Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 162
Filtrar
1.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(2): 131-133, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571231

RESUMO

The activities of the FIGO Pregnancy Obesity and Nutrition Initiative are aimed at reducing all types of malnutrition in women before, during and after pregnancy.

2.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(2): 140-146, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the knowledge of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concepts among midwives and obstetricians and to identify barriers and facilitators for clinicians to engage women and their partners before or early in pregnancy on risk factors associated with DOHaD, and thus to embed the concept of DOHaD in routine clinical practice. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews will be conducted in Ghana, India, Pakistan, Brazil, the UK, and USA in collaboration with the International Confederation of Midwives and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Participants will be contacted via email and telephone interviews will be conducted until data saturation followed by inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Findings from this exploratory study will provide new knowledge about the perspectives of midwives and obstetricians on DOHaD and their role in preventing the intergenerational passage of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk and improving preconception care. CONCLUSION: This study will help us understand the current use of DOHaD principles in international maternity care and how this can be improved. Bringing DOHaD to clinical practice will help healthcare practitioners adopt a long-term approach in the prevention of NCDs and childhood obesity and will help women to enter pregnancy in optimum health.

3.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(2): 134-139, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a Core Outcome Set (COS) for pregnancy nutrition research that is relevant to varied stakeholders and resource settings. METHODS: This study has three distinct phases. The first phase involves generating a list of outcomes for consideration for the COS. This includes a systematic review of studies evaluating nutrition during pregnancy where all outcomes reported in relevant literature will be extracted. Qualitative interviews with currently or previously pregnant women will also be conducted. This step will supplement the findings of the systematic review by identifying additional outcomes of importance to this stakeholder group. In the second phase of the study, healthcare professionals, researchers, and mothers from various international resource settings will be invited to participate in a two-round modified Delphi survey. The aim of the survey is to gain consensus on which outcomes are most important to include in the COS. Finally, a face-face consensus meeting will be held with a select group of participants to finalize the COS. CONCLUSION: This COS will support standardization of outcome reporting in pregnancy nutrition research and ensure that selected outcomes are considered important by a variety of stakeholders. This will enhance the evidence behind nutrition interventions in pregnancy to improve outcomes for pregnant women.

4.
Heart ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy outcomes in women with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) are poorly described. There is a paucity of data therefore on which to base clinical management to counsel women, with regard to both maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective multicentre study of women with established CAD delivering at 16 UK specialised cardiac obstetric clinics. We included pregnancies of 24 weeks' gestation or more, delivered between January 1998 and October 2018. Data were collected on maternal cardiovascular, obstetric and neonatal events. RESULTS: 79 women who had 92 pregnancies (94 babies including two sets of twins) were identified. 35.9% had body mass index >30% and 24.3% were current smokers. 18/79 (22.8%) had prior diabetes, 27/79 (34.2%) had dyslipidaemia and 21/79 (26.2%) had hypertension. The underlying CAD was due to atherosclerosis in 52/79 (65.8%), spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) in 11/79 (13.9%), coronary artery spasm in 7/79 (8.9%) and thrombus in 9/79 (11.4%).There were six adverse cardiac events (6.6% event rate), one non-ST elevation myocardial infarction at 23 weeks' gestation, two SCAD recurrences (one at 26 weeks' gestation and one at 9 weeks' postpartum), one symptomatic deterioration in left ventricular function and two women with worsening angina. 14% of women developed pre-eclampsia, 25% delivered preterm and 25% of infants were born small for gestational age. CONCLUSION: Women with established CAD have relatively low rates of adverse cardiac events in pregnancy. Rates of adverse obstetric and neonatal events are greater, highlighting the importance of multidisciplinary care.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal blood pressure (BP) below the diagnostic criteria of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is associated with maternal BP 5 years later. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland (2007-2011). SAMPLE: 329 women from the ROLO study (Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet to prevent the recurrence of macrosomia). METHODS: Maternal BP measurements were taken during pregnancy (13, 28, and 34 weeks gestation and day 1 post-partum) and at the 5 year follow-up. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were categorised as normal (SBP <120 and DBP <80 mmHg), elevated (SBP 120-129 and DBP <80 mmHg), HTN stage 1 (SBP 130-139 or DBP 80-89 mmHg), or HTN stage 2 (SBP ≥140 or DBP ≥90 mmHg) at each timepoint. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal blood pressure at the 5 year follow-up. RESULTS: Women with elevated BP at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation had 2.68 (95% CI:1.36-5.26) and 2.45-fold (95% CI:1.22-4.95) increased odds of HTN stage 1 respectively, at the 5 year follow-up, compared to those with normal BP in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Elevated BP at 28 and 34 weeks gestation was associated with an increased risk of HTN stage 1 5 years later. Thus, raised BP, below the diagnostic criteria of HDP, could be flagged for follow-up post-partum.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e025620, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify if maternal educational attainment is a prognostic factor for gestational weight gain (GWG), and to determine the differential effects of lifestyle interventions (diet based, physical activity based or mixed approach) on GWG, stratified by educational attainment. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis using the previously established International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) Collaborative Group database (https://iwipgroup.wixsite.com/collaboration). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data Statement guidelines were followed. DATA SOURCES: Major electronic databases, from inception to February 2017. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials on diet and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy. Maternal educational attainment was required for inclusion and was categorised as higher education (≥tertiary) or lower education (≤secondary). RISK OF BIAS: Cochrane risk of bias tool was used. DATA SYNTHESIS: Principle measures of effect were OR and regression coefficient. RESULTS: Of the 36 randomised controlled trials in the i-WIP database, 21 trials and 5183 pregnant women were included. Women with lower educational attainment had an increased risk of excessive (OR 1.182; 95% CI 1.008 to 1.385, p =0.039) and inadequate weight gain (OR 1.284; 95% CI 1.045 to 1.577, p =0.017). Among women with lower education, diet basedinterventions reduced risk of excessive weight gain (OR 0.515; 95% CI 0.339 to 0.785, p = 0.002) and inadequate weight gain (OR 0.504; 95% CI 0.288 to 0.884, p=0.017), and reduced kg/week gain (B -0.055; 95% CI -0.098 to -0.012, p=0.012). Mixed interventions reduced risk of excessive weight gain for women with lower education (OR 0.735; 95% CI 0.561 to 0.963, p=0.026). Among women with high education, diet based interventions reduced risk of excessive weight gain (OR 0.609; 95% CI 0.437 to 0.849, p=0.003), and mixed interventions reduced kg/week gain (B -0.053; 95% CI -0.069 to -0.037,p<0.001). Physical activity based interventions did not impact GWG when stratified by education. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with lower education are at an increased risk of excessive and inadequate GWG. Diet based interventions seem the most appropriate choice for these women, and additional support through mixed interventions may also be beneficial.

7.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status may play a role in the development of atopic diseases due to its action on lung development and immune system development and function. AIMS: Our objective was to assess whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in maternal blood in pregnancy were associated with atopy in children. METHODS: We analysed 279 mother-child pairs from the ROLO study conducted in Dublin, Ireland. Serum 25OHD was measured at 13 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Development of childhood atopy was self-reported by mothers at follow-up appointments at 6 months, 2 years or 5 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between maternal 25OHD status and development of atopy. RESULTS: The mean (SD) 25OHD levels in early and late pregnancy were 41.9 (19.2) nmol/L and 40.2 (21.6) nmol/L, respectively. Maternal 25OHD status in early pregnancy, but not in late pregnancy, was associated with a reduced risk of atopy at 2 years (OR 0.972, CI 0.946-0.999). In early pregnancy, those with serum 25OHD levels < 30 nmol/L compared with those with 25OHD > 50 nmol/L had significantly greater risk of developing atopy at 2 years (OR 4.76, CI 1.38-16.47). CONCLUSIONS: The development of childhood atopy may be associated with maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy among a cohort of women at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Further research is required to explore the relationship between vitamin D and atopy, particularly among women with poor vitamin D status, and whether supplementation should be prioritised in early pregnancy to reduce childhood atopy.

8.
Early Hum Dev ; 134: 41-46, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression is associated with adverse social-emotional and behavioural outcomes during childhood but there has been little investigation of the impact on infant neurodevelopment during the first postnatal year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of depression during pregnancy on infant cognitive, language and motor development at six and twelve months using a prospective longitudinal study design. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n = 23), a history of MDD (n = 34) and a control group (n = 43) and their infants. OUTCOME MEASURES: MDD was measured during pregnancy and both maternal depression and infant cognitive, language and motor development were measured at six and twelve months postpartum. RESULTS: At six months, infants in the MDD group had lower motor development scores (M = 95.48, SD = 11.87) compared with controls (M = 99.97, SD = 10.64, p = .026) after controlling for maternal concurrent depression scores. At twelve months, infants in the MDD group had lower language scores (M = 87.33, SD = 10.54) compared with controls (M = 95.06, SD = 11.78, p = .037) which attenuated after controlling for maternal concurrent depression. CONCLUSIONS: These data contribute to the growing literature investigating the impact of antenatal depression on infant cognitive, language and motor development within the first postnatal year. The association between maternal depression and lower infant motor scores highlights the importance of early intervention for both mothers and infants in situations where maternal well-being is at risk.

9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(3): 273.e1-273.e9, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal morbidity and death. The cerebroplacental ratio is gaining much interest as a useful tool in differentiating the "at-risk" fetus in both fetal growth restriction and appropriate-for-gestational-age pregnancies. The Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Fetal Growth Restriction group has demonstrated previously that the presence of this "brain-sparing" effect is associated significantly with adverse perinatal outcomes in the fetal growth restriction cohort. However, data about neurodevelopment in children from pregnancies that are complicated by fetal growth restriction are sparse and conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Fetal Growth Restriction NeuroDevelopmental Assessment Study was to determine whether children born after fetal growth-restricted pregnancies are at additional risk of adverse early childhood developmental outcomes compared with children born small for gestational age. The objective of this secondary analysis was to describe the role of cerebroplacental ratio in the prediction of adverse early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were recruited prospectively from the Perinatal Ireland multicenter observational Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Fetal Growth Restriction study cohort. Fetal growth restriction was defined as birthweight <10th percentile with abnormal antenatal umbilical artery Doppler indices. Small for gestational age was defined similarly in the absence of abnormal Doppler indices. Cerebroplacental ratio was calculated with the pulsatility indices of the middle cerebral artery and divided by umbilical artery with an abnormal value <1. Children (n=375) were assessed at 3 years with the use of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition. Small-for-gestational-age pregnancies with normal Doppler indices were compared with (1) fetal growth-restricted cases with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler and normal cerebroplacental ratio or (2) fetal growth restriction cases with both abnormal umbilical artery and cerebroplacental ratio. Statistical analysis was performed with statistical software via 2-sample t-test with Bonferroni adjustment, and a probability value of .00625 was considered significant. RESULTS: Assessments were performed on 198 small-for-gestational-age children, 136 fetal growth-restricted children with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler images and normal cerebroplacental ratio, and 41 fetal growth-restricted children with both abnormal umbilical artery Doppler and cerebroplacental ratio. At 3 years of age, although there were no differences in head circumference, children who also had an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio had persistently shorter stature (P=.005) and lower weight (P=.18). Children from fetal growth restriction-affected pregnancies demonstrated poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than their small-for-gestational-age counterparts. Fetal growth-restricted pregnancies with an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio had significantly poorer neurologic outcome at 3 years of age across all measured variables. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that growth-restricted pregnancies with a cerebroplacental ratio <1 have a significantly increased risk of delayed neurodevelopment at 3 years of age when compared with pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler evidence alone. This study further substantiates the benefit of routine assessment of cerebroplacental ratio in fetal growth-restricted pregnancies and for counseling parents regarding the long-term outcome of affected infants.

10.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129869

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatic disease (RD) patients when family planning must consider fertility, disease activity, and management from preconception to lactation. A clear understanding is necessary, especially for those receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic medications. Previous studies have highlighted unmet needs in the care of women with RDs with reproductive healthcare needs. This study describes the first published standardized reproductive care pathway for women with RDs and the outcomes of this approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed the care pathway with multidisciplinary input from rheumatologists, rheumatology nurse specialists, obstetricians, midwives, maternal medicine specialists, and pharmacists. We identified patients' emotional and healthcare needs, ensured access to expert advice, maintenance of good disease control, and positive reproductive outcomes. We prospectively followed the patients and report the results of the service. RESULTS: Ninety-eight women with median age (range) of 35 years (19-48) were assessed. The majority had an inflammatory arthritis. Seventy-six babies were born to 62 mothers. There were 12 miscarriages and one perinatal death. Breastfeeding rates at 6 weeks were low (28%). CONCLUSION: We describe the first published evidence-based integrated multidisciplinary reproductive care pathway for women with RDs and the results of this approach. Seventy percent of women successful in trying to conceive delivered a healthy baby, and 90% of patients were 'very satisfied' with the service.

11.
J Perinatol ; 39(8): 1021-1030, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine evidence regarding psychosocial development from one month to four years of age in small for gestational age and intrauterine growth-restricted children. STUDY DESIGN: Studies were included if participants met criteria for small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction, follow-up was from age 1 month to 4 years, methods were described, and appropriate comparison groups were included. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using quality-appraisal guidelines. RESULTS: Of 3216 studies reviewed, 24 were included. Poorer psychosocial development was described for small for gestational age children in 15 and for intrauterine growth-restricted children in 3 studies. Only 5 studies measured placental insufficiency using Doppler ultrasound. Study heterogeneity limited synthesis and interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: Although evidence suggests that small for gestational age children are at risk of poorer early childhood psychosocial outcomes, further research is required to clarify whether placental insufficiency is associated with poorer early psychosocial development.

12.
Cytokine ; 119: 152-158, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909151

RESUMO

Almost a third of Irish children are now overweight and the country ranks 58th out of 200 countries for its proportion of overweight youths. With the rising obesity epidemic, and the impaired immune responses of this population, it is vital to understand the effects that obesity has on the immune system and to design future therapeutics, adjuvants and vaccines with overweight and obese populations in mind. Many current vaccines use adjuvants that have been found to be less effective at stimulating the immune response in children compared with adults and there is now substantial effort to design paediatric-focused adjuvants. Additionally, vaccine responses have been shown to be less effective in obese populations indicating that this is a particularly vulnerable population. We have recently identified cytosolic nucleic acids (CNAs), as novel candidate adjuvants for childhood vaccines. Here we investigated whether immune responses to these candidate adjuvants were adversely affected in infants born to overweight or obese mothers, and in overweight and obese children. Type I Interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) are vital for driving innate and adaptive immune responses. We found that childhood obesity conferred no significant adverse effect on CNA-induced Type I IFN responses when compared with lean children. Similarly, Type I IFN responses were intact in the cord blood of babies delivered from overweight and obese mothers, when compared with lean mothers. There was also no significant impact of obesity on CNA-induced TNFα responses in children or from cord blood of infants born to overweight/obese mothers. In all cases, there was a tendency towards decreased production of innate cytokine Type I Interferon and TNFα, however there was no significant negative correlation. Interestingly, high maternal BMI showed weak and moderate positive correlation with IL-12p70 and IFNγ, respectively, in response to CNA stimulation. This study demonstrates that future adjuvants can be tailored for these populations through the use of activators of CNA sensors.

13.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 236: 121-126, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the Robson Ten-Group Classification System be used as a global standard for assessing, monitoring and comparing cesarean delivery (CD) rates within and between maternity services. Our objective was to compare the change of CD rates within the 10-Group Classification System in our institution over 10 years. STUDY DESIGN: From 2005-2014 inclusive data was collected prospectively and all women were classified using the obstetric concepts and parameters described in the Ten-Group Classification System. Linear regression and weighted Least Squares regression analyses were used to analyze trends over time. RESULTS: During 2005-2014 inclusive, 88,004 mothers delivered 89,649 babies ≥500 g. Over the 10 year period there was an increase in CD rate from 18.3% to 23.5%, with a linear increase in CD rate by 0.6% annually (95% CI:0.52, 0.75;p < 0.001). The main contribution to the increase in the CD rate was Group 2a (induced single cephalic nulliparous women at term), Group 2b (pre-labor single cephalic nulliparous women at term) and Group 5 (single cephalic multiparous women at term with a previous CD). No increase in CD rate was noted in Group 1 (single cephalic nulliparous women presenting in spontaneous labor at term). The percentage of women ≥35 years of age increased from 28.4% to 39.8% over the study period (0.98% per year; 95% CI:0.64, 1.33;p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The driving force for the increase in CD in the National Maternity Hospital has been induction of labor and pre-labor CD in nulliparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy at term. This inevitably results in a larger population of women with a previous CD and therefore a secondary contribution to the increase in the overall CD rate.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e023562, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia are currently triaged on the basis of hypertension and dipstick proteinuria. This may result in significant false positive and negative diagnoses resulting in increased morbidity or unnecessary intervention. Recent data suggest that placental growth factor testing may be a useful adjunct in the management of women presenting with preterm pre-eclampsia. The primary objective of this trial is to determine if the addition of placental growth factor testing to the current clinical assessment of women with suspected preterm pre-eclampsia, is beneficial for both mothers and babies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, stepped wedge cluster, randomised trial aiming to recruit 4000 women presenting with symptoms suggestive of preterm pre-eclampsia between 20 and 36+6 weeks' gestation. The intervention of an unblinded point of care test, performed at enrolment, will quantify maternal levels of circulating plasma placental growth factor. The intervention will be rolled out sequentially, based on randomisation, in the seven largest maternity units on the island of Ireland. Primary outcome is a composite outcome of maternal morbidity (derived from the modified fullPIERS model). To ensure we are not reducing maternal morbidity at the expense of earlier delivery and worse neonatal outcomes, we have established a co-primary outcome which will examine the effect of the intervention on neonatal morbidity, assessed using a composite neonatal score. Secondary analyses will examine further clinical outcomes (such as mode of delivery, antenatal detection of growth restriction and use of antihypertensive agents) as well as a health economic analysis, of incorporation of placental growth factor testing into routine care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted from each of the seven maternity hospitals involved in the trial. The results of the trial will be presented both nationally and internationally at conference and published in an international peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02881073.

15.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 188: 111-116, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605775

RESUMO

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is the main circulating form of vitamin D in the blood. Vitamin D status in adults is determined by numerous factors such as oral intake, skin generation, and body composition. However, there is limited understanding regarding determinants of 25OHD in young children. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable factors that may act as determinants of 25OHD at five years of age. Analysis conducted on 79 children from the ROLO Kids study. Dietary intakes and dietary habits were measured using a food frequency questionnaire and levels of sun exposure were assessed using a lifestyle questionnaire, both completed by the mother. Child weight, height, and skinfolds were measured. Vitamin D status was sufficient (25OHD > 50 nmol/L) in 61% of the participants. Neither reported dietary vitamin D nor calcium intake was significantly associated with 25OHD. Intakes of standard milk, eggs, and oily fish were not associated with 25OHD. However, reported consumption of fortified milk, and more than 7 bowls of cereal a week were independently associated with higher 25OHD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.049, respectively). Sun exposure (measured as obtaining at least half an hour of sun per day) was not significantly associated with 25OHD, but reported use of sunscreen was associated with higher 25OHD (p = 0.016). There was no association of body composition with 25OHD. These findings suggest the primacy of dietary and lifestyle habits as indicators of 25OHD in early childhood. This may have utility in identifying at-risk individuals for public health campaigns about education surrounding dietary habits, which may be useful to ensure sufficient vitamin D status within this age group.


Assuntos
Dieta , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Composição Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Luz Solar , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e024808, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' (HCPs) beliefs and attitudes towards weight management for pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: A public antenatal clinic in a large academic maternity hospital in Cork, Ireland, and general practice clinics in the same region. PARTICIPANTS: HCPs such as hospital-based midwives and consultant obstetricians and general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of hospital-based HCPs and a sample of GPs working in the same region. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed using NVivo software. RESULTS: Seventeen HCPs were interviewed (hospital based=10; GPs=7). Four themes identified the complexity of weight management in pregnancy and the challenges HCPs faced when trying to balance the medical and psychosocial needs of the women. HCPs acknowledged weight as a sensitive conversation topic, leading to a 'softly-softly approach' to weight management. HCPs tried to strike a balance between being woman centred and empathetic and medicalising the conversation. HCPs described 'doing what you can with what you have' and shifting the focus to managing obstetric complications. Furthermore, there were unclear roles and responsibilities in terms of weight management. CONCLUSION: HCPs need to have standardised approaches and evidence-based guidelines that support the consistent monitoring and management of weight during pregnancy.

18.
Am J Perinatol ; 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of aspirin use in low-risk pregnancy on: (1) pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and placental-like growth factor (PLGF); (2) urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and blood pressure; (3) fetal growth parameters; and (4) placental histopathology. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary analysis from the T rial of low-dose aspirin with an E arly S creening T est for preeclampsia and growth restriction randomized controlled trial was based on low-risk nulliparous women randomized at 11 weeks to (1) aspirin 75 mg; (2) no aspirin; and (3) aspirin based on the preeclampsia Fetal Medicine Foundation screening test. At baseline, women underwent assessment of blood pressure, PAPP-A, PLGF, and ACR, repeated 9 to 10 weeks postaspirin, in addition to fetal growth assessment. Gross and histopathological placental analyses were performed in line with Amsterdam criteria. RESULTS: A total of 445 subjects were included (aspirin n = 163 [36.6%]; no aspirin n = 282 [63.4%]). Although the fetal-to-placental weight ratio was significantly greater in the aspirin group (7.5 [±1.3] vs. 7.3 [±1.4], p = 0.045), as was change in ultrasound assessed estimated fetal weight from second to third trimesters (1,624.5 g [±235.1] vs. 1,606.2 [±189.4], p = 0.042), this was invalidated by the lack of a difference in birth weight. Aspirin did not significantly impact on change in serum or urine preeclampsia biomarkers, maternal blood pressure, or placental histopathology. CONCLUSION: Aspirin use in low-risk pregnancy does not appear to impact on preeclampsia biomarkers, fetal growth, or placental pathology.

19.
Hypertension ; 72(6): 1391-1396, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571234

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate whether routine aspirin 75 mg is more cost-effective than the Fetal Medicine Foundation screen-and-treat approach for preeclampsia prevention in low-risk nulliparous women. A health economic decision analytical model was devised to estimate the discounted net health and cost outcomes of routine aspirin versus Fetal Medicine Foundation screening test-indicated aspirin for a cohort of 100 000 low-risk nulliparous women. Both strategies were compared with no intervention. A subanalysis also compared disaggregated components of the algorithm. The analysis used data from hospital administration, literature, and a randomized controlled trial. Sensitivity analyses assessed the impact of aspirin adherence, test cost, and accuracy on study results. Presumed rates of preeclampsia were 3.75% with no intervention versus 0.45% with aspirin use. Results found that routine aspirin was the preferred strategy, in terms of greater health gains and larger cost savings. It provided 163 quality-adjusted life-years relative to no intervention, whereas the screen-and-treat policy achieved 108 quality-adjusted life-years. Routine aspirin would result in an estimated cost saving of €14.9 million annually relative to no intervention, whereas screen-and-treat approach would result in a smaller cost saving of €3.1 million. When the analysis was extended to consider alternative screen-and-treat strategies, routine aspirin remained the optimally cost-effective approach. In conclusion, routine aspirin use in low-risk nulliparous women has a greater health gain and cost saving compared with both the Fetal Medicine Foundation and other screen-and-treat approaches.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Modelos Teóricos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
20.
Am J Perinatol ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article evaluates the effect of low-dose aspirin on uterine artery (UtA) Doppler, placental volume, and vascularization flow indices in low-risk pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: In this secondary analysis of the TEST randomized controlled trial, low-risk nulliparous women were originally randomized at 11 weeks to: (1) routine aspirin 75 mg; (2) no aspirin; and (3) aspirin based upon the preeclampsia Fetal Medicine Foundation screening test. UtA Doppler, three-dimensional (3D) placental volume, and vascularization flow indices were assessed prior to and 6 weeks postaspirin commencement. RESULTS: A total of 546 women were included (aspirin n = 192, no aspirin n = 354). Between first and second trimesters, aspirin use was not associated with a change in UtA Doppler, placental volume, or vascular flow indices. There was no significant difference in the change in UtA Doppler pulsatility index (PI) Z-scores or notching (PI Z-score -0.2 vs. -0.2, p = 0.17), nor was there a significant change in placental volume Z-score and vascular flow indices (volume Z-score change: 0.74 vs. 0.62, p = 0.34). CONCLUSION: Low-dose aspirin commenced at 11 weeks in low-risk women does not appear to improve uterine and placental perfusion or placental volume. Any perceived effect on uteroplacental vasculature is not reflected in changes in placental volume nor uteroplacental flow as assessed by two-dimensional and 3D ultrasound.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA