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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

2.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 40, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our ability to generate mental representation of magnitude from sensory information affects how we perceive and experience the world. Reduced resolution of the mental representations formed from sensory inputs may generate impairment in the proximal and distal information processes that utilize these representations. Impairment of spatial and temporal information processing likely underpins the non-verbal cognitive impairments observed in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The present study builds on prior research by seeking to quantify the resolution of spatial and temporal representation in children with 22q11DS, sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA), and a typically developing (TD) control group. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Children (22q11DS = 70, SCA = 49, TD = 46) responded to visual or auditory stimuli with varying difference ratios. The participant's task was to identify which of two sequentially presented stimuli was of larger magnitude in terms of, size, duration, or auditory frequency. Detection threshold was calculated as the minimum difference ratio between the "standard" and the "target" stimuli required to achieve 75% accuracy in detecting that the two stimuli were different. RESULTS: Children with 22q11DS required larger magnitude difference between spatial stimuli for accurate identification compared with both the SCA and TD groups (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 14; SCA = 8; TD: 7; F = 8.42, p < 0.001). Temporal detection threshold was also higher for the 22q11DS group to both visual (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 14; SCA = 8; TD = 7; F = 8.33, p < 0.001) and auditory (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 23; SCA = 12; TD: 8; F = 8.99, p < 0.001) stimuli compared with both the SCA and TD groups, while the SCA and TD groups displayed equivalent performance on these measures (p's > 0.05). Pitch detection threshold did not differ among the groups (p's > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The observation of higher detection thresholds to spatial and temporal stimuli indicates further evidence for reduced resolution in both spatial and temporal magnitude representation in 22q11DS, that does not extend to frequency magnitude representation (pitch detection), and which is not explained by generalized cognitive impairment alone. These findings generate further support for the hypothesis that spatiotemporal hypergranularity of mental representations contributes to the non-verbal cognitive impairment seen in 22q11DS.

3.
Autism Res ; 12(12): 1737-1744, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433576

RESUMO

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are common in individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), yet the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors remain poorly characterized. In the present pilot investigation, we aimed to further our understanding of RRB in 22q11.2DS by exploring their relationship with cognitive control and anxiety as well as with sex, chronological age, and full-scale IQ. Parents of 38 children with 22q11.2DS (17 females; Mage = 11.15 years, SD = 2.46) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire as a measure of RRB and social and communication (SC) problems and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 as a measure of anxiety and cognitive control. Higher RRB scores were significantly associated with higher anxiety levels (r = 0.44, P = 0.006), more impairments in cognitive control (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), and higher SC scores (r = 0.43, P = 0.011). In the first step of the hierarchical regression model, anxiety accounted for 24.5% of variance (F = 10.05, P = 0.003); cognitive control accounted for an additional 18.1% of variance (Fchange = 11.15, P < 0.001) in the second step; SC score accounted for only 0.8% of additional variance in the third step (Fchange = 0.40, P = 0.53). The final model explained 43.4% of variance (F = 7.42, P = 0.001), with cognitive control as a unique independent predictor of RRB score (t = 2.52, P = 0.01). The current study provides the first exploration of the cognitive control-anxiety-RRB link in individuals with 22q11.2DS and points to cognitive control as a potentially viable target for treatments aimed at reducing RRB. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1737-1744. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: People with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome show high levels of repetitive behaviors, however, the previous research has not explored why people with this syndrome exhibit high rates of repetitive behaviors. Understanding the reasons for the high levels of repetitive behaviors is important given that these behaviors can be highly impairing. Our study found that repetitive behaviors were associated with impaired ability to self-regulate and high levels of anxiety. These findings need to be further replicated; however, they are important as they suggest potentially promising ways of reducing these behaviors.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(4): e11410, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Online peer support forums require oversight to ensure they remain safe and therapeutic. As online communities grow, they place a greater burden on their human moderators, which increases the likelihood that people at risk may be overlooked. This study evaluated the potential for machine learning to assist online peer support by directing moderators' attention where it is most needed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of an automated triage system and the extent to which it influences moderator behavior. METHODS: A machine learning classifier was trained to prioritize forum messages as green, amber, red, or crisis depending on how urgently they require attention from a moderator. This was then launched as a set of widgets injected into a popular online peer support forum hosted by ReachOut.com, an Australian Web-based youth mental health service that aims to intervene early in the onset of mental health problems in young people. The accuracy of the system was evaluated using a holdout test set of manually prioritized messages. The impact on moderator behavior was measured as response ratio and response latency, that is, the proportion of messages that receive at least one reply from a moderator and how long it took for these replies to be made. These measures were compared across 3 periods: before launch, after an informal launch, and after a formal launch accompanied by training. RESULTS: The algorithm achieved 84% f-measure in identifying content that required a moderator response. Between prelaunch and post-training periods, response ratios increased by 0.9, 4.4, and 10.5 percentage points for messages labelled as crisis, red, and green, respectively, but decreased by 5.0 percentage points for amber messages. Logistic regression indicated that the triage system was a significant contributor to response ratios for green, amber, and red messages, but not for crisis messages. Response latency was significantly reduced (P<.001), between the same periods, by factors of 80%, 80%, 77%, and 12% for crisis, red, amber, and green messages, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that the triage system made a significant and unique contribution to reducing the time taken to respond to green, amber, and red messages, but not to crisis messages, after accounting for moderator and community activity. CONCLUSIONS: The triage system was generally accurate, and moderators were largely in agreement with how messages were prioritized. It had a modest effect on response ratios, primarily because moderators were already more likely to respond to high priority content before the introduction of triage. However, it significantly and substantially reduced the time taken for moderators to respond to prioritized content. Further evaluations are needed to assess the impact of mistakes made by the triage algorithm and how changes to moderator responsiveness impact the well-being of forum members.


Assuntos
Apoio Social , Triagem/métodos , Educação a Distância , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino
6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895892

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion (22q11DS) is a common chromosomal microdeletion and a potent risk factor for psychotic illness. Prior studies reported widespread cortical changes in 22q11DS, but were generally underpowered to characterize neuroanatomic abnormalities associated with psychosis in 22q11DS, and/or neuroanatomic effects of variability in deletion size. To address these issues, we developed the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis) 22q11.2 Working Group, representing the largest analysis of brain structural alterations in 22q11DS to date. The imaging data were collected from 10 centers worldwide, including 474 subjects with 22q11DS (age = 18.2 ± 8.6; 46.9% female) and 315 typically developing, matched controls (age = 18.0 ± 9.2; 45.9% female). Compared to controls, 22q11DS individuals showed thicker cortical gray matter overall (left/right hemispheres: Cohen's d = 0.61/0.65), but focal thickness reduction in temporal and cingulate cortex. Cortical surface area (SA), however, showed pervasive reductions in 22q11DS (left/right hemispheres: d = -1.01/-1.02). 22q11DS cases vs. controls were classified with 93.8% accuracy based on these neuroanatomic patterns. Comparison of 22q11DS-psychosis to idiopathic schizophrenia (ENIGMA-Schizophrenia Working Group) revealed significant convergence of affected brain regions, particularly in fronto-temporal cortex. Finally, cortical SA was significantly greater in 22q11DS cases with smaller 1.5 Mb deletions, relative to those with typical 3 Mb deletions. We found a robust neuroanatomic signature of 22q11DS, and the first evidence that deletion size impacts brain structure. Psychotic illness in this highly penetrant deletion was associated with similar neuroanatomic abnormalities to idiopathic schizophrenia. These consistent cross-site findings highlight the homogeneity of this single genetic etiology, and support the suitability of 22q11DS as a biological model of schizophrenia.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 19(8): e267, 2017 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synchronous written conversations (or "chats") are becoming increasingly popular as Web-based mental health interventions. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to evaluate and summarize the quality of these interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the current evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of online one-on-one mental health interventions that use text-based synchronous chat. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted of the databases relevant to this area of research (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online [MEDLINE], PsycINFO, Central, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, IEEE, and ACM). There were no specific selection criteria relating to the participant group. Studies were included if they reported interventions with individual text-based synchronous conversations (ie, chat or text messaging) and a psychological outcome measure. RESULTS: A total of 24 articles were included in this review. Interventions included a wide range of mental health targets (eg, anxiety, distress, depression, eating disorders, and addiction) and intervention design. Overall, compared with the waitlist (WL) condition, studies showed significant and sustained improvements in mental health outcomes following synchronous text-based intervention, and post treatment improvement equivalent but not superior to treatment as usual (TAU) (eg, face-to-face and telephone counseling). CONCLUSIONS: Feasibility studies indicate substantial innovation in this area of mental health intervention with studies utilizing trained volunteers and chatbot technologies to deliver interventions. While studies of efficacy show positive post-intervention gains, further research is needed to determine whether time requirements for this mode of intervention are feasible in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/normas , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 18(9): e246, 2016 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27619564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the interests of patient health outcomes, it is important for medical students to develop clinical communication skills. We previously proposed a telehealth communication skills training platform (EQClinic) with automated nonverbal behavior feedback for medical students, and it was able to improve medical students' awareness of their nonverbal communication. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of EQClinic to improve clinical communication skills of medical students. METHODS: We conducted a 2-group randomized crossover trial between February and June 2016. Participants were second-year medical students enrolled in a clinical communication skills course at an Australian university. Students were randomly allocated to complete online EQClinic training during weeks 1-5 (group A) or to complete EQClinic training during weeks 8-11 (group B). EQClinic delivered an automated visual presentation of students' nonverbal behavior coupled with human feedback from a standardized patient (SP). All students were offered two opportunities to complete face-to-face consultations with SPs. The two face-to-face consultations were conducted in weeks 6-7 and 12-13 for both groups, and were rated by tutors who were blinded to group allocation. Student-Patient Observed Communication Assessment (SOCA) was collected by blinded assessors (n=28) at 2 time points and also by an SP (n=83). Tutor-rated clinical communications skill in face-to-face consultations was the primary outcome and was assessed with the SOCA. We used t tests to examine the students' performance during face-to-face consultations pre- and postexposure to EQClinic. RESULTS: We randomly allocated 268 medical students to the 2 groups (group A: n=133; group B: n=135). SOCA communication skills measures (score range 4-16) from the first face-to-face consultation were significantly higher for students in group A who had completed EQClinic training and reviewed the nonverbal behavior feedback, compared with group B, who had completed only the course curriculum components (P=.04). Furthermore, at the second face-to-face assessment, the group that completed a teleconsultation between the two face-to-face consultations (group B) showed improved communication skills (P=.005), and the one that had teleconsultations before the first face-to-face consultation (group A) did not show improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The EQClinic is a useful tool for medical students' clinical communication skills training that can be applied to university settings to improve students clinical communication skills development.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Feedback Formativo , Internet , Comunicação não Verbal , Simulação de Paciente , Austrália , Estudos Cross-Over , Currículo , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudantes de Medicina , Telemedicina
9.
J Neurodev Disord ; 8: 30, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have difficulty processing social information including facial identity and emotion processing. However, difficulties with visual and attentional processes may play a role in difficulties observed with these social cognitive skills. METHODS: A cross-sectional study investigated visual perception and processing as well as facial processing abilities in a group of 49 children and adolescents with 22q11DS and 30 age and socio-economic status-matched healthy sibling controls using the Birmingham Object Recognition Battery and face processing sub-tests from the MRC face processing skills battery. RESULTS: The 22q11DS group demonstrated poorer performance on all measures of visual perception and processing, with greatest impairment on perceptual processes relating to form perception as well as object recognition and memory. In addition, form perception was found to make a significant and unique contribution to higher order social-perceptual processing (face identity) in the 22q11DS group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate evidence for impaired visual perception and processing capabilities in 22q11DS. In turn, these were found to influence cognitive skills needed for social processes such as facial identity recognition in the children with 22q11DS.

10.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0145266, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26689688

RESUMO

AIM: To generate human embryonic stem cell derived corneal endothelial cells (hESC-CECs) for transplantation in patients with corneal endothelial dystrophies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Feeder-free hESC-CECs were generated by a directed differentiation protocol. hESC-CECs were characterized by morphology, expression of corneal endothelial markers, and microarray analysis of gene expression. RESULTS: hESC-CECs were nearly identical morphologically to primary human corneal endothelial cells, expressed Zona Occludens 1 (ZO-1) and Na+/K+ATPaseα1 (ATPA1) on the apical surface in monolayer culture, and produced the key proteins of Descemet's membrane, Collagen VIIIα1 and VIIIα2 (COL8A1 and 8A2). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed expression of all corneal endothelial pump transcripts. hESC-CECs were 96% similar to primary human adult CECs by microarray analysis. CONCLUSION: hESC-CECs are morphologically similar, express corneal endothelial cell markers and express a nearly identical complement of genes compared to human adult corneal endothelial cells. hESC-CECs may be a suitable alternative to donor-derived corneal endothelium.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Córnea/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo VIII/biossíntese , Córnea/citologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Humanos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/biossíntese , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/biossíntese
11.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 43(8): 1926-34, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23292161

RESUMO

Individuals with developmental disorders frequently report a range of social cognition deficits including difficulties identifying facial displays of emotion. This study examined the specificity of face emotion processing deficits in adolescents with either autism or 22q11DS compared to typically developing (TD) controls. Two tasks (face emotion recognition and weather scene recognition) were used to explore group differences in visual scanpath strategy and concurrent recognition accuracy. For faces, the autism and 22q11DS groups demonstrated lower emotion recognition accuracy and fewer fixations compared to the TD group. Individuals with autism demonstrated fewer fixations to some weather scene stimuli compared to 22q11DS and TD groups, yet achieved a level of recognition accuracy comparable to the TD group. These findings provide evidence for a divergent pattern of social cognition dysfunction in autism and 22q11DS.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Criança , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares/instrumentação , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 46(5): 600-7, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22329951

RESUMO

Childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for a wide range of adult psychiatric disorders, and has significant and sustained negative effects on adult behavioural and social functioning. Elevated rates of childhood adversity have been reported for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess rates of retrospectively reported childhood adversity among adults with schizophrenia and to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features. Data were available for 408 schizophrenia participants and 267 healthy control participants recruited through the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). History of childhood adversity was obtained using the Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CAQ). A five-factor solution was identified from the CAQ. Schizophrenia participants reported experiencing more childhood adversities than controls. In both groups, those reporting childhood adversity were more likely to be female and older. Among participants with schizophrenia, positive symptom severity and fewer years of education were associated with childhood adversity. Lower IQ scores and personality traits were associated with reporting a greater number of childhood adversities and with adversity sub-types of abusive, neglectful and dysfunctional parenting. The rate of childhood adversity reported in this sample was high which suggests greater exposure to adverse childhood events among participants with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls. We identified unique groups amongst CAQ items that provided a salient framework from which to investigate the connection between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Neurochem ; 117(2): 221-30, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21250998

RESUMO

The trigeminal ganglion is the largest of the cranial ganglia and responsible for transmitting sensory information for much of the face. The cell surface glycoprotein CD151 is an early marker of the trigeminal placode, the precursor to the ganglion. Here, we investigate the role of CD151 during specification of trigeminal placode cells in the developing chicken embryo. Expression of the transcription factor Pax3, the earliest known marker of the trigeminal placode, briefly precedes that of CD151, but they then subsequently overlap in the trigeminal placode. Loss of CD151 protein dramatically decreases the number of Pax3+ placode cells in Stage 13-14 embryos, leading to loss of ophthalmic trigeminal neurons by Stages 16 and 17. Although the initial size of the Pax3 population is similar to that in controls, the number of Pax3+ cells decreases with time without alterations in cell death or proliferation. This suggests a role for CD151 in maintenance of the specification state in the trigeminal placode, uncovering the first known role for a tetraspanin in a developmental system.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Padronização Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antígenos CD/química , Padronização Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células/métodos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Ectoderma/embriologia , Eletroporação/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/metabolismo , Tetraspanina 24 , Gânglio Trigeminal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglio Trigeminal/embriologia
14.
Dev Biol ; 332(2): 189-95, 2009 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19500565

RESUMO

Whereas neural crest cells are the source of the peripheral nervous system in the trunk of vertebrates, the "ectodermal placodes," together with neural crest, form the peripheral nervous system of the head. Cranial ectodermal placodes are thickenings in the ectoderm that subsequently ingress or invaginate to make important contributions to cranial ganglia, including epibranchial and trigeminal ganglia, and sensory structures, the ear, nose, lens, and adenohypophysis. Recent studies have uncovered a number of molecular signals mediating induction and differentiation of placodal cells. Here, we described recent advances in understanding the tissue interactions and signals underlying induction and neurogenesis of placodes, with emphasis on the trigeminal and epibranchial. Important roles of Fibroblast Growth Factors, Platelet Derived Growth Factors, Sonic Hedgehog, TGFbeta superfamily members, and Wnts are discussed.


Assuntos
Ectoderma/fisiologia , Cabeça , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Crista Neural/fisiologia , Animais , Indução Embrionária/fisiologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/embriologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/fisiologia , Crista Neural/citologia , Neurogênese , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
15.
J Comp Neurol ; 514(2): 161-73, 2009 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19266562

RESUMO

The largest of the cranial ganglia, the trigeminal ganglion, relays cutaneous sensations of the head to the central nervous system. Its sensory neurons have a dual origin from both ectodermal placodes and neural crest. Here, we show that the birth of neurons derived from the chick ophthalmic trigeminal placode begins prior to their ingression (HH11), as early as HH8, and considerably earlier than previously suspected (HH16). Furthermore, cells exiting the cell cycle shortly thereafter express the ophthalmic trigeminal placode marker Pax3 (HH9). At HH11, these postmitotic Pax3+ placode cells begin to express the pan-neuronal marker neurofilament while still in the ectoderm. Analysis of the ectodermal origin and distribution of these early postmitotic neurons reveals that the ophthalmic placode extends further rostrally than anticipated, contributing to neurons that reside in and make a significant contribution to the ophthalmic trigeminal nerve. These data redefine the timing and extent of neuron formation from the ophthalmic trigeminal placode.


Assuntos
Ectoderma/citologia , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/citologia , Aminoácidos , Animais , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Embrião de Galinha , Ectoderma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Timidina/metabolismo , Trítio/metabolismo
16.
Development ; 135(10): 1863-74, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18417621

RESUMO

Much of the peripheral nervous system of the head is derived from ectodermal thickenings, called placodes, that delaminate or invaginate to form cranial ganglia and sense organs. The trigeminal ganglion, which arises lateral to the midbrain, forms via interactions between the neural tube and adjacent ectoderm. This induction triggers expression of Pax3, ingression of placode cells and their differentiation into neurons. However, the molecular nature of the underlying signals remains unknown. Here, we investigate the role of PDGF signaling in ophthalmic trigeminal placode induction. By in situ hybridization, PDGF receptor beta is expressed in the cranial ectoderm at the time of trigeminal placode formation, with the ligand PDGFD expressed in the midbrain neural folds. Blocking PDGF signaling in vitro results in a dose-dependent abrogation of Pax3 expression in recombinants of quail ectoderm with chick neural tube that recapitulate placode induction. In ovo microinjection of PDGF inhibitor causes a similar loss of Pax3 as well as the later placodal marker, CD151, and failure of neuronal differentiation. Conversely, microinjection of exogenous PDGFD increases the number of Pax3+ cells in the trigeminal placode and neurons in the condensing ganglia. Our results provide the first evidence for a signaling pathway involved in ophthalmic (opV) trigeminal placode induction.


Assuntos
Olho/embriologia , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/fisiologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/citologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Embrião de Galinha , Olho/citologia , Olho/inervação , Tubo Neural/citologia , Tubo Neural/embriologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tetraspanina 24 , Gânglio Trigeminal/embriologia
17.
Dev Dyn ; 236(10): 2925-35, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17879314

RESUMO

Cranial ectodermal placodes are critical for normal development of the peripheral nervous system of the head. However, many aspects of the molecular and tissue interactions involved in their induction have yet to be elucidated. The trigeminal placode is induced by an unidentified secreted factor(s) from the dorsal neural tube. To determine candidates that may be involved in this induction process, we have performed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization to screen for receptors expressed by uninduced presumptive trigeminal level ectoderm. We have found that receptors for fibroblast growth factors, insulin-like growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, Sonic hedgehog, the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, and Wnts all are expressed in patterns consistent with a role in trigeminal placode formation. This RT-PCR screen for candidate receptors expressed in presumptive trigeminal ectoderm is the first systematic screen to identify potential interactions underlying induction of the trigeminal placode and represents a critical step for understanding this complex process.


Assuntos
Ectoderma/metabolismo , Indução Embrionária , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo , Gânglio Trigeminal/embriologia , Animais , Galinhas , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Receptores Patched , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatomedina/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
18.
Dev Biol ; 274(2): 462-77, 2004 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15385172

RESUMO

The peripheral nervous system of the head is derived from cranial ectodermal placodes and neural crest cells. Placodes arise from thickenings in the cranial ectoderm that invaginate or ingress to form sensory ganglia and the paired sense organs. We have combined embryological techniques with array technology to identify genes that are expressed as a consequence of placode induction. As a secondary screen, we used whole mount in situ hybridization to determine the expression of candidate genes in various placodal domains. The results reveal 52 genes that are found in one or more placodes, including the olfactory, trigeminal, and otic placodes. Expression of some of these genes is retained in placodal derivatives. Furthermore, several genes are common to both neural crest and ectodermal placodes. This study presents the first array of candidate genes implicated in placode development, providing numerous new molecular markers for various stages of placode formation. Importantly, the results uncover previously unknown commonalities in genes expressed by multiple placodes and shared properties between placodes and other migratory cells, like neural crest cells.


Assuntos
Ectoderma/fisiologia , Estruturas Embrionárias/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Galinhas , Ectoderma/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hibridização In Situ , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/anatomia & histologia , Codorniz
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