Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Urol Oncol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our institution implemented a novel intervention bundle to reduce incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the bundle in reducing incisional SSIs post-cystectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A before-after cohort study was performed on all patients who underwent radical cystectomy by urologic oncologists at The Ottawa Hospital from January 2016 to March 2019. Thirty-day postoperative incisional SSIs were identified from the medical record and were compared to institutionally collected National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. The SSI reduction strategy was implemented as of March 1st, 2018. Adjusted associations between the SSI intervention with the risk of incisional SSI were determined. Cystectomy incisional SSI rates were compared to all other National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-collected surgeries at The Ottawa Hospital during the same time period. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two patients were included; 41 following implementation of the SSI reduction bundle. Mean age was 69 years, 104 (79%) were male, and 59 (45%) received neobladders. The risk of incisional SSI decreased from 16.5% preintervention to 2.4% post intervention (risk ratio 0.17; P = 0.004). Intraoperative transfusion and diabetes were independently associated with an increased risk of incisional SSI (P < 0.05). The SSI rate for all other surgical procedures at our institution remained stable during the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SSI after radical cystectomy is high. Use of an SSI reduction bundle was associated with a large reduction in incisional SSIs. Further evaluation of this intervention in other centers is warranted.

2.
Can J Urol ; 27(2): 10195-10198, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333741

RESUMO

Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life-threatening, urologic emergency. We present the case of a 54-yearold female who was found to have a large volume of air in her renal vein and inferior vena cava from severe emphysematous pyelonephritis. In this case report, the medical and operative management of this patient are reviewed, and the literature on the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis is summarized.

5.
CMAJ ; 191(49): E1355-E1357, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818928
6.
Urol Oncol ; 37(11): 811.e1-811.e7, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient decision aids are structured clinical tools that facilitate shared decision-making. In urology, the decision between partial and radical nephrectomy for a renal mass can be difficult. We sought to develop and evaluate a decision aid for patients with a localized renal mass considering surgery. This paper describes the development process and acceptability testing of our patient decision aid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision aid was systematically created using the International Patient Decision Aids Standards. Review of the literature identified evidence regarding patient-important outcomes of partial and radical nephrectomy. A mixed methods survey was designed to assess acceptability of the decision aid. Kidney cancer survivors, patient advocates, methodological experts, and urologists were recruited to evaluate the decision aid. The primary outcome was the acceptability of the decision aid reported by survey responders. RESULTS: An evidence-based decision aid was created. Included benefits were overall survival, cancer-free survival, and length of hospital stay. Included harms were postoperative bleeding, urine leak, stage 3 renal failure, renal replacement therapy, and flank bulge. The decision aid met the International Patient Decision Aids Standards defining (6 of 6), certification (6 of 6), and quality criteria (21 of 23). Results of acceptability testing were highly favorable. Responders (n = 22) reported the decision aid had acceptable language (91%), an appropriate length (82%), and presented balanced options (91%). Nine of 11 urologists (82%) reported intended use with future patients. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, evidence-based decision aid was created for patients with renal masses considering surgery. The decision aid is available at https://decisionaid.ohri.ca/AZsumm.php?ID=1913. A separate decision aid addressing the management of small renal masses is currently under development.

7.
Surgery ; 166(6): 1084-1091, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis aims to reduce venous thromboembolism but has the potential to increase bleeding. We sought to evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism and transfusion after major abdominopelvic procedures and to quantify the association of the procedure with venous thromboembolism. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried for patients who received an abdominopelvic surgery between 2005 and 2016. Patient factors, operative factors, and outcomes were collected. Multivariable analyses were used to determine the association between individual procedures and venous thromboembolism. Area under the curve analyses were performed to assess whether addition of the procedure to Caprini score improved the association of the model with venous thromboembolism. The primary outcome was risk of venous thromboembolism within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes were the risk of transfusion within 30 days and the association between operative time with venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: There were 896,441 patients who received an abdominopelvic procedure. The overall risk of venous thromboembolism was 1.9% (n = 16,665). Procedures with the highest risk of venous thromboembolism were esophagectomy (5.5%) and partial esophagectomy (5.3%). The overall risk of transfusion was 9.5% (n = 84,889). Procedures with the highest risk of transfusion were pelvic exenteration (53.6%) and radical cystectomy (37.7%). On multivariable analyses, individual procedures were independently associated with venous thromboembolism, despite adjusting for Caprini score. Area under the curve analyses indicated risk prediction of the baseline model (area under the curve 0.59) improved when procedures were added (area under the curve 0.68). CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing abdominopelvic surgery are at a high risk of venous thromboembolism and transfusion. Improved risk stratification may be possible by including more procedural information in scoring systems.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
8.
Can Urol Assoc J ; : E398-E403, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first description of epididymal cysts in children appears from a 1976 case study. Since then, there have been a total of 24 indexed publications relating to pediatric epididymal cysts. Risk factors that may exist for children presenting with epididymal cyst remain unknown, as has the best method of management. And there have not been any studies looking at the cost implications of this diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinico-demographics, outcomes, and costs of epididymal cysts in pre-pubertal boys compared with a post-pubertal epididymal cyst cohort, and to assess whether this cohort requires continued surveillance METHODS:: Our institutional ultrasound (US) database was searched for all scrotal US. From these, a filtered, institution review board-approved search was performed for any reports containing the word "cyst." These were then cross-referenced with a retrospective chart review (October 2006 to September 2017). Clinico-demographics, cyst characteristics, and outcomes were analysed for both pre- and post-pubertal boys using descriptive and non- parametric statistical methods RESULTS:: Of 4508 boys undergoing scrotal US during the study period, 191 were indicated to contain cysts. This was manually reduced to 109 scans (2.4%) that met inclusion criteria (85 pre-pubertal; 24 post-pubertal). Thirty-one scans were ordered by urology, including all those with abnormal testicular echotexture (n=5). The average age of the post-pubertal cohort was 15.8 years, compared with 3.8 years in the pre-pubertal cohort. Most (70.5%) epididymal cysts were incidental. There was no difference between the pre- and post-pubertal cohorts in terms of presence of hydrocoeles (p=0.9), symptoms (p=0.9), ordering service (p=0.61), rate of resolution (4.2% vs. 8.2%; p=0.68), or length of followup (4 vs. 4.5 years; p=0.44). Pre- pubertal cysts were significantly smaller in size (3.35 vs. 14.52 mm; p=0.025) and more likely to trigger repeat scanning (67 vs. 10; p=0.008). There were no operative interventions and no subsequent clinical deterioration occurred with observation. At a cost of $71.10 CAD per US, $15 002.10 CAD was expended on epididymal cyst surveillance in direct cost to the healthcare system. CONCLUSIONS: Epididymal cysts are comparable in both pre- and post-pubertal boys and can be safely managed non-operatively without the use of continued US surveillance or urological referral. The higher than expected rate of detection may be a result of the improved ultra-resolution of modern scanners. These children should not require continued followup with repeat surveillance imaging solely for epididymal cysts and could be managed in the primary care setting as part of routine clinical examination.

9.
J Urol ; 202(5): 1001-1007, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The choice of urinary diversion at cystectomy is a life altering decision. Patient decision aids are clinical tools that promote shared decision making by providing information about management options and helping patients communicate their values. We sought to develop and evaluate a patient decision aid for individuals undergoing cystectomy with urinary diversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the IPDAS (International Patient Decision Aids Standards) to guide a systematic development process. A literature review was performed to determine urinary diversion options and the incidence of outcomes. We created a prototype using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. A 10-question survey was used to assess patient decision aid acceptability among patients, allied health professionals and urologists. The primary outcome was acceptability of the patient decision aid. RESULTS: Ileal conduit and orthotopic neobladder were included as primary urinary diversion options because they had the most evidence and are most commonly performed. Continent cutaneous diversion was identified as an alternative option. Outcomes specific to ileal conduit were stomal stenosis and parastomal hernia. Outcomes specific to neobladder were daytime and nighttime urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Acceptability testing was completed by 8 urologists, 9 patients and 1 advanced practice nurse. Of the respondents 94% reported that the language was appropriate, 94% reported that the length was adequate and 83% reported that option presentation was balanced. The patient decision aid met all 6 IPDAS defining criteria, all 6 certification criteria and 21 of 23 quality criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We created a novel patient decision aid to improve the quality of decisions made by patients when deciding among urinary diversion options. Effectiveness testing will be performed prospectively.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/psicologia , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Derivação Urinária/métodos
10.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 13(6): 184-189, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407153

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data from a randomized trial suggest transfusion rates are similar for robotic and open prostatectomy. The objective of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes of robotic and open prostatectomy at a Canadian academic centre. METHODS: A retrospective review of all prostatectomies performed by all surgeons at The Ottawa Hospital between 2009 and 2016 was completed. Cases and outcomes were identified using an administrative data warehouse. Extracted data included patient factors (age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Elixhauser comorbidity score), operative factors (length of operation, surgical approach, anesthesia type), and perioperative outcomes (length of recovery room and hospital stay, transfusion rate, hospital cost). Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between robotic and open surgical approaches. The primary outcome was transfusion during the index admission. RESULTS: A total of 1606 prostatectomies were performed by 12 surgeons during the study period (840 robotic, 766 open). The rate of transfusion was lower in patients undergoing robotic compared to open surgery (0.6% vs. 11.2%; p<0.001). The robotic prostatectomy cohort had a shorter length of stay in the recovery room (155.7 vs. 231.1 minutes; p<0.001) and shorter length of hospital admission (1.4 vs. 2.8 days; p<0.001). Hospital costs per case were approximately $800 more for robotic prostatectomy ($11 475 vs. $10 656; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This hospital-wide analysis revealed that robotic prostatectomy is associated with a lower transfusion rate compared to the open approach. Further studies emphasizing patient-reported outcomes are needed.

12.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 2: 1-13, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of patient decision aids when used with patients who face cancer-related decisions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two reviewers independently screened the 105 trials in the original 2017 Cochrane review to identify eligible trials of patient decision aids across the cancer continuum. Primary outcomes were attributes of the choice and decision-making process. Secondary outcomes were patient behavior and health system effects. A meta-analysis was conducted for similar outcome measures. RESULTS: Forty-six trials evaluated patient decision aids for cancer care, including 27 on screening decisions (59%), 12 on treatments (26%), four on genetic testing (9%), and three on prevention (6%). Common decisions were aboutprostate cancer screening (30%), colorectal cancer screening (22%), breast cancer treatment (13%), and prostate cancer treatment (9%). Compared with the control groups (usual care or alternative interventions), the patient decision aid group improved the match between the chosen option and the features that mattered most to the patient as demonstrated by improved knowledge (weighted mean difference, 12.88 of 100; 95% CI, 9.87 to 15.89; 24 trials), accurate risk perception (risk ratio [RR], 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.56; six trials), and value-choice agreement (RR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.57 to 4.84; nine trials). Compared with controls, the patient decision aid group improved the decision-making process with decreased decisional conflict (weighted mean difference, -9.56 of 100; 95% CI, -13.90 to -5.23; 12 trials), reduced clinician-controlled decision making (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.79; eight trials), and fewer patients being indecisive (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.78; nine trials). CONCLUSION: Patient decision aids improve the attributes of the choice made and decision-making process for patients who face cancer-related decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Humanos
13.
Urol Oncol ; 35(7): 457.e1-457.e8, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28214280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of noncancer death following major cancer surgery. Current thromboprophylaxis guidelines do not address procedure-specific risk of venous thromboembolism for urological patients. This project was created to determine the risk and timing of VTE after major urological surgery and to evaluate if surgical procedure was an independent risk factor for VTE after adjusting for previously established risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The American College of Surgeons׳ National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to create a cohort of patients who received major abdominal or pelvic urologic surgery between 2006 and 2014. The primary outcome was postoperative VTE. A Caprini score was calculated for each patient in our study to determine the risk of VTE. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between patient and procedural factors with venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: During the study period, 65,100 patients were eligible and 956 patients (1.5%) developed a venous thromboembolism. More than half of VTE events occurred after hospital discharge (n = 570; 60%). Radical cystectomy had the highest risk of VTE (299/5,976; 5.0%) and laparoscopic nephrectomy had the lowest risk (56/8,475; 0.7%). Most patients (58,782; 90%) were classified as high risk for VTE using the Caprini score. After adjusting for known risk factors, the risk of venous thromboembolism was significantly greater for radical cystectomy compared to laparoscopic nephrectomy (relative risk = 7.0; 95% CI: 5.0-9.2). CONCLUSIONS: This study reports procedure-specific venous thromboembolism risk adjusting for known risk factors. These data demonstrate that procedure-specific thromboprophylaxis guidelines are needed in urology.


Assuntos
Urologia/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 10(7-8): 281-285, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27878052

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The urogenital physical examination is an important aspect of patient encounters in various clinical settings. Introductory clinical skills sessions are intended to provide support and alleviate students' anxiety when learning this sensitive exam. The techniques each Canadian medical school uses to guide their students through the initial urogenital examination has not been previously reported. METHODS: This study surveyed pre-clerkship clinical skills program directors at the main campus of English-speaking Canadian medical schools regarding the curriculum they use to teach the urogenital examination. RESULTS: A response rate of 100% was achieved, providing information on resources and faculty available to students, as well as the manner in which students were evaluated. Surprisingly, over one-third of the Canadian medical schools surveyed failed to provide a setting in which students perform a urogenital examination on a patient in their pre-clinical years. Additionally, there was no formal evaluation of this skill set reported by almost 50% of Canadian medical schools prior to clinical training years. CONCLUSIONS: To ensure medical students are confident and accurate in performing a urogenital examination, it is vital they be provided the proper resources, teaching, and training. As we progress towards a competency-based curriculum, it is essential that increased focus be placed on patient encounters in undergraduate training. Further research to quantify students' exposure to the urogenital examination during clinical years would be of interest. Without this commitment by Canadian medical schools, we are doing a disservice not only to the medical students, but also to our patient population.

15.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 9(5-6): E324-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26029308

RESUMO

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an established safe and effective surgical treatment option for renal calculi in renal allografts. The advent of tubeless PCNL has led to reports of ambulatory or outpatient PCNL. This case report describes the successful outpatient management of a 49-year-old female with a symptomatic renal pelvic calculus in her transplanted kidney. Tubeless PCNL successfully removed the stone, free of complication, and the patient was discharged 2 hours and 17 minutes after the procedure in stable condition with minimal pain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful case of outpatient tubeless PCNL in a transplanted kidney.

16.
Pediatr Radiol ; 44(7): 863-70, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24535115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiologic insertion of a gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube is a common procedure in children. Glucagon is used to create gastric hypotonia, permitting gastric distension and facilitating percutaneous puncture. Glucagon can cause hyperglycaemia and potentially rebound hypoglycaemia. The safety of glucagon and incidence of hypoglycaemia has not been studied following gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube insertion. OBJECTIVE: To determine variations in blood glucose in children post gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube insertion. Secondarily, to determine the frequency of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia in children who did or did not receive glucagon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of 210 children undergoing percutaneous gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube insertion over a 2-year period. We studied the children's clinical and laboratory parameters. Abnormal blood glucose levels were defined according to age-established norms. We used descriptive statistics and ANOVA. RESULTS: We analysed 210 children with recorded blood glucose levels. More than 50% of the children were less than the third percentile for weight. In the glucagon group (n = 187) hyperglycaemia occurred in 82.3% and hypoglycaemia in 2.7% (n = 5). In the no glucagon group (n = 23), hyperglycaemia occurred in 43.5% and there were no cases of hypoglycaemia. The peak blood glucose occurred within 2 h, with normalization by 6 h post-procedure. Five children became hypoglycaemic, all received glucagon; 4/5 had weights <3rd percentile. Logistic regression analysis revealed no factors significantly associated with hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSION: Greatest blood glucose variability occurs between 1 h and 3 h post-procedure. Hyperglycaemia is common and more severe with glucagon, and hypoglycaemia rarely occurs. These findings have assisted in developing clinical guidelines for post-percutaneous gastrostomy/gastrojejunostomy tube insertion.


Assuntos
Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Gastrostomia , Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Intubação Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA