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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503987

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Severe fetal malnutrition has been related to an increased risk of respiratory diseases later in life, but evidence for the association of a suboptimal diet during pregnancy with respiratory outcomes in childhood is conflicting. We aimed to examine whether a pro-inflammatory or low-quality maternal diet during pregnancy was associated with child's respiratory health. METHODS: We performed an individual participant meta-analysis among 18 326 mother-child pairs from seven European birth cohorts. Maternal pro-inflammatory and low-quality diet were estimated by energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DIITM) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores. Preschool wheezing and school-age asthma were measured by questionnaires and lung function by spirometry. RESULTS: After adjustment for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, we observed that a higher maternal E-DII score (a more pro-inflammatory diet) during pregnancy was associated only with a lower FVC in children (Z-score difference (95% confidence interval (CI)): -0.05 (-0.08, -0.02), per IQR increase). No linear associations of the maternal E-DII or DASH score with child's wheezing or asthma were observed. When exploratively examining the extremes, a very low DASH score (<10th percentile) (a very low dietary quality) was associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing and a low FEV1/FVC (z-score <-1.64) (OR (95% CI) 1.20 (1.06, 1.36), 1.40 (1.06, 1.85), compared to ≥10th percentile), with corresponding population attributable risk fractions of 1.7% and 3.3%. CONCLUSION: Main results from this individual participant data meta-analysis do not support the hypothesis that maternal pro-inflammatory or low-quality diet in pregnancy are related to respiratory diseases in childhood.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0253090, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Background Population-based data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and assessment of passive immunity to the neonate, is lacking. We profiled the maternal and fetal response using a combination of viral RNA from naso-pharyngeal swabs and serological assessment of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This multicentre prospective observational study was conducted between March 24th and August 31st 2020. Two independent cohorts were established, a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cohort and a cohort of asymptomatic pregnant women attending two of the largest maternity hospitals in Europe. Symptomatic women were invited to provide a serum sample to assess antibody responses. Asymptomatic pregnant women provided a nasopharyngeal swab and serum sample. RT-PCR for viral RNA was performed using the Cobas SARS-CoV-2 6800 platform (Roche). Umbilical cord bloods were obtained at delivery. Maternal and fetal serological response was measured using both the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay (Roche), Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assay and the IgM Architect assay. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants. RESULTS: Ten of twenty three symptomatic women had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected on nasopharyngeal swabs. Five (5/23, 21.7%) demonstrated serological evidence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and seven (30.4%, 7/23) were positive for IgM antibodies. In the asymptomatic cohort, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in RNA was 0.16% (1/608). IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 1·67% (10/598, 95% CI 0·8%-3·1%) and IgM in 3·51% (21/598, 95% CI 2·3-5·5%). Nine women had repeat testing post the baseline test. Four (4/9, 44%) remained IgM positive and one remained IgG positive. 3 IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detectable in cord bloods from babies born to five seropositive women who delivered during the study. The mean gestation at serological test was 34 weeks. The mean time between maternal serologic positivity and detection in umbilical cord samples was 28 days. CONCLUSION: Using two independent serological assays, we present a comprehensive illustration of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy, and show a low prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV2. Transplacental migration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was identified in cord blood of women who demonstrated antenatal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, raising the possibility of passive immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Parto Obstétrico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444958

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet and physical activity on energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DIITM) and explored its relationship with maternal and child health in women with overweight and obesity. This was a secondary analysis of 434 mother-child pairs from the Pregnancy Exercise and Nutrition Study (PEARS) trial in Dublin, Ireland. E-DIITM scores were calculated for early (10-16 weeks) and late (28 weeks) pregnancy. Outcomes included lipids, inflammation markers, insulin resistance, mode of delivery, infant size, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. T-tests were used to assess changes in E-DIITM. Chi-square, correlations, and multiple regression were employed to investigate relationships with outcomes. The mean (SD) age of participants was 32.45 (4.29) years with median (IQR) BMI 28.25 (26.70, 31.34) kg/m2. There was no change in E-DIITM in the controls (-0.14 (1.19) vs. -0.07 (1.09), p = 0.465) but E-DIITM reduced by 10% after the intervention (0.01 (1.07) vs -0.75 (1.05), p < 0.001). No associations were found between early pregnancy E-DIITM and maternal and child outcomes, except for increased odds of adverse cardiometabolic phenotype in women who delivered male (OR = 2.29, p = 0.010) but not female infants (OR = 0.99, p = 0.960). A low-GI antenatal intervention can reduce the inflammatory potential of diets. Sex differences should be explored further in future research.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Irlanda , Estilo de Vida , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 264: 276-280, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the prospective multicenter Genesis study, we developed a prediction model for Cesarean delivery (CD) in term nulliparous women. The objective of this secondary analysis was to determine whether the Genesis model has the potential to predict maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with vaginal delivery. STUDY DESIGN: The national prospective Genesis trial recruited 2,336 nulliparous women with a vertex presentation between 39 + 0- and 40 + 6-weeks' gestation from seven tertiary centers. The prediction model used five parameters to assess the risk of CD: maternal age, maternal height, body mass index, fetal head circumference and fetal abdominal circumference. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to develop the Genesis model. The risk score calculated using this model were correlated with maternal and neonatal morbidity in women who delivered vaginally: postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI), shoulder dystocia, one- and five-minute Apgar score ≤ 7, neonatal intensive care (NICU) admission, cephalohematoma, fetal laceration, nerve palsy and fractures. The morbidities associated with spontaneous vaginal delivery were compared with those associated with operative vaginal delivery (OVD). The likelihood ratios for composite morbidity and the morbidity associated with OVD based on the Genesis risk scores were also calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1,845 (79%) nulliparous women had a vaginal delivery. A trend of increasing intervention and morbidity was observed with increasing Genesis risk score, including OVD (p < 0.001), PPH (p < 0.008), NICU admission (p < 0.001), low Apgar score at one-minute (p < 0.001) and OASI (p = 0.009). The morbidity associated with OVD was significantly higher compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, including NICU admission (p < 0.001), PPH (p = 0.022), birth injury (p < 0.001), shoulder dystocia (p = 0.002) and Apgar score of<7 at one-minute (p < 0.001). The positive likelihood ratios for composite outcomes (where the OVD was excluded) increases with increasing risk score from 1.005 at risk score of 5% to 2.507 for risk score of>50%. CONCLUSION: In women who ultimately achieved a vaginal birth, we have shown more maternal and neonatal morbidity in the setting of a Genesis nomogram-determined high-risk score for intrapartum CD. Therefore, the Genesis prediction tool also has the potential to predict a more morbid vaginal delivery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nascimento , Parto Obstétrico , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284833

RESUMO

Inadequate sleep and poor eating behaviours are associated with higher risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Less is known about the influence sleep has on eating behaviours and consequently body composition. Furthermore, whether associations differ in boys and girls has not been investigated extensively. We investigate associations between sleep, eating behaviours and body composition in cross-sectional analysis of 5-year-old children. Weight, height, BMI, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), abdominal circumference (AC) and skinfold measurements were obtained. Maternal reported information on child's eating behaviour and sleep habits were collected using validated questionnaires. Multiple linear regression examined associations between sleep, eating behaviours and body composition. Sleep duration was negatively associated with BMI, with 1-h greater sleep duration associated with 0·24 kg/m2 (B = 0·24, CI -0·42, -0·03, P = 0·026) lower BMI and 0·21 cm lower (B = -0·21, CI -0·41, -0·02, P = 0·035) MUAC. When stratified by sex, girls showed stronger inverse associations between sleep duration (h) and BMI (kg/m2) (B = -0·32; CI -0·60, -0·04, P = 0·024), MUAC (cm) (B = -0·29; CI -0·58, 0·000, P = 0·05) and AC (cm) (B = -1·10; CI -1·85, -0·21, P = 0·014) than boys. Positive associations for 'Enjoys Food' and 'Food Responsiveness' with BMI, MUAC and AC were observed in girls only. Inverse associations between sleep duration and 'Emotional Undereating' and 'Food Fussiness' were observed in both sexes, although stronger in boys. Sleep duration did not mediate the relationship between eating behaviours and BMI. Further exploration is required to understand how sleep impacts eating behaviours and consequently body composition and how sex influences this relationship.

6.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 264: 8-14, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical studies have reported an inverse relationship between calcium and vitamin D intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). The aim of this study was to investigate if there was an association between calcium/vitamin D intake, and vitamin D (25OHD) status, and maternal blood pressure (BP), during pregnancy and at 5-year follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study of 415 women who participated in the ROLO (Randomised cOntrolled trial of LOw glycaemic index diet for the prevention of recurrence of macrosomia) study. Maternal BP measurements were taken during each trimester and at 5-year follow-up. Calcium and vitamin D intake were determined at each trimester and 25OHD was measured in early and late pregnancy. RESULTS: Over two-thirds of the cohort were vitamin D sufficient (25OHD > 30 nmol/L) and had adequate calcium intake (>750 mg/day). There was no correlation between calcium intake or vitamin D intake and maternal BP in trimester 1 to 3 or at 5-year follow-up. Vitamin D status at 13 weeks' gestation negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure in trimester 1 (r = -0.152, p = 0.044). There was no correlation however between 25OHD at 28 weeks' gestation and BP at 28 or 34 weeks' gestation or 25OHD and BP at 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In a healthy population of women with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, no clinically significant correlation existed between calcium and vitamin D and maternal BP.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 128, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of maternal obesity extends beyond birth, being independently associated with an increased risk of child obesity. Current evidence demonstrates that women provided with a dietary intervention during pregnancy improve their dietary quality and have a modest reduction in gestational weight gain. However, the effect of this on longer-term childhood obesity-related outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis from RCTs in which women with a singleton, live gestation between 10+0 and 20+0 weeks and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 in early pregnancy were randomised to a diet and/or lifestyle intervention or continued standard antenatal care and in which longer-term maternal and child follow-up at 3-5 years of age had been undertaken. The primary childhood outcome was BMI z-score above the 90th percentile. Secondary childhood outcomes included skinfold thickness measurements and body circumferences, fat-free mass, dietary and physical activity patterns, blood pressure, and neurodevelopment. RESULTS: Seven primary trials where follow-up of participants occurred were identified by a systematic literature search within the International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) Collaborative Group collaboration, with six providing individual participant data. No additional studies were identified after a systematic literature search. A total of 2529 children and 2383 women contributed data. Approximately 30% of all child participants had a BMI z-score above the 90th percentile, with no significant difference between the intervention and control groups (aRR 0.97; 95% CI 0.87, 1.08; p=0.610). There were no statistically significant differences identified for any of the secondary outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: In overweight and obese pregnant women, we found no evidence that maternal dietary and/or lifestyle intervention during pregnancy modifies the risk of early childhood obesity. Future research may need to target the pre-conception period in women and early childhood interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42016047165.

8.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12820, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity remains a significant global health concern. Early intervention through maternal diet during pregnancy represents a possible mode of improving childhood adiposity. AIM: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on offspring anthropometry at 5 years of age. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of 387 children from the ROLO pregnancy study 5 years' post-intervention. At the follow-up, BMI, circumferences and skinfold thickness were obtained. A subgroup of 103 children had a DXA scan completed. Statistical analyses included Independent sample t tests, Mann Whitney-U tests and chi-square tests to compare the intervention and control groups. Adjusted analysis using linear regression controlled for significant confounders between participants who returned at follow-up and those that did not. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in BMI (16.05 kg/m2 vs 16.16 kg/m2 , P = 0.403), general adiposity (36.60 mm vs 36.00 mm, P = 0.920), central adiposity (0.61 mm vs 0.60 mm, P = 0.540), total fat mass (4.91 kg vs 4.71 kg, P = 0.377) or total lean mass (14.29 kg vs 14.56 kg, P = 0.386) between the intervention and control groups, respectively. No associations were observed in 5-year outcomes in adjusted analyses when controlling for maternal age at delivery, maternal early pregnancy BMI, maternal education and gestational age. CONCLUSION: Our study found no evidence that a low glycaemic index diet in pregnancy impacts offspring anthropometry 5 years' post-intervention. Therefore, modulating maternal carbohydrate quality in pregnancy may not be an appropriate approach to improving weight status in childhood. Future research should investigate the impact of other dietary practices in pregnancy on child health.

9.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(5): e17189, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary interventions can improve pregnancy outcomes among women with increased BMI. Although the interest in mobile health interventions is growing, little is known about the acceptability of smartphone apps to support lifestyle interventions in such a cohort. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the acceptability of the pregnancy, exercise, and nutrition research study with smartphone app support (PEARS) and the use of mobile health in a mixed lifestyle intervention delivered to overweight and obese pregnant women. METHODS: PEARS was a randomized controlled trial of a low glycemic index dietary intervention with exercise prescription and a smartphone app, which was delivered to pregnant women who were overweight or obese. Acceptability questionnaires were completed by the intervention group at 28 weeks of gestation (n=149) and at postintervention (n=123). Maternal characteristics were recorded (ie, age, ethnicity, BMI, socioeconomic status). Associations between maternal characteristics and acceptability of the intervention and app were analyzed using two-tailed t tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, chi-square test, and logistic regression. One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with a subcohort of the intervention participants (n=28) at 34 weeks of gestation, in which the participants shared their experiences of the PEARS intervention. RESULTS: The intervention was generally accepted, with respondents agreeing that the diet was easy to follow (98/148, 68.5%), enjoyable (106/148, 74.1%), and affordable (110/148, 76.9%). Qualitative and quantitative results were consistent with each another, both demonstrating that app acceptability was high. The participants agreed that the app was enjoyable (96/120, 80.0%) and easy to use (116/119, 97.5%). Compared to those with tertiary education, those with lower education levels were more likely to enjoy the dietary changes (P=.04). Enjoyment of the app was associated with disadvantaged neighborhood deprivation index (P=.01) and higher BMI (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: The PEARS intervention and use of a supportive smartphone app were accepted by pregnant women, particularly by those from vulnerable subgroups of this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 29316280; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN29316280.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Pyrus , Telemedicina , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Gravidez , Smartphone
10.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are advised to adapt a low glycaemic index (GI) diet, which may impact consumption of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS). LCS are increasingly popular as they add sweetness without contributing calories. This study aims to investigate the reported intakes of LCS-containing foods in women during pregnancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Pregnant women recruited for the ROLO study were included in this analysis (n = 571). Women were randomised to receive either an intervention of low-GI dietary advice or usual antenatal care. Women completed a 3-day food diary in each trimester. Nine LCS-containing food groups were identified, and the quantity (g/day) consumed was calculated. RESULTS: One-third of all pregnant women consumed LCS across each trimester of pregnancy. Of those in the intervention group who were LCS consumers in trimester 1, 71.6% were consumers in trimester 2, and 54.1% remained consumers in trimester 3. In the control group, less women remained consumers in trimester 2 and 3 at 58.1% and 41.9%, respectively. In trimester 2, following the dietary intervention, the proportion of LCS consumers in the intervention group was significantly higher than the proportion of consumers who were in the control group (p < 0.001). The most commonly consumed food groups were low-calorie fruit drinks, diet-cola drinks, and low-calorie yoghurts. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of pregnant women consumed LCS. The proportion of LCS consumers increased in the intervention group compared to the control group. Further research is needed to determine exposure levels to individual LCS, and the effect of prenatal exposure to LCS on maternal and child health outcomes.

11.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ; 73: 104-112, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966980

RESUMO

The 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic posed significant challenges to the health service. Many services cancelled all routine appointments and surgery, which allowed them to redirect care towards large numbers of infected patients requiring respiratory and other support. Maternity services are relatively unique in that most of the care is time sensitive and cannot be rescheduled. Assessment such as routine bloods need to be taken in early pregnancy, anatomic surveys are best conducted at 20-22 weeks' gestation, and births continue regardless of a pandemic. In this paper we describe how National Maternity Hospital Dublin, with an annual delivery rate of 8000 births, reorganised services to continue to care for our mothers and babies. This included the development of a 'hospital within a hospital' approach, and separate physical and care pathways for positive cases. The delivery of virtual outpatient appointments and a comprehensive online patient education portal have proved successful.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Feminino , Maternidades , Humanos , Lactente , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 33, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that maternal diet influences pregnancy and birth outcomes, but its contribution to the global epidemic of childhood obesity has not as yet been definitively characterized. We investigated whether maternal whole diet quality and inflammatory potential influence childhood adiposity. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled individual participant data from 16,295 mother-child pairs in seven European birth cohorts. Maternal pre-, early-, late-, and whole-pregnancy (any time during pregnancy) dietary quality and inflammatory potential assessed with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) score, respectively. Primary outcome was childhood overweight and obesity (OWOB) (age-and-sex-specific BMI z-score > 85th percentile). Secondary outcomes were sum of skinfold thickness (SST), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). We used multivariable regression analyses (adjusting for maternal lifestyle and sociodemographic factors) to assess the associations of maternal DASH and E-DII scores with offspring adiposity outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: The study mothers had a mean (SD) age of 30.2 (4.6) years and a mean BMI of 23.4 (4.2) kg/m2. Higher early-pregnancy E-DII scores (more pro-inflammatory diet) tended to be associated with a higher odds of late-childhood [10.6 (1.2) years] OWOB [OR (95% CI) 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) per 1-SD E-DII score increase], whereas an inverse association was observed for late-pregnancy E-DII score and early-childhood [2.8 (0.3) years] OWOB [0.91 (0.83, 1.00)]. Higher maternal whole pregnancy DASH score (higher dietary quality) was associated with a lower odds of late-childhood OWOB [OR (95% CI) 0.92 (0.87, 0.98) per 1-SD DASH score increase]; associations were of similar magnitude for early and late-pregnancy [0.86 (0.72, 1.04) and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98), respectively]. These associations were robust in several sensitivity analyses and further adjustment for birth weight and childhood diet did not meaningfully alter the associations and conclusions. In two cohorts with available data, a higher whole pregnancy E-DII and lower DASH scores were associated with a lower late-childhood FFMI in males and a higher mid-childhood FMI in females (P interactions < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: A pro-inflammatory, low-quality maternal antenatal diet may adversely influence offspring body composition and OWOB risk, especially during late-childhood. Promoting an overall healthy and anti-inflammatory maternal dietary pattern may contribute to the prevention of childhood obesity, a complex health issue requiring multifaceted strategy.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A specialist fetal neurosurgical clinic was set up in order to improve patient care in a tertiary referral fetal medicine centre. The clinic provides a targeted clinical service for women diagnosed with fetal neurological abnormalities. The service consists of fetal MRI, fetal ultrasound and joint assessment and counselling from neurosurgery and fetal medicine teams. AIMS: We aimed to review this service that provides MDT expertise directly to parents and record the cases and pregnancy outcomes involved. METHODS: This is a prospective study of clinic data from Jan 2013 to Dec 2017. Information includes ultrasound scan findings, MRI results, karyotype results and pregnancy outcome data including post mortem results and data from the paediatric neurosurgery service at the affiliated children's hospital. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017, there were 1852 major fetal anomalies diagnosed antenatally at the tertiary referral fetal medicine service and n = 306/1852 [16%] were primarily neurological in origin. The neurosurgical clinic reviewed 125 patients since 2013. The most common reasons for referral were spina bifida, n = 60 [48%] and isolated ventriculomegaly n = 43 [34%]. Other reasons for referral include agenesis of the corpus callosum n = 4 [3%], encephalocoele n = 5 [4%] and intracranial mass lesions n = 3 [2.4%]. Cases with borderline ventriculomegaly and cases with known chromosomal or genetic abnormalities were not typically referred to the clinic. Full outcome data were available on 110 of 125 women seen. Thirty-two women [29%] underwent invasive testing and 14 women [12.7%] had a termination of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary antenatal counselling supported with in utero MRI provides families with optimum information to inform them of likely neonatal outcome.

14.
Ir J Med Sci ; 190(4): 1451-1457, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449329

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study is to compare maternal outcomes in patients with placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) when managed as part of a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) compared to standard care. METHODS: Patients in the standard care group were retrospectively identified from pathology records, with patients in the MDT group prospectively collected on an electronic database. Data on maternal demographics, delivery, estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusion requirements, and morbidity were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty patients were diagnosed with PAS between 2006 and 2019, of whom 32 were part of the standard care group and 28 in the MDT group. Compared to standard care, MDT care was associated with an increase in antenatal diagnosis from 56.3 to 92.9% (p < 0.0001), a significant reduction in EBL (4150 mL (800-19500) vs 1975 (495-8500), p < 0.0001), and transfusion requirements (median 7 (0-30) units of RCC vs 1 (0-13), p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: PAS is associated with significant maternal morbidity and warrants management in an MDT setting with specialist input, which is associated with improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Placenta Acreta , Transfusão de Sangue , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Placenta Acreta/cirurgia , Placenta Acreta/terapia , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003491, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes are major causes of morbidity and mortality during childhood and associate with a higher risk of noncommunicable diseases in adult life. Maternal periconception and antenatal nutrition, mostly focusing on single nutrients or foods, has been shown to influence infant birth outcomes. However, evidence on whole diet that considers complex nutrient and food interaction is rare and conflicting. We aim to elucidate the influence of whole-diet maternal dietary inflammatory potential and quality during periconceptional and antenatal periods on birth outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized and pooled individual participant data (IPD) from up to 24,861 mother-child pairs in 7 European mother-offspring cohorts [cohort name, country (recruitment dates): ALSPAC, UK (1 April 1991 to 31 December 1992); EDEN, France (27 January 2003 to 6 March 2006); Generation R, the Netherlands (1 April 2002 to 31 January 2006); Lifeways, Ireland (2 October 2001 to 4 April 2003); REPRO_PL, Poland (18 September 2007 to 16 December 2011); ROLO, Ireland (1 January 2007 to 1 January 2011); SWS, United Kingdom (6 April 1998 to 17 December 2002)]. Maternal diets were assessed preconceptionally (n = 2 cohorts) and antenatally (n = 7 cohorts). Maternal dietary inflammatory potential and quality were ranked using the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index, respectively. Primary outcomes were birth weight and gestational age at birth. Adverse birth outcomes, i.e., low birth weight (LBW), macrosomia, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), large-for-gestational-age (LGA), preterm and postterm births were defined according to standard clinical cutoffs. Associations of maternal E-DII and DASH scores with infant birth outcomes were assessed using cohort-specific multivariable regression analyses (adjusted for confounders including maternal education, ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal height, parity, cigarettes smoking, and alcohol consumption), with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Overall, the study mothers had a mean ± SD age of 29.5 ± 4.9 y at delivery and a mean BMI of 23.3 ± 4.2 kg/m2. Higher pregnancy DASH score (higher dietary quality) was associated with higher birth weight [ß(95% CI) = 18.5(5.7, 31.3) g per 1-SD higher DASH score; P value = 0.005] and head circumference [0.03(0.01, 0.06) cm; P value = 0.004], longer birth length [0.05(0.01, 0.10) cm; P value = 0.010], and lower risk of delivering LBW [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 0.89(0.82, 0.95); P value = 0.001] and SGA [0.87(0.82, 0.94); P value < 0.001] infants. Higher maternal prepregnancy E-DII score (more pro-inflammatory diet) was associated with lower birth weight [ß(95% CI) = -18.7(-34.8, -2.6) g per 1-SD higher E-DII score; P value = 0.023] and shorter birth length [-0.07(-0.14, -0.01) cm; P value = 0.031], whereas higher pregnancy E-DII score was associated with a shorter birth length [-0.06(-0.10, -0.01) cm; P value = 0.026] and higher risk of SGA [OR(95% CI) = 1.18(1.11, 1.26); P value < 0.001]. In male, but not female, infants higher maternal prepregnancy E-DII was associated with lower birth weight and head circumference, shorter birth length, and higher risk of SGA (P-for-sex-interaction = 0.029, 0.059, 0.104, and 0.075, respectively). No consistent associations were observed for maternal E-DII and DASH scores with gestational age, preterm and postterm birth, or macrosomia and LGA. Limitations of this study were that self-reported dietary data might have increased nondifferential measurement error and that causality cannot be claimed definitely with observational design. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, we observed that maternal diet that is of low quality and high inflammatory potential is associated with lower offspring birth size and higher risk of offspring being born SGA in this multicenter meta-analysis using harmonized IPD. Improving overall maternal dietary pattern based on predefined criteria may optimize fetal growth and avert substantial healthcare burden associated with adverse birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439056

RESUMO

Traditionally, the assessment of endometrial receptivity at transvaginal ultrasound scan has been based on the thickness and the morphological appearance of the endometrium. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate endometrial thickness (ET), endometrial morphology and uterine artery Doppler parameters prior to assisted reproduction treatment (ART) in the prediction of pregnancy outcome. This was a prospective cohort study. ET, morphology and uterine artery Doppler (UtAD) pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) were measured in the mid-luteal stage of the menstrual cycle ultrasonographically, timed with urinary luteinizing hormone testing. A total of 50 women were included in the analysis. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) per embryo transfer was 42.0% (n = 21/50). Twenty nine women (58.0%) had an unsuccessful outcome. There were no differences in mean ± SD endometrial thickness (ET) (10.0 ± 1.8 mm vs. 10.5 ± 2.4; p = 0.43), or endometrial morphology (100% (n = 21) vs 100% (n = 29); p = 1.00) between the pregnant and not pregnant groups. Similarly, there were no differences in mean ± SD UtAD PI (2.17 ± 0.83 vs. 2.07 ± 0.81; p = 0.67 or mean ± SD UtAD RI (0.84 ± 0.10 vs. 0.81 ± 0.10; p = 0.30). Ultrasonographic endometrial assessment did not differentiate between those who would have a subsequent clinical pregnancy.

17.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(2): 314-321, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stillbirth remains an often unpredictable and devastating pregnancy outcome, and despite thorough investigation, the number of stillbirths attributable to unexplained causes remains high. Placental examination has become increasingly important where access to perinatal autopsy is limited. We aimed to examine the causes of stillbirth in normally formed infants over 30 years and whether a declining autopsy rate has affected our ability to determine a cause for stillbirths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of normally formed singleton infants weighing ≥500 g that died prior to the onset of labor from 1989 to 2018 were examined. Trends for specific causes and uptake of perinatal autopsy were analyzed individually. RESULTS: In all, 229 641 infants were delivered, with 840 stillbirths giving a rate of 3.66/1000. The rate of stillbirth declined from 4.84/1000 in 1989 to 2.51 in 2018 (P < .001). There was no difference in the rate of stillbirth between nulliparous and multiparous women (4.25 vs 3.66 per 1000, P = .026). Deaths from placental abruption fell (1.13/1000 in 1989 to 0 in 2018, P < .001) and the relative contribution of placental abruption to the incidence of stillbirth also fell, from 23.3% (7/30) in 1989 to 0.0% (0/19) in 2018 (P < .001). Stillbirth attributed to infection remained static (0.31/1000 in 1989 to 0.13 in 2018, P = .131), while a specific causal organism was found in 79.2% (42/53) of cases. Unexplained stillbirths decreased from 2.58/1000 (16/6200) in 1989 to 0.13 (1/7581) in 2018 (P < .001) despite a fall in the uptake of perinatal autopsy (96.7% [29/30] in 1989 to 36.8% (7/19) in 2018; P < .001). Placental disease emerged as a significant cause of stillbirth from 2004 onwards (89.5% [17/19] in 2018). CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis is one of the largest single-center studies on stillbirth published to date. Stillbirth rates have fallen across the study period across parity. A decrease in deaths secondary to placental abruption contributed largely to this. Infection-related deaths are static; however, in one-fifth of cases a causative organism was not found. Despite a decreasing autopsy rate, the number of unexplained stillbirths continues to fall as the importance of placental pathology is increasingly recognized.


Assuntos
Natimorto/epidemiologia , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Autopsia/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Paridade , Doenças Placentárias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(4): 670-679, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child eating behaviours can negatively contribute to the development of childhood obesity. This study investigated associations between breastfeeding habits, maternal eating behaviours and child eating behaviours, in 5-year-old children. METHODS: Secundigravida women were recruited to the ROLO dietary randomised controlled trial (Dublin, Ireland) and were followed up with their children to 5 years of age. Breastfeeding exposure and duration were obtained at postnatal and infant follow-up at 2 and 6 months and 2 and 5 years. At 5 years, maternal and child eating behaviours were measured using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, respectively. Regression determined associations between breastfeeding habits and maternal eating behaviours with child eating behaviours, controlling for RCT group, maternal education level, maternal BMI at 5 years, childcare exposure and child BMI centile at 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: There were 230 mother and child pairs analysed. One hundred and fifty-eight mothers had initiated breastfeeding. Median breastfeeding duration was 22 (IQR 33) weeks. Children who were never breastfed were more likely to express a desire to drink (B = -1.01, p = 0.022). Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with lower food responsiveness (B = -1.71, p = 0.003). Maternal uncontrolled eating was positively associated with child food responsiveness, emotional overeating and emotional undereating (B = 0.21, p < 0.001; B = 0.14, p = 0.005; B = 0.14, p = 0.005, respectively). Maternal emotional eating was associated with child emotional overeating and undereating (B = 0.27, p < 0.001, B = 0.29, p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Not breastfeeding and short breastfeeding duration may contribute to the development of obesogenic eating behaviours in children, alongside maternal eating behaviours including uncontrolled and emotional eating. These 'food approach' eating behaviours may increase risk of overweight/obesity as they are associated with increased energy intake, hence the importance of research surrounding eating behaviours.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255249

RESUMO

A range of in utero and early-life factors can influence offspring epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation patterns. This study aimed to investigate the influence of a dietary intervention and factors in pregnancy on offspring epigenetic profile at five years of age. We also explored associations between body composition and methylation profile in a cross-sectional analysis. Sixty-three five-year-olds were selected from the ROLO Kids Study, a Randomized controlled trial Of a LOw glycemic index dietary intervention from the second trimester of pregnancy. DNA methylation was investigated in 780,501 CpG sites in DNA isolated from saliva. Principal component analysis identified no association between maternal age, weight, or body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and offspring DNA methylation (p > 0.01). There was no association with the dietary intervention during pregnancy, however, gene pathway analysis identified functional clusters involved in insulin secretion and resistance that differed between the intervention and control. There were no associations with child weight or adiposity at five years of age; however, change in weight from six months was associated with variation in methylation. We identified no evidence of long-lasting influences of maternal diet or factors on DNA methylation at age five years. However, changes in child weight were associated with the methylome in childhood.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21665, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303873

RESUMO

Shotgun metagenomic sequencing is a valuable tool for the taxonomic and functional profiling of microbial communities. However, this approach is challenging in samples, such as milk, where a low microbial abundance, combined with high levels of host DNA, result in inefficient and uneconomical sequencing. Here we evaluate approaches to deplete host DNA or enrich microbial DNA prior to sequencing using three commercially available kits. We compared the percentage of microbial reads obtained from each kit after shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Using bovine and human milk samples, we determined that host depletion with the MolYsis complete5 kit significantly improved microbial sequencing depth compared to other approaches tested. Importantly, no biases were introduced. Additionally, the increased microbial sequencing depth allowed for further characterization of the microbiome through the generation of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Furthermore, with the use of a mock community, we compared three common classifiers and determined that Kraken2 was the optimal classifier for these samples. This evaluation shows that microbiome analysis can be performed on both bovine and human milk samples at a much greater resolution without the need for more expensive deep-sequencing approaches.


Assuntos
Bactérias , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA/análise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo
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