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Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(2): 177-185, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395100


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over 70 million people worldwide, including those with neurodegenerative disease (NDD), have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to date. We review outcomes in patients with NDD and COVID-19 and discuss the hypothesis that due to putative commonalities of neuropathogenesis, COVID-19 may unmask or trigger NDD in vulnerable individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on a systematic review of published literature, patients with NDD, including dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS) make up a significant portion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Such patients are likely to present with altered mental status or worsening of their preexisting neurological symptoms. Patients with NDD and poor outcomes often have high-risk comorbid conditions, including advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and heart/lung disease. Patients with dementia including Alzheimer's disease are at higher risk for hospitalization and death, whereas those with preexisting Parkinson's disease are not. MS patients have good outcomes and disease modifying therapies do not increase the risk for severe disease. Viral infections and attendant neuroinflammation have been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and MS, suggesting that COVID-19 may have the potential to incite or accelerate neurodegeneration. SUMMARY: Since patients with Alzheimer's disease are at higher risk for hospitalization and death in the setting of COVID-19, additional precautions and protective measures should be put in place to prevent infections and optimize management of comorbidities in this vulnerable population. Further studies are needed to determine whether COVID-19 may lead to an increased risk of developing NDD in susceptible individuals.

COVID-19/complicações , Demência/complicações , Hospitalização , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
JAMA Neurol ; 77(8): 1018-1027, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469387


Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019, causing human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has now spread into a worldwide pandemic. The pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been well described in the literature. Two similar human coronaviruses that cause Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) are known to cause disease in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Emerging evidence suggests COVID-19 has neurologic consequences as well. Observations: This review serves to summarize available information regarding coronaviruses in the nervous system, identify the potential tissue targets and routes of entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the central nervous system, and describe the range of clinical neurological complications that have been reported thus far in COVID-19 and their potential pathogenesis. Viral neuroinvasion may be achieved by several routes, including transsynaptic transfer across infected neurons, entry via the olfactory nerve, infection of vascular endothelium, or leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier. The most common neurologic complaints in COVID-19 are anosmia, ageusia, and headache, but other diseases, such as stroke, impairment of consciousness, seizure, and encephalopathy, have also been reported. Conclusions and Relevance: Recognition and understanding of the range of neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to improved clinical outcomes and better treatment algorithms. Further neuropathological studies will be crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of the disease in the central nervous system, and longitudinal neurologic and cognitive assessment of individuals after recovery from COVID-19 will be crucial to understand the natural history of COVID-19 in the central nervous system and monitor for any long-term neurologic sequelae.

Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Animais , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia