). CONCLUSIONS: Use of sex-specific thresholds identified 5 times more additional women than men with myocardial injury. Despite this increase, women received approximately one-half the number of treatments for coronary artery disease as men, and outcomes were not improved. (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]; NCT01852123).

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2058-2070, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within the SCOT-HEART (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial) trial of patients with stable chest pain, the use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) reduced the rate of death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction (primary endpoint). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the consistency and mechanisms of the 5-year reduction in this endpoint. METHODS: In this open-label trial, 4,146 participants were randomized to standard care alone or standard care plus coronary CTA. This study explored the primary endpoint by symptoms, diagnosis, coronary revascularizations, and preventative therapies. RESULTS: Event reductions were consistent across symptom and risk categories (p = NS for interactions). In patients who were not diagnosed with angina due to coronary heart disease, coronary CTA was associated with a lower primary endpoint incidence rate (0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to 0.35 vs. 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.80 per 100 patient-years; p < 0.001). In those who had undergone coronary CTA, rates of coronary revascularization were higher in the first year (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.46; p = 0.042) but lower beyond 1 year (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.90; p = 0.015). Patients assigned to coronary CTA had higher rates of preventative therapies throughout follow-up (p < 0.001 for all), with rates highest in those with CT-defined coronary artery disease. Modeling studies demonstrated the plausibility of the observed effect size. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effect of coronary CTA on outcomes is consistent across subgroups with plausible underlying mechanisms. Coronary CTA improves coronary heart disease outcomes by enabling better targeting of preventative treatments to those with coronary artery disease. (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590).

5.
Circulation ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587565

RESUMO

Background: The introduction of more sensitive cardiac troponin assays has led to increased recognition of myocardial injury in acute illnesses other than acute coronary syndrome. The Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction recommends high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) testing and classification of patients with myocardial injury based on aetiology, but the clinical implications of implementing this guideline are not well understood. Methods: In a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial, we implemented a hs-cTn assay and the recommendations of the Universal Definition in 48,282 consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. In a pre-specified secondary analysis, we compared the primary outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death and secondary outcome of non-cardiovascular death at one year across diagnostic categories. Results: Implementation increased the diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction by 11% (510/4,471), type 2 myocardial infarction by 22% (205/916), and acute and chronic myocardial injury by 36% (443/1,233) and 43% (389/898), respectively. Compared to those without myocardial injury, the rate of the primary outcome was highest in those with type 1 myocardial infarction (cause-specific hazard ratio [csHR] 5.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.12 to 6.22), but was similar across diagnostic categories, whereas non-cardiovascular deaths were highest in those with acute myocardial injury (csHR 2.65, 95%CI 2.33 to 3.01). Despite modest increases in anti-platelet therapy and coronary revascularization after implementation in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, the primary outcome was unchanged (csHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.82 to 1.21). Increased recognition of type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury did not lead to changes in investigation, treatment or outcomes. Conclusions: Implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin and the recommendations of the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction identified patients at high-risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, but was not associated with consistent increases in treatment or improved outcomes. Trials of secondary prevention are urgently required to determine whether this risk is modifiable in patients without type 1 myocardial infarction. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT0185212.

6.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(10): 794-804, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 70 million people worldwide are estimated to have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Emerging evidence indicates an association between HCV and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the association between HCV and cardiovascular disease, and estimate the national, regional, and global burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to HCV. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid Global Health, and Web of Science databases from inception to May 9, 2018, without language restrictions, for longitudinal studies that evaluated the risk ratio (RR) of cardiovascular disease in people with HCV compared with those without HCV. Two investigators independently reviewed and extracted data from published reports. The main outcome was cardiovascular disease, defined as hospital admission with, or mortality from, acute myocardial infarction or stroke. We calculated the pooled RR of cardiovascular disease associated with HCV using a random-effects model. Additionally, we calculated the population attributable fraction and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) from HCV-associated cardiovascular disease at the national, regional, and global level. We also used age-stratified and sex-stratified HCV prevalence estimates and cardiovascular DALYs for 100 countries to estimate country-level burden associated with HCV. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018091857. FINDINGS: Our search identified 16 639 records, of which 36 studies were included for analysis, including 341 739 people with HCV. The pooled RR for cardiovascular disease was 1·28 (95% CI 1·18-1·39). Globally, 1·5 million (95% CI 0·9-2·1) DALYs per year were lost due to HCV-associated cardiovascular disease. Low-income and middle-income countries had the highest disease burden with south Asian, eastern European, north African, and Middle Eastern regions accounting for two-thirds of all HCV-associated cardiovascular DALYs. INTERPRETATION: HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The global burden of cardiovascular disease associated with HCV infection was responsible for 1·5 million DALYs, with the highest burden in low-income and middle-income countries. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation and Wellcome Trust.

7.
Heart ; 105(22): 1748-1754, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk in stable patients. Understanding their determinants and identifying modifiable clinical targets may improve outcomes. We aimed to establish clinical and cardiac determinants of these biomarkers. METHODS: This was a prespecified substudy from the randomised Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart trial, which enrolled patients 18-75 years with suspected stable angina between 2010 and 2014 (NCT01149590). We included patients from six centres in whom high-sensitivity troponin I and BNP were measured (Singulex Erenna). Patients with troponin >99th centile upper reference limit (10.2 ng/L) or BNP ≥400 ng/L were excluded to avoid inclusion of patients with myocardial injury or heart failure. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed with troponin and BNP as dependent variables. RESULTS: In total, 885 patients were included; 881 (99%) and 847 (96%) had troponin and BNP concentrations above the limit of detection, respectively. Participants had a slight male preponderance (n=513; 56.1%), and the median age was 59.0 (IQR 51.0-65.0) years. The median troponin and BNP concentrations were 1.4 (IQR 0.90-2.1) ng/L and 29.1 (IQR 14.0-54.0) ng/L, respectively. Age and atherosclerotic burden were independent predictors of both biomarkers. Male sex, left ventricular mass and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of increased troponin. In contrast, female sex and left ventricular volume were independent predictors of increased BNP. CONCLUSIONS: Troponin and BNP are associated with coronary atherosclerosis but have important sex differences and distinct and contrasting associations with CT-determined left ventricular mass and volume. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01149590; Post-results.

8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(6): e735-e747, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India accounts for a disproportionate burden of global childhood illnesses. To inform policies and measure progress towards achieving child health targets, we estimated the annual national and state-specific childhood mortality and morbidity attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) between 2000 and 2015. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used vaccine clinical trial data to estimate the proportion of pneumonia deaths attributable to pneumococcus and Hib. The proportion of meningitis deaths attributable to each pathogen was derived from pathogen-specific meningitis case fatality and bacterial meningitis case data from surveillance studies. We applied these proportions to modelled state-specific pneumonia and meningitis deaths from 2000 to 2015 prepared by the WHO Maternal and Child Epidemiology Estimation collaboration (WHO/MCEE) on the basis of verbal autopsy studies from India. The burden of clinical and severe pneumonia cases attributable to pneumococcus and Hib was ascertained with vaccine clinical trial data and state-specific all-cause pneumonia case estimates prepared by WHO/MCEE by use of risk factor prevalence data from India. Pathogen-specific meningitis cases were derived from state-level modelled pathogen-specific meningitis deaths and state-level meningitis case fatality estimates. Pneumococcal and Hib morbidity due to non-pneumonia, non-meningitis (NPNM) invasive syndromes were derived by applying the ratio of pathogen-specific NPNM cases to pathogen-specific meningitis cases to the state-level pathogen-specific meningitis cases. Mortality due to pathogen-specific NPNM was calculated with the ratio of pneumococcal and Hib meningitis case fatality to pneumococcal and Hib meningitis NPNM case fatality. Census data from India provided the population at risk. FINDINGS: Between 2000 and 2015, estimates of pneumococcal deaths in Indian children aged 1-59 months fell from 166 000 (uncertainty range [UR] 110 000-198 000) to 68 700 (44 600-86 000), while Hib deaths fell from 82 600 (52 300-112 000) to 15 600 (9800-21 500), representing a 58% (UR 22-78) decline in pneumococcal deaths and an 81% (59-91) decline in Hib deaths. In 2015, national mortality rates in children aged 1-59 months were 56 (UR 37-71) per 100 000 for pneumococcal infection and 13 (UR 8-18) per 100 000 for Hib. Uttar Pradesh (18 900 [UR 12 300-23 600]) and Bihar (8600 [5600-10 700]) had the highest numbers of pneumococcal deaths in 2015. Uttar Pradesh (9300 [UR 5900-12 700]) and Odisha (1100 [700-1500]) had the highest numbers of Hib deaths in 2015. Less conservative assumptions related to the proportion of pneumonia deaths attributable to pneumococcus indicate that as many as 118 000 (UR 69 000-140 000) total pneumococcal deaths could have occurred in 2015 in India. INTERPRETATION: Pneumococcal and Hib mortality have declined in children aged 1-59 months in India since 2000, even before nationwide implementation of conjugate vaccines. Introduction of the Hib vaccine in several states corresponded with a more rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with Hib infection. Rapid scale-up and widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and sustained use of the Hib vaccine could help accelerate achievement of child survival targets in India. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

9.
Diabetologia ; 62(3): 418-425, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656362

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to examine trends in the incidence and case fatality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in hospital admissions for angina and coronary revascularisation procedures in people with type 2 diabetes and in people without diabetes in Scotland between 2006 and 2015. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, AMI, angina and revascularisation event data were obtained for adults from hospital admissions and death records linked to a population-based diabetes register. Incidence by diabetes status was estimated using negative binomial models with adjustment or stratification by age, sex, deprivation and calendar year. Logistic regression was used to estimate AMI case fatality by diabetes status. RESULTS: There were 129,926 incident AMI events, 41,263 angina admissions and 69,875 coronary revascularisation procedures carried out during 34.9 million person-years of follow-up. The adjusted incidence of AMI, angina and revascularisation procedures declined by 2.0% (95% CI 1.73%, 2.26%), 9.62% (95% CI 9.22%, 10.01%) and 0.35% (95% CI -0.09%, 0.79%) per year, respectively. The rate of decline did not differ materially by diabetes status. RRs of AMI for type 2 diabetes were 1.86 (95% CI 1.74, 1.98) for men and 2.32 (95% CI 2.15, 2.51) for women. Of the 77,211 people admitted to hospital with a first AMI, 7842 (10.2%) died within 30 days of admission. Case fatality was higher in people with type 2 diabetes than in people without diabetes and declined in both groups by 7.93% (95% CI 7.03%, 8.82%) per year. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The incidence of AMI, angina, revascularisation and AMI case fatality has declined over time, but the increased risk associated with type 2 diabetes has remained approximately constant.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Pectoris/cirurgia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(1): e47-e57, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global child mortality reduced substantially during the Millennium Development Goal period (2000-15). We aimed to estimate morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of risk factors for child pneumonia at the global, regional, and national level for developing countries for the Millennium Development Goal period. METHODS: We estimated the incidence, number of hospital admissions, and in-hospital mortality due to all-cause clinical pneumonia in children younger than 5 years in developing countries at 5-year intervals during the Millennium Development Goal period (2000-15) using data from a systematic review and Poisson regression. We estimated the incidence and number of cases of clinical pneumonia, and the pneumonia burden attributable to HIV for 132 developing countries using a risk-factor-based model that used Demographic and Health Survey data on prevalence of the various risk factors for child pneumonia. We also estimated pneumonia mortality in young children using data from multicause models based on vital registration and verbal autopsy. FINDINGS: Globally, the number of episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children decreased by 22% from 178 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 110-289) in 2000 to 138 million (86-226) in 2015. In 2015, India, Nigeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, and China contributed to more than 54% of all global pneumonia cases, with 32% of the global burden from India alone. Between 2000 and 2015, the burden of clinical pneumonia attributable to HIV decreased by 45%. Between 2000 and 2015, global hospital admissions for child pneumonia increased by 2·9 times with a more rapid increase observed in the WHO South-East Asia Region than the African Region. Pneumonia deaths in this age group decreased from 1·7 million (95% UI 1·7-2·0) in 2000 to 0·9 million (0·8-1·1) in 2015. In 2015, 49% of global pneumonia deaths occurred in India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia collectively. All key risk factors for child pneumonia (non-exclusive breastfeeding, crowding, malnutrition, indoor air pollution, incomplete immunisation, and paediatric HIV), with the exception of low birthweight, decreased across all regions between 2000 and 2015. INTERPRETATION: Globally, the incidence of child pneumonia decreased by 30% and mortality decreased by 51% during the Millennium Development Goal period. These reductions are consistent with the decrease in the prevalence of some of the key risk factors for pneumonia, increasing socioeconomic development and preventive interventions, improved access to care, and quality of care in hospitals. However, intersectoral action is required to improve socioeconomic conditions and increase coverage of interventions targeting risk factors for child pneumonia to accelerate decline in pneumonia mortality and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals for health by 2030. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Pneumonia/mortalidade
11.
Am J Med ; 132(1): 110.e8-110.e21, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays may improve the diagnosis of myocardial infarction but increase the detection of elevated cardiac troponin in patients without acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the prevalence, determinants, and outcome of patients with elevated cardiac troponin attending the emergency department without suspected acute coronary syndrome. We measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin in 918 consecutive patients attending the emergency department without suspected acute coronary syndrome who had blood sampling performed by the attending clinician. Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I was defined as concentrations above the sex-specific 99th percentile threshold. Clinical demographics, physiological measures, and all-cause mortality at 1 year associated with elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations were recorded. RESULTS: Elevated cardiac troponin concentration occurred in 114 (12.4%) patients, of whom 2 (0.2%), 3 (0.3%), and 109 (11.9%) were adjudicated as type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, and myocardial injury, respectively. Elevated troponin concentrations were associated with increasing age, worsening renal function, multimorbidity, and adverse physiology. Across a total of 912 patient-years follow-up, cardiac troponin concentration was a strong predictor of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26 per 2-fold increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.49) independent of age, sex, multimorbidity, and adverse physiology. CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations were elevated in 1 in 8 consecutive patients without suspected acute coronary syndrome attending the emergency department and were associated with increasing age, multimorbidity, adverse physiology, and death. Elevated cardiac troponin in unselected patients predominantly reflects myocardial injury rather than myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lancet ; 392(10151): 919-928, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays permit use of lower thresholds for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but whether this improves clinical outcomes is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay with a sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold would reduce subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised controlled trial across ten secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Scotland, we evaluated the implementation of an hs-cTnI assay in consecutive patients who had been admitted to the hospitals' emergency departments with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they presented with suspected acute coronary syndrome and had paired cardiac troponin measurements from the standard care and trial assays. During a validation phase of 6-12 months, results from the hs-cTnI assay were concealed from the attending clinician, and a contemporary cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay was used to guide care. Hospitals were randomly allocated to early (n=5 hospitals) or late (n=5 hospitals) implementation, in which the high-sensitivity assay and sex-specific 99th centile diagnostic threshold was introduced immediately after the 6-month validation phase or was deferred for a further 6 months. Patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay were defined as those with an increased hs-cTnI concentration in whom cTnI concentrations were below the diagnostic threshold on the contemporary assay. The primary outcome was subsequent myocardial infarction or death from cardiovascular causes at 1 year after initial presentation. Outcomes were compared in patients reclassified by the high-sensitivity assay before and after its implementation by use of an adjusted generalised linear mixed model. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01852123. FINDINGS: Between June 10, 2013, and March 3, 2016, we enrolled 48 282 consecutive patients (61 [SD 17] years, 47% women) of whom 10 360 (21%) patients had cTnI concentrations greater than those of the 99th centile of the normal range of values, who were identified by the contemporary assay or the high-sensitivity assay. The high-sensitivity assay reclassified 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction who were not identified by the contemporary assay. In those reclassified, subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 1 year occurred in 105 (15%) of 720 patients in the validation phase and 131 (12%) of 1051 patients in the implementation phase (adjusted odds ratio for implementation vs validation phase 1·10, 95% CI 0·75 to 1·61; p=0·620). INTERPRETATION: Use of a high-sensitivity assay prompted reclassification of 1771 (17%) of 10 360 patients with myocardial injury or infarction, but was not associated with a lower subsequent incidence of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death at 1 year. Our findings question whether the diagnostic threshold for myocardial infarction should be based on the 99th centile derived from a normal reference population. FUNDING: The British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
13.
Circulation ; 138(11): 1100-1112, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With advances in antiretroviral therapy, most deaths in people with HIV are now attributable to noncommunicable illnesses, especially cardiovascular disease. We determine the association between HIV and cardiovascular disease, and estimate the national, regional, and global burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to HIV. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review across 5 databases from inception to August 2016 for longitudinal studies of cardiovascular disease in HIV infection. A random-effects meta-analysis across 80 studies was used to derive the pooled rate and risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV. We then estimated the temporal changes in the population-attributable fraction and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) from HIV-associated cardiovascular disease from 1990 to 2015 at a regional and global level. National cardiovascular DALYs associated with HIV for 2015 were derived for 154 of the 193 United Nations member states. The main outcome measure was the pooled estimate of the rate and risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV and the national, regional, and global estimates of DALYs from cardiovascular disease associated with HIV. RESULTS: In 793 635 people living with HIV and a total follow-up of 3.5 million person-years, the crude rate of cardiovascular disease was 61.8 (95% CI, 45.8-83.4) per 10 000 person-years. In comparison with individuals without HIV, the risk ratio for cardiovascular disease was 2.16 (95% CI, 1.68-2.77). Over the past 26 years, the global population-attributable fraction from cardiovascular disease attributable to HIV increased from 0.36% (95% CI, 0.21%-0.56%) to 0.92% (95% CI, 0.55%-1.41%), and DALYs increased from 0.74 (95% CI, 0.44-1.16) to 2.57 (95% CI, 1.53-3.92) million. There was marked regional variation with most DALYs lost in sub-Saharan Africa (0.87 million, 95% CI, 0.43-1.70) and the Asia Pacific (0.39 million, 95% CI, 0.23-0.62) regions. The highest population-attributable fraction and burden were observed in Swaziland, Botswana, and Lesotho. CONCLUSIONS: People living with HIV are twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease. The global burden of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease has tripled over the past 2 decades and is now responsible for 2.6 million DALYs per annum with the greatest impact in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia Pacific regions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero . Unique identifier: CRD42016048257.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Adulto , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Diabetes Care ; 41(9): 2010-2018, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of five cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores developed in diabetes populations and compare their performance to QRISK2. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2004 and 2016 was identified from the Scottish national diabetes register. CVD events were identified using linked hospital and death records. Five-year risk of CVD was estimated using each of QRISK2, ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and diamicroN-MR Controlled Evaluation), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), New Zealand Diabetes Cohort Study (NZ DCS), Fremantle Diabetes Study, and Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) risk scores. Discrimination and calibration were assessed using the Harrell C statistic and calibration plots, respectively. RESULTS: The external validation cohort consisted of 181,399 people with type 2 diabetes and no history of CVD. There were 14,081 incident CVD events within 5 years of follow-up. The 5-year observed risk of CVD was 9.7% (95% CI 9.6, 9.9). C statistics varied between 0.66 and 0.67 for all risk scores. QRISK2 overestimated risk, classifying 87% to be at high risk for developing CVD within 5 years; ADVANCE underestimated risk, and the Swedish NDR risk score calibrated well to observed risk. CONCLUSIONS: None of the risk scores performed well among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Using these risk scores to predict 5-year CVD risk in this population may not be appropriate.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(7): e744-e757, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are now used in most countries. To monitor global and regional progress towards improving child health and to inform national policies for disease prevention and treatment, we prepared global, regional, and national disease burden estimates for these pathogens in children from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: Using WHO and Maternal and Child Epidemiology Estimation collaboration country-specific estimates of pneumonia and meningitis mortality and pneumonia morbidity from 2000 to 2015, we applied pneumococcal and Hib cause-specific proportions to estimate pathogen-specific deaths and cases. Summary estimates of the proportion of pneumonia deaths and cases attributable to these pathogens were derived from four Hib vaccine and six PCV efficacy and effectiveness study values. The proportion of meningitis deaths due to each pathogen was derived from bacterial meningitis aetiology and adjusted pathogen-specific meningitis case-fatality data. Pneumococcal and Hib meningitis cases were inferred from modelled pathogen-specific meningitis deaths and literature-derived case-fatality estimates. Cases of pneumococcal and Hib syndromes other than pneumonia and meningitis were estimated using the ratio of pathogen-specific non-pneumonia, non-meningitis cases to pathogen-specific meningitis cases from the literature. We accounted for annual HIV infection prevalence, access to care, and vaccine use. FINDINGS: We estimated that there were 294 000 pneumococcal deaths (uncertainty range [UR] 192 000-366 000) and 29 500 Hib deaths (18 400-40 700) in HIV-uninfected children aged 1-59 months in 2015. An additional 23 300 deaths (15 300-28 700) associated with pneumococcus and fewer than 1000 deaths associated Hib were estimated to have occurred in children infected with HIV. We estimate that pneumococcal deaths declined by 51% (7-74) and Hib deaths by 90% (78-96) from 2000 to 2015. Most children who died of pneumococcus (81%) and Hib (76%) presented with pneumonia. Less conservative assumptions result in pneumococcccal death estimates that could be as high as 515 000 deaths (302 000-609 000) in 2015. Approximately 50% of all pneumococcal deaths in 2015 occurred in four countries in Africa and Asia: India (68 700 deaths, UR 44 600-86 100), Nigeria (49 000 deaths, 32 400-59 000), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (14 500 deaths, 9300-18 700), and Pakistan (14 400 deaths, 9700-17 000]). India (15 600 deaths, 9800-21 500), Nigeria (3600 deaths, 2200-5100), China (3400 deaths, 2300-4600), and South Sudan (1000 deaths, 600-1400) had the greatest number of Hib deaths in 2015. We estimated 3·7 million episodes (UR 2·7 million-4·3 million) of severe pneumococcus and 340 000 episodes (196 000-669 000) of severe Hib globally in children in 2015. INTERPRETATION: The widespread use of Hib vaccine and the recent introduction of PCV in countries with high child mortality is associated with reductions in Hib and pneumococcal cases and deaths. Uncertainties in the burden of pneumococcal disease are largely driven by the fraction of pneumonia deaths attributable to pneumococcus. Progress towards further reducing the global burden of Hib and pneumococcal disease burden will depend on the efforts of a few large countries in Africa and Asia. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas Conjugadas
16.
Circulation ; 138(24): 2774-2786, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials of new glucose-lowering treatments have drawn attention to the importance of hospitalization for heart failure as a complication of diabetes mellitus. However, the epidemiology is not well described, particularly for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We examined the incidence and case-fatality of heart failure hospitalizations in the entire population aged ≥30 years resident in Scotland during 2004 to 2013. METHODS: Date and type of diabetes mellitus diagnosis were linked to heart failure hospitalizations and deaths using the national Scottish registers. Incidence rates and case-fatality were estimated in regression models (quasi-Poisson and logistic regression respectively). All estimates are adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and calendar-year. RESULTS: Over the 10-year period of the study, among 3.25 million people there were 91, 429, 22 959, and 1313 incident heart failure events among those without diabetes mellitus, with type 2, and type 1 diabetes mellitus, respectively. The crude incidence rates of heart failure hospitalization were therefore 2.4, 12.4, and 5.6 per 1000 person-years for these 3 groups. Heart failure hospitalization incidence was higher in people with diabetes mellitus, regardless of type, than in people without. Relative differences were smallest for older men, in whom the difference was nonetheless large (men aged 80, rate ratio 1.78; 95% CI, 1.45-2.19). Rates declined similarly, by 0.2% per calendar-year, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus. Rates fell faster, however, in those with type 1 diabetes mellitus (2.2% per calendar-year, rate ratio for type 1/calendar-year interaction 0.978; 95% CI, 0.959-0.998). Thirty-day case-fatality was similar among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus, but was higher in type 1 diabetes mellitus for men (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.96) and women (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98). Case-fatality declined over time for all groups (3.3% per calendar-year, odds ratio per calendar-year 0.967; 95% CI, 0.961-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Despite falling incidence, particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus, heart failure remains ≈2-fold higher than in people without diabetes mellitus, with higher case-fatality in those with type 1 diabetes mellitus. These findings support the view that heart failure is an under-recognized and important complication in diabetes mellitus, particularly for type 1 disease.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(2): e004227, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We determined whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I can improve the estimation of the pretest probability for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with suspected stable angina. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prespecified substudy of the SCOT-HEART trial (Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart), plasma cardiac troponin was measured using a high-sensitivity single-molecule counting assay in 943 adults with suspected stable angina who had undergone coronary computed tomographic angiography. Rates of obstructive CAD were compared with the pretest probability determined by the CAD Consortium risk model with and without cardiac troponin concentrations. External validation was undertaken in an independent study population from Denmark comprising 487 patients with suspected stable angina. Higher cardiac troponin concentrations were associated with obstructive CAD with a 5-fold increase across quintiles (9%-48%; P<0.001) independent of known cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.46 per doubling of troponin). Cardiac troponin concentrations improved the discrimination and calibration of the CAD Consortium model for identifying obstructive CAD (C statistic, 0.788-0.800; P=0.004; χ2=16.8 [P=0.032] to 14.3 [P=0.074]). The updated model also improved classification of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pretest probability risk categories (net reclassification improvement, 0.062; 95% confidence interval, 0.035-0.089). The revised model achieved similar improvements in discrimination and calibration when applied in the external validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration is an independent predictor of obstructive CAD in patients with suspected stable angina. Use of this test may improve the selection of patients for further investigation and treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01149590.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Angina Estável/sangue , Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Angina Estável/terapia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estenose Coronária/sangue , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Arch Dis Child ; 103(11): 1021-1026, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) remains common. If detected early, DDH can usually be corrected with conservative management. Late presentations often require surgery and have worse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the risk of undergoing surgery for DDH by age 3 years before and after the introduction of enhanced DDH detection services. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Scotland, 1997/98-2010/11. PATIENTS: All children. METHODS: Using routinely collected national hospital discharge records, we examined rates of first surgery for DDH by age 3 by March 2014. Using a difference in difference analysis, we compared rates in two areas of Scotland before (to April 2002) and after (from April 2005) implementation of enhanced DDH detection services to those seen in the rest of Scotland. RESULTS: For children born in the study period, the risk of first surgery for DDH by age 3 was 1.18 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.26) per 1000 live births (918/777 375).Prior to April 2002, the risk of surgery was 1.13 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.42) and 1.31 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.46) per 1000 live births in the intervention and non-intervention areas, respectively. In the intervention areas, from April 2005, this risk halved (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.68). The risk remained unchanged in other areas (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.18). The ratio for the difference in change of risk was 0.46 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of enhanced DDH detection services can produce substantial reductions in the number of children having surgical correction for DDH.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diagnóstico Precoce , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico , Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diagnóstico Tardio/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/epidemiologia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia
19.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(5): 608-614, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406772

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cardiovascular disease is a common comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although ß-blockers can be used safely in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concerns remain regarding safety and efficacy interactions in patients using concomitant inhaled long-acting ß-agonists. OBJECTIVES: To compare the differential effects of long-acting ß-agonist or inhaled corticosteroid use on clinical outcomes in patients with heightened cardiovascular risk treated and not treated with ß-blockers. METHODS: We examined data from 16,485 participants in the SUMMIT study (Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity in COPD) who were randomized to once-daily inhaled fluticasone furoate, vilanterol, fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination, or placebo and examined the associations between treatment allocation and lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality, stratified by baseline ß-blocker therapy. RESULTS: Baseline ß-blocker therapy was used by 31% (n = 5,159) of SUMMIT participants. There was no evidence of an interaction between baseline ß-blocker therapy and the association between inhaled treatments and forced expiratory volume in 1 second at 3 months (P = 0.27), 6 months (P = 0.14), or 12 months (P = 0.33). The placebo-adjusted mean differences in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second at 3 months in the vilanterol-alone group were 58 ml (95% confidence interval, 38-78) in those receiving baseline ß-blocker therapy and 51 ml (95% confidence interval, 38-65) in those not receiving baseline ß-blocker therapy. The placebo-adjusted mean differences in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second at 3 months in the combination fluticasone furoate/vilanterol group were 85 ml (95% confidence interval, 65-105) in those receiving baseline ß-blocker therapy and 68 ml (95% confidence interval, 54-82) in those not receiving baseline ß-blocker therapy. Overall, there was no evidence of interaction by randomized treatment, including vilanterol alone or in combination with fluticasone furoate, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations (P = 0.18), cardiovascular composite events (P = 0.33), and all-cause mortality (P = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to suggest that baseline ß-blocker therapy reduces the respiratory benefits or increases the cardiovascular risk of inhaled long-acting ß-agonists in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heightened cardiovascular risk. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01313676).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Progressão da Doença , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 252: 31-34, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain (PROMISE) minimal-risk tool was recently developed to identify patients with suspected stable angina at very low risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and clinical events. We assessed the external validity of this tool within the context of the Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) multicenter randomised controlled trial of patients with suspected stable angina due to coronary disease. METHODS: The minimal-risk tool was applied to 1764 patients with complete imaging and follow-up data. External validity was compared with the guideline-endorsed CAD Consortium (CADC) risk score and determined through tests of model discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: A total of 531 (30.1%, mean age 52.4years, female 62.0%) patients were classified as minimal-risk. Compared to the remainder of the validation cohort, this group had lower estimated pre-test probability of coronary disease according to the CADC model (30.0% vs 47.0%, p<0.001). The PROMISE minimal-risk tool improved discrimination compared with the CADC model (c-statistic 0.785 vs 0.730, p<0.001) and was improved further following re-estimation of covariate coefficients (c-statistic 0.805, p<0.001). Model calibration was initially poor (χ2 197.6, Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] p<0.001), with significant overestimation of probability of minimal risk, but improved significantly following revision of the PROMISE minimal-risk intercept and covariate coefficients (χ2 5.6, HL p=0.692). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Despite overestimating the probability of minimal-risk, the PROMISE minimal-risk tool outperforms the CADC model with regards to prognostic discrimination in patients with suspected stable angina, and may assist clinicians in decisions regarding non-invasive testing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01149590.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Idoso , Angina Estável/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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