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1.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211067551, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current consensus and position statements recommend that concussed patients be asymptomatic upon the initiation of the graduated return to activity (RTA) protocol. However, a significant number of concussed patients are beginning their RTA protocols while endorsing symptoms. PURPOSE: To characterize symptom endorsement at the beginning of the RTA protocol and examine the association between symptom endorsement and RTA protocol duration in service academy cadets. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted with cadets at 3 US service academies. Postconcussion symptom inventories were recorded upon the initiation of an RTA protocol. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool Symptom Inventory was used to classify participants into 3 groups (0 symptoms, 1 symptom, and ≥2 symptoms) upon the initiation of the RTA protocol. The primary outcome of interest was RTA protocol duration. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated to estimate RTA protocol duration by symptom endorsement, sex, varsity status, academic break, and time to graduated RTA initiation. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between symptom endorsement at the initiation of the RTA protocol and RTA protocol duration (α < .05). RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 966 concussed cadets (36% women). Headache (42%) and faintness/dizziness (44%) were the most commonly endorsed symptoms on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, respectively. Univariate results revealed a significant association between endorsing ≥2 symptoms and RTA protocol duration. In the multivariable model, endorsing ≥2 symptoms maintained a statistically significant association with RTA protocol duration. Significant associations were observed between RTA protocol duration and nonvarsity status (27% longer), women (15% longer), academic breaks (70% longer), and time to the initiation of the RTA protocol (1.1% longer daily incremental increase) after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSION: Symptom endorsement at the initiation of an RTA protocol was associated with RTA protocol duration. Cadets who had returned to preinjury baseline symptom burden or improved from baseline symptom burden and endorsed ≥2 symptoms at the initiation of the RTA protocol took longer to RTA.

2.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709396

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The King-Devick (K-D) is used to identify oculomotor impairment following concussion. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the K-D over time has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: (a) Examine the sensitivity and specificity of the K-D test at 0-6 hours of injury, 24-48 hours, asymptomatic, return-to-play, and 6-months following concussion and (b) compare outcomes for differentiating athletes with a concussion from non-concussed across confounding factors (sex, age, contact level, school year, learning disorder, ADHD, concussion history, migraine history, administration mode). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional design. SETTING: Multisite institutions within the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: 1239 total collegiate athletes without a concussion (age=20.31±1.18, male=52.2%) were compared to 320 athletes with a concussion (age=19.80±1.41, male=51.3%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We calculated K-D time difference (sec) by subtracting baseline from the most recent time. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy across timepoints. We identified cutoff scores and corresponding specificity at 80% and 70% sensitivity levels. We repeated ROC with AUC outcomes by confounding factors. RESULTS: King-Devick predicted positive results at 0-6 hours (AUC=0.724, p<0.001), 24-48 hours (AUC=0.701, p<0.001), return-to-play (AUC=0.640, P<0.001), and 6-months (AUC=0.615, P<0.001), but not at asymptomatic (AUC=0.513, P=0.497). The 0-6 and 24-48-hour timepoints yielded an 80% sensitivity cutoff score of -2.6 and -3.2 seconds (faster) respectively, but 46% and 41% specificity. The K-D test had significantly better AUC when administered on an iPad (AUC=0.800, 95%CI:0.747,0.854) compared to the spiral card system (AUC=0.646, 95%CI:0.600,0.692; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The K-D test has the greatest diagnostic accuracy at 0-6 and 24-48 hours of concussion, but declines across subsequent post-injury timepoints. AUCs did not significantly differentiate between groups for confounding factors. Our negative cutoff scores indicate that practice effects contribute to improved performance, requiring athletes to outperform their baseline.

3.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466653

RESUMO

Introduction: Head injuries (HI) are a risk factor for dementia, but the underlying etiology is not fully known. Understanding whether tau might mediate this relationship is important. Methods: Cognition and tau deposition were compared between 752 individuals with (impaired, n = 302) or without cognitive impairment (CN, n = 450) with amyloid and [18F]flortaucipir positron emission tomography, HI history information, and cognitive testing from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Indiana Memory and Aging Study. Results: Sixty-three (38 CN, 25 impaired) reported a history of HI. Higher neuropsychiatric scores and poorer memory were observed in those with a history of HI. Tau was higher in individuals with a history of HI, especially those who experienced a loss of consciousness (LOC). Results were driven by impaired individuals, especially amyloid beta-positive individuals with history of HI with LOC. Discussion: These findings suggest biological changes, such as greater tau, are associated with HI in individuals with cognitive impairment. Small effect sizes were observed; thus, further studies should replicate and extend these results.

4.
J Athl Train ; 56(8): 851-859, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375406

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Preseason testing can be time intensive and cost prohibitive. Therefore, using normative data for postconcussion interpretation in lieu of preseason testing is desirable. OBJECTIVE: To establish the recovery trajectory for clinical reaction time (RTclin) and assess the usefulness of changes from baseline (comparison of postconcussion scores with individual baseline scores) and norm-based cutoff scores (comparison of postconcussion scores with a normative mean) for identifying impairments postconcussion. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Multisite clinical setting. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: An overlapping sample of 99 participants (age = 19.0 ± 1.1 years) evaluated within 6 hours postconcussion, 176 participants (age = 18.9 ± 1.1 years) evaluated at 24 to 48 hours postconcussion, and 214 participants (age = 18.9 ± 1.1 years) evaluated once they were cleared to begin a return-to-play progression were included. Participants with concussion were compared with 942 control participants (age = 19.0 ± 1.0 years) who did not sustain a concussion during the study period but completed preseason baseline testing at 2 points separated by 1 year (years 1 and 2). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): At each time point, follow-up RTclin (ie, postconcussion or year 2) was compared with the individual year 1 preseason baseline RTclin and normative baseline data (ie, sex and sport specific). Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to compare the sensitivity and specificity of RTclin change from baseline and norm-based cutoff scores. RESULTS: Clinical reaction time performance declined within 6 hours (18 milliseconds, 9.2% slower than baseline). The decline persisted at 24 to 48 hours (15 milliseconds, 7.6% slower than baseline), but performance recovered by the time of return-to-play initiation. Within 6 hours, a change from baseline of 16 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (52%) and specificity (79%, area under the curve [AUC] = 0.702), whereas a norm-based cutoff score of 19 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (46%) and specificity (86%, AUC = 0.700). At 24 to 48 hours, a change from baseline of 2 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (64%) and specificity (61%, AUC = 0.666), whereas a norm-based cutoff score of 0 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (63%) and specificity (62%, AUC = 0.647). CONCLUSIONS: Norm-based cutoff scores can be used for interpreting RTclin scores postconcussion in collegiate athletes when individual baseline data are not available, although low sensitivity and specificity limit the use of RTclin as a stand-alone test.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Tempo de Reação , Adolescente , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Volta ao Esporte , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sports Med ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concussion pre-injury (i.e., baseline) assessments serve as a benchmark comparison point in the event an individual sustains a concussion and allows clinicians to compare to post-injury measures. However, baseline assessments must reflect the individual's true and most optimized performance to serve as a useful comparison. Mental fatigue and motivation throughout baseline testing may alter individual assessment performance, indicating an order of administration (OoA) may play an influential role in assessment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence concussion baseline battery OoA has on symptom, postural stability, cognitive screening, and computerized neurocognitive test outcomes. METHODS: We employed a retrospective observational cohort study to examine healthy collegiate student-athletes and military cadets (n = 2898, 19.0 ± 1.4 years, 66.1% male, 75.6% white, 54.4% Division-I) baseline assessment performance on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT; total symptom number and severity), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS; total error scores), Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC; total score), and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) domain scores (verbal and visual memory, visual-motor speed, reaction time). Assessments were binned to beginning, middle, or end tertiles based upon OoA. We used one-way ANOVAs with Tukey post-hoc t tests, 95% confidence intervals (CI), and Cohen's d effect sizes for significant models (α = 0.05). RESULTS: SCAT total symptom number (mean difference = 2.23; 95% CI 1.76-2.70; d = 0.49, p < 0.001) and severity (mean difference = 5.58; 95% CI 4.42-6.74; d = 0.50; p < 0.001) were lower when completed at the end of baseline testing compared to the middle. Total BESS errors were 1.06 lower when completed at the middle relative to the end (95% CI 0.43-1.69; d = 0.17; p = 0.001). Total SAC scores were better at the beginning relative to middle (mean difference = 0.58; 95% CI 0.25-0.90; d = 0.33; p < 0.001) and end (mean difference = 0.44; 95% CI 0.16-0.73; d = 0.24; p = 0.001). Verbal memory, visual memory, and reaction time performance were highest at the beginning (p ≤ 0.002), while visual-motor speed performance was highest at the middle (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Completing baseline assessments in the order of (1) ImPACT, (2) SAC, (3) BESS, and (4) SCAT symptom checklist may improve performance across assessments collectively. Clinicians and researchers should consider completing baseline assessments in this order when possible to potentially aid in optimizing concussion baseline assessment performance and maximize post-concussion comparisons.

7.
Neurology ; 96(18): 848-863, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-informed, expert consensus research diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES), the clinical disorder associated with neuropathologically diagnosed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). METHODS: A panel of 20 expert clinician-scientists in neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, from 11 academic institutions, participated in a modified Delphi procedure to achieve consensus, initiated at the First National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Consensus Workshop to Define the Diagnostic Criteria for TES, April, 2019. Before consensus, panelists reviewed evidence from all published cases of CTE with neuropathologic confirmation, and they examined the predictive validity data on clinical features in relation to CTE pathology from a large clinicopathologic study (n = 298). RESULTS: Consensus was achieved in 4 rounds of the Delphi procedure. Diagnosis of TES requires (1) substantial exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHIs) from contact sports, military service, or other causes; (2) core clinical features of cognitive impairment (in episodic memory and/or executive functioning) and/or neurobehavioral dysregulation; (3) a progressive course; and (4) that the clinical features are not fully accounted for by any other neurologic, psychiatric, or medical conditions. For those meeting criteria for TES, functional dependence is graded on 5 levels, ranging from independent to severe dementia. A provisional level of certainty for CTE pathology is determined based on specific RHI exposure thresholds, core clinical features, functional status, and additional supportive features, including delayed onset, motor signs, and psychiatric features. CONCLUSIONS: New consensus diagnostic criteria for TES were developed with a primary goal of facilitating future CTE research. These criteria will be revised as updated clinical and pathologic information and in vivo biomarkers become available.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA)/normas , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Educação/normas , Educação/tendências , Humanos , National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA)/tendências , Síndrome , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Neurotrauma ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677994

RESUMO

Few studies have analyzed the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool's (SCAT) utility among athletes whose concussion assessment is challenging. Using a previously published algorithm, we identified possible and probable concussions at <6 h (n = 393 males, n = 265 females) and 24-48 h (n = 323 males, n = 236 females) post-injury within collegiate student-athletes and cadets from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium. We applied cluster analysis to characterize performance on the Standard Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and the SCAT symptom checklist for these athletes. Among the cluster sets that best separated acute concussions and normal performances, total symptom number raw score and change and post-traumatic migraine raw score and change score were the most frequent clustering variables across males and females at <6 h and 24-48 h. Similarly, total symptom number raw score and change score and post-traumatic migraine raw score and change score were most significantly different between clusters for males and females at <6 h and 24-48 h. Our results suggest that clinicians should focus on total symptom number, post-traumatic migraine symptoms, and cognitive-fatigue symptoms when assessing possible and probable concussions, followed by the SAC and BESS scores.

9.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(3): 346-350, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523101

RESUMO

Importance: Concussion ranks among the most common injuries in football. Beyond the risks of concussion are growing concerns that repetitive head impact exposure (HIE) may increase risk for long-term neurologic health problems in football players. Objective: To investigate the pattern of concussion incidence and HIE across the football season in collegiate football players. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational cohort study conducted from 2015 to 2019 across 6 Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football programs participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium, a total of 658 collegiate football players were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System (46.5% of 1416 eligible football players enrolled in the CARE Advanced Research Core). Players were prioritized for instrumentation with the HIT System based on their level of participation (ie, starters prioritized over reserves). Exposure: Participation in collegiate football games and practices from 2015 to 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of diagnosed concussion and HIE from the HIT System. Results: Across 5 seasons, 528 684 head impacts recorded from 658 players (all male, mean age [SD], 19.02 [1.25] years) instrumented with the HIT System during football practices or games met quality standards for analysis. Players sustained a median of 415 (interquartile range [IQR], 190-727) recorded head impacts (ie, impacts) per season. Sixty-eight players sustained a diagnosed concussion. In total, 48.5% of concussions (n = 33) occurred during preseason training, despite preseason representing only 20.8% of the football season (0.059 preseason vs 0.016 regular-season concussions per team per day; mean difference, 0.042; 95% CI, 0.020-0.060; P = .001). Total HIE in the preseason occurred at twice the proportion of the regular season (324.9 vs 162.4 impacts per team per day; mean difference, 162.6; 95% CI, 110.9-214.3; P < .001). Every season, HIE per athlete was highest in August (preseason) (median, 146.0 impacts; IQR, 63.0-247.8) and lowest in November (median, 80.0 impacts; IQR, 35.0-148.0). Over 5 seasons, 72% of concussions (n = 49) (game proportion, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.18-0.40; P < .001) and 66.9% of HIE (262.4 practices vs 137.2 games impacts per player; mean difference, 125.3; 95% CI, 110.0-140.6; P < .001) occurred in practice. Even within the regular season, total HIE in practices (median, 175.0 impacts per player per season; IQR, 76.0-340.5) was 84.2% higher than in games (median, 95.0 impacts per player per season; IQR, 32.0-206.0). Conclusions and Relevance: Concussion incidence and HIE among college football players are disproportionately higher in the preseason than regular season, and most concussions and HIE occur during football practices, not games. These data point to a powerful opportunity for policy, education, and other prevention strategies to make the greatest overall reduction in concussion incidence and HIE in college football, particularly during preseason training and football practices throughout the season, without major modification to game play. Strategies to prevent concussion and HIE have important implications to protecting the safety and health of football players at all competitive levels.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037731, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616662

RESUMO

Importance: Validation of protein biomarkers for concussion diagnosis and management in military combative training is important, as these injuries occur outside of traditional health care settings and are generally difficult to diagnose. Objective: To investigate acute blood protein levels in military cadets after combative training-associated concussions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter prospective case-control study was part of a larger cohort study conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the US Department of Defense Concussion Assessment Research and Education (CARE) Consortium from February 20, 2015, to May 31, 2018. The study was performed among cadets from 2 CARE Consortium Advanced Research Core sites: the US Military Academy at West Point and the US Air Force Academy. Cadets who incurred concussions during combative training (concussion group) were compared with cadets who participated in the same combative training exercises but did not incur concussions (contact-control group). Clinical measures and blood sample collection occurred at baseline, the acute postinjury point (<6 hours), the 24- to 48-hour postinjury point, the asymptomatic postinjury point (defined as the point at which the cadet reported being asymptomatic and began the return-to-activity protocol), and 7 days after return to activity. Biomarker levels and estimated mean differences in biomarker levels were natural log (ln) transformed to decrease the skewness of their distributions. Data were collected from August 1, 2016, to May 31, 2018, and analyses were conducted from March 1, 2019, to January 14, 2020. Exposure: Concussion incurred during combative training. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proteins examined included glial fibrillary acidic protein, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1, neurofilament light chain, and tau. Quantification was conducted using a multiplex assay (Simoa; Quanterix Corp). Clinical measures included the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition symptom severity evaluation, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the 18-item Brief Symptom Inventory. Results: Among 103 military service academy cadets, 67 cadets incurred concussions during combative training, and 36 matched cadets who engaged in the same training exercises did not incur concussions. The mean (SD) age of cadets in the concussion group was 18.6 (1.3) years, and 40 cadets (59.7%) were male. The mean (SD) age of matched cadets in the contact-control group was 19.5 (1.3) years, and 25 cadets (69.4%) were male. Compared with cadets in the contact-control group, those in the concussion group had significant increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean difference in ln values, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.50; P < .001) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (mean difference in ln values, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.44-1.50; P < .001) levels at the acute postinjury point. The glial fibrillary acidic protein level remained high in the concussion group compared with the contact-control group at the 24- to 48-hour postinjury point (mean difference in ln values, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.38; P = .007) and the asymptomatic postinjury point (mean difference in ln values, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.05-0.36; P = .01). The area under the curve for all biomarkers combined, which was used to differentiate cadets in the concussion and contact-control groups, was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P < .001) at the acute postinjury point. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings indicate that blood biomarkers have potential for use as research tools to better understand the pathobiological changes associated with concussion and to assist with injury identification and recovery from combative training-associated concussions among military service academy cadets. These results extend the previous findings of studies of collegiate athletes with sport-associated concussions.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/sangue , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/sangue , Militares , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/sangue , Proteínas tau/sangue , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/sangue , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/sangue , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(2): 162-171, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since concussion is the most common injury in ice hockey, the objective of the current study was to elucidate risk factors, specific mechanisms, and clinical presentations of concussion in men's and women's ice hockey. METHODS: Ice hockey players from 5 institutions participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium were eligible for the current study. Participants who sustained a concussion outside of this sport were excluded. There were 332 (250 males, 82 females) athletes who participated in ice hockey, and 47 (36 males, 11 females) who sustained a concussion. RESULTS: Previous concussion (odds ratio (OR) = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.02‒3.91) was associated with increased incident concussion odds, while wearing a mouthguard was protective against incident concussion (OR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.22‒0.85). Overall, concussion mechanisms did not significantly differ between sexes. There were specific differences in how concussions presented clinically across male and female ice hockey players, however. Females (9.09%) were less likely than males (41.67%) to have a delayed symptom onset (p = 0.045). Additionally, females took significantly longer to reach asymptomatic (p = 0.015) and return-to-play clearance (p = 0.005). Within the first 2 weeks post-concussion, 86.11% of males reached asymptomatic, while only 45.50% of females reached the same phase of recovery. Most males (91.67%) were cleared for return to play within 3 weeks of their concussion, compared to less than half (45.50%) of females. CONCLUSION: The current study proposes possible risk factors, mechanisms, and clinical profiles to be validated in future concussions studies with larger female sample sizes. Understanding specific risk factors, concussion mechanisms, and clinical profiles of concussion in collegiate ice hockey may generate ideas for future concussion prevention or intervention studies.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Hóquei/lesões , Doenças Assintomáticas , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Hóquei/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Protetores Bucais , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Volta ao Esporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sports Med ; 51(5): 1087-1105, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptom resolution is a key marker in determining fitness for return to activity following concussion, but in some cases, distinguishing persistent symptoms due to concussion versus symptoms related to other factors can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: To determine base rates of postconcussional syndrome (PCS) diagnostic categorization in healthy cadets and student athletes with no recent concussion. METHODS: 13,009 cadets and 21,006 student athletes completed baseline preseason testing. After inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample included 12,039 cadets [9123 men (75.8%); 2916 women (24.2%)] and 18,548 student athletes [10,192 men (54.9%); 8356 women (45.1%)]. Participants completed the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3rd Edition (SCAT3) symptom evaluation as part of baseline preseason testing. The PCS diagnostic categorization was classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) symptom criteria for PCS. RESULTS: In the absence of recent concussion, subgroups of cadets (17.8% of men; 27.6% of women) and student athletes (11.4% of men; 20.0% of women) reported a cluster of symptoms that would meet the ICD-10 symptom criteria for PCS. Participants with insufficient sleep and/or preexisting conditions (e.g., mental health problems), freshmen cadets, and cadets at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy and at the U.S. Air Force Academy (freshmen were tested during basic cadet training) were more likely to report a cluster of symptoms that would meet the ICD-10 symptom criteria for PCS. CONCLUSION: The ICD-10 symptom criteria for PCS can be mimicked by preexisting conditions, insufficient sleep, and/or stress. Findings support person-specific assessment and management of symptoms following concussion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
13.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(24): 1387-1394, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine sex differences in sport-related concussion (SRC) across comparable sports. METHODS: Prospective cohort of collegiate athletes enrolled between 2014 and 2017 in the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education Consortium study. RESULTS: Among 1071 concussions (females=615; 57.4%), there was no difference in recovery (median days to full return to play) (females=13.5 (IQR 9.0, 23.1) vs males=11.8 (IQR 8.1, 19.0), p=0.96). In subgroup analyses, female recovery was longer in contact (females=12.7 days (IQR 8.8, 21.4) vs males=11.0 days (IQR 7.9, 16.2), p=0.0021), while male recovery was longer in limited contact sports (males=16.9 days (IQR 9.7, 101.7) vs females=13.8 days (IQR 9.1, 22.0), p<0.0001). There was no overall difference in recovery among Division I schools (females=13.7 (IQR 9.0, 23.1) vs males=12.2 (IQR 8.2 19.7), p=0.5), but females had longer recovery at the Division II/III levels (females=13.0 (IQR 9.2, 22.7) vs males=10.6 (IQR 8.1, 13.9), p=0.0048). CONCLUSION: Overall, no difference in recovery between sexes across comparable women's and men's sports in this collegiate cohort was found. However, females in contact and males in limited contact sports experienced longer recovery times, while females had longer recovery times at the Division II/III level. These disparate outcomes indicate that, while intrinsic biological sex differences in concussion recovery may exist, important, modifiable extrinsic factors may play a role in concussion outcomes.

14.
Sports Med ; 51(2): 351-365, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To optimally care for concussed individuals, a multi-dimensional approach is critical and a key component of this assessment in the athletic environment is computer-based neurocognitive testing. However, there continues to be concerns about the reliability and validity of these testing tools. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of three common computer-based neurocognitive tests (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT], CNS Vital Signs, and CogState Computerized Assessment Tool [CCAT]), to provide guidance on their clinical utility. METHODS: This study analyzed assessments from a cohort of collegiate athletes and non-varsity cadets from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium. The data were collected from 2014-2018. Study participants were divided into two testing groups [concussed, n = 1414 (baseline/24-48 h) and healthy, n = 8305 (baseline/baseline)]. For each test type, change scores were calculated for the components of interest. Then, the Normative Change method, which used normative data published in a similar cohort, and the Reliable Change Index (RCI) method were used to determine if the change scores were significant. RESULTS: Using the Normative Change method, ImPACT performed best with an 87.5%-confidence interval and 1 number of components failed (NCF; sensitivity = 0.583, specificity = 0.625, F1 = 0.308). CNS Vital Signs performed best with a 90%-confidence interval and 1 NCF (sensitivity = 0.587, specificity = 0.532, F1 = 0.314). CCAT performed best when using a 75%-confidence interval and 2 NCF (sensitivity = 0.513, specificity = 0.715, F1 = 0.290). When using the RCI method, ImPACT performed best with an 87.5%-confidence interval and 1 NCF (sensitivity = 0.626, specificity = 0.559, F1 = 0.297). CONCLUSION: When considering all three computer-based neurocognitive tests, the overall low sensitivity and specificity results provide additional evidence for the use of a multi-dimensional assessment for concussion diagnosis, including symptom evaluation, postural control assessment, neuropsychological status, and other functional assessments.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Computadores , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(8): 1107-1123, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799308

RESUMO

There is a growing literature on the impact of genetic variation on outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Whereas a substantial proportion of these publications have focused on the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, several have explored the influence of other polymorphisms. We undertook a systematic review of the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-apolipoprotein E (non-APOE) genes associated with patient outcomes in adult TBI). We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and gray literature from inception to the beginning of August 2017 for studies of genetic variance in relation to patient outcomes in adult TBI. Sixty-eight articles were deemed eligible for inclusion into the systematic review. The SNPs described were in the following categories: neurotransmitter (NT) in 23, cytokine in nine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in 12, mitochondrial genes in three, and miscellaneous SNPs in 21. All studies were based on small patient cohorts and suffered from potential bias. A range of SNPs associated with genes coding for monoamine NTs, BDNF, cytokines, and mitochondrial proteins have been reported to be associated with variation in global, neuropsychiatric, and behavioral outcomes. An analysis of the tissue, cellular, and subcellular location of the genes that harbored the SNPs studied showed that they could be clustered into blood-brain barrier associated, neuroprotective/regulatory, and neuropsychiatric/degenerative groups. Several small studies report that various NT, cytokine, and BDNF-related SNPs are associated with variations in global outcome at 6-12 months post-TBI. The association of these SNPs with neuropsychiatric and behavioral outcomes is less clear. A definitive assessment of role and effect size of genetic variation in these genes on outcome remains uncertain, but could be clarified by an adequately powered genome-wide association study with appropriate recording of outcomes.

16.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(2): 225-234, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635808

RESUMO

Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors differ with respect to patterns of regional brain distribution and behavioral effects. Pre-clinical work suggests that D1 agonists enhance working memory, but the absence of selective D1 agonists has constrained using this approach in humans. This study examines working memory performance in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients when given pergolide, a mixed D1/D2 agonist, compared with bromocriptine, a selective D2 agonist. Fifteen individuals were studied 1 month after mTBI and compared with 17 healthy controls. At separate visits, participants were administered 1.25 mg bromocriptine or 0.05 mg pergolide prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a working memory task (visual-verbal n-back). Results indicated a significant group-by-drug interaction for mean performance across n-back task conditions, where the mTBI group showed better performance on pergolide relative to bromocriptine, whereas controls showed the opposite pattern. There was also a significant effect of diagnosis, where mTBI patients performed worse than controls, particularly while on bromocriptine, as shown in our prior work. Functional MRI activation during the most challenging task condition (3-back > 0-back contrast) showed a significant group-by-drug interaction, with the mTBI group showing increased activation relative to controls in working memory circuitry while on pergolide, including in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Across participants there was a positive correlation between change in activation in this region and change in performance between drug conditions. Results suggest that activation of the D1 receptor may improve working memory performance after mTBI. This has implications for the development of pharmacological strategies to treat cognitive deficits after mTBI.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bromocriptina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pergolida/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 27(1): 23-34, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In response to advancing clinical practice guidelines regarding concussion management, service members, like athletes, complete a baseline assessment prior to participating in high-risk activities. While several studies have established test stability in athletes, no investigation to date has examined the stability of baseline assessment scores in military cadets. The objective of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of a baseline concussion test battery in cadets at U.S. Service Academies. METHODS: All cadets participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium investigation completed a standard baseline battery that included memory, balance, symptom, and neurocognitive assessments. Annual baseline testing was completed during the first 3 years of the study. A two-way mixed-model analysis of variance (intraclass correlation coefficent (ICC)3,1) and Kappa statistics were used to assess the stability of the metrics at 1-year and 2-year time intervals. RESULTS: ICC values for the 1-year test interval ranged from 0.28 to 0.67 and from 0.15 to 0.57 for the 2-year interval. Kappa values ranged from 0.16 to 0.21 for the 1-year interval and from 0.29 to 0.31 for the 2-year test interval. Across all measures, the observed effects were small, ranging from 0.01 to 0.44. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation noted less than optimal reliability for the most common concussion baseline assessments. While none of the assessments met or exceeded the accepted clinical threshold, the effect sizes were relatively small suggesting an overlap in performance from year-to-year. As such, baseline assessments beyond the initial evaluation in cadets are not essential but could aid concussion diagnosis.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos , Universidades
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33265913

RESUMO

Sensation-seeking, or the need for novel and exciting experiences, is thought to play a role in sport-related concussion (SRC), yet much remains unknown regarding these relationships and, more importantly, how sensation-seeking influences SRC risk. The current study assessed sensation-seeking, sport contact level, and SRC history and incidence in a large sample of NCAA collegiate athletes. Data included a full study sample of 22,374 baseline evaluations and a sub-sample of 2037 incident SRC. Independent samples t-test, analysis of covariance, and hierarchical logistic regression were constructed to address study hypotheses. Results showed that (1) among participants without SRC, sensation-seeking scores were higher in athletes playing contact sports compared to those playing limited- or non-contact sports (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.007, η2p = 0.003); (2) in the full study sample, a one-point increase in sensation-seeking scores resulted in a 21% greater risk of prior SRC (OR = 1.212; 95% CI: 1.154-1.272), and in the incident SRC sub-sample, a 28% greater risk of prior SRC (OR = 1.278; 95% CI: 1.104-1.480); (3) a one-point increase in sensation-seeking scores resulted in a 12% greater risk of incident SRC among the full study sample; and (4) sensation-seeking did not vary as a function of incident SRC (p = 0.281, η2p = 0.000). Our findings demonstrate the potential usefulness of considering sensation-seeking in SRC management.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Esportes , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ) ; 18(2): 150-161, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162852

RESUMO

Depression is common among patients with neurologic disorders, and it has long been considered more difficult to treat than depression in the general population. In this review, the authors consider challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. For each disorder, the authors discuss the epidemiology and time course of depression as well as review the physiologic and psychological etiologies of depression. In addition, for each disorder, they review screening tools and diagnostic considerations, including differential diagnosis; discuss etiological factors, both neurobiological and psychological; and assess evidence for various depression treatments, including pharmacologic, psychosocial, and neuromodulatory therapies. The evidence suggests that depression is common among patients with neurologic disorders and that it is crucial for general psychiatrists to provide treatment for this population.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025082, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175176

RESUMO

Importance: Concussions are a common occurrence in young athletes. Hypobaric hypoxemia, such as that experienced during airplane travel, can potentially cause alterations to cerebral blood flow and increased neuroinflammatory response. It remains unknown whether flying early after a concussion may influence the clinical course of injury. Objective: To determine whether there is an association between concussion recovery and airplane travel in collegiate athletes and military cadets. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and US Department of Defense Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium from August 3, 2014, to September 13, 2018. Participant groups were categorized by those who flew within 72 hours of injury and those who did not fly. All participants included in the final analyses had complete data of interest and only 1 injury during the study. Data analysis was performed from September 2018 to March 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Recovery outcome measures were defined as time (in days) from injury to return to activity, school, and baseline symptoms. Symptom and headache severity scores were derived from the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition. Scores for both groups were taken at baseline and a median of 2 days after injury. Results: A total of 92 participants who flew (mean [SD] age, 19.1 [1.2] years; 55 male [59.8%]) and 1383 participants who did not fly (mean [SD] age, 18.9 [1.3] years; 809 male [58.5%]) were included in the analysis of symptom recovery outcomes (analysis 1). Similarly, 100 participants who flew (mean [SD] age, 19.2 [1.2] years; 63 male [63.0%]) and 1577 participants who did not fly (mean [SD] age, 18.9 [1.3] years; 916 male [58.1%]) were included in the analysis of symptom severity outcomes (analysis 2). No significant group differences were found regarding recovery outcome measures. Likewise, there were no group differences in symptom (estimated mean difference, 0.029; 95% CI, -0.083 to 0.144; P = .67) or headache (estimated mean difference, -0.007; 95% CI, -0.094 to 0.081; P = .91) severity scores. Conclusions and Relevance: Airplane travel early after concussion was not associated with recovery or severity of concussion symptoms. These findings may help guide future recommendations on flight travel after concussion in athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Viagem Aérea/estatística & dados numéricos , Aeronaves , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esportes , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
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