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1.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(5): 565-572, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038991

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to compare patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) and conventional surgical instrumentation (CSI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in terms of early implant migration, alignment, surgical resources, patient outcomes, and costs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial of 50 patients undergoing TKA. There were 25 patients in each of the PSI and CSI groups. There were 12 male patients in the PSI group and seven male patients in the CSI group. The patients had a mean age of 69.0 years (sd 8.4) in the PSI group and 69.4 years (sd 8.4) in the CSI group. All patients received the same TKA implant. Intraoperative surgical resources and any surgical waste generated were recorded. Patients underwent radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies to measure femoral and tibial component migration over two years. Outcome measures were recorded pre- and postoperatively. Overall costs were calculated for each group. RESULTS: There were no differences (p > 0.05) in any measurement of migration at two years for either the tibial or femoral components. Movement between one and two years was < 0.2 mm, indicating stable fixation. There were no differences in coronal or sagittal alignment between the two groups. The PSI group took a mean 6.1 minutes longer (p = 0.04) and used a mean 3.4 less trays (p < 0.0001). Total waste generated was similar (10 kg) between the two groups. The PSI group cost a mean CAD$1787 more per case (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: RSA criteria suggest that both groups will have revision rates of approximately 3% at five years. The advantages of PSI were minimal or absent for surgical resources used and waste eliminated, and for meeting target alignment, yet had significantly greater costs. Therefore, we conclude that PSI may not offer any advantage over CSI for routine primary TKA cases. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:565-572.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Canadá , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(7): 891-897, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954202

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the rate of wear between acetabular components positioned within and outside the 'safe zones' of anteversion and inclination angle. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 100 hips in 94 patients who had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) at least ten years previously. Patients all had the same type of acetabular component with a bearing couple which consisted of a 28 mm cobalt-chromium head on a highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner. A supine radiostereometric analysis (RSA) examination was carried out which acquired anteroposterior (AP) and lateral paired images. Acetabular component anteversion and inclination angles were measured as well as total femoral head penetration, which was divided by the length of implantation to determine the rate of polyethylene wear. Results: The mean anteversion angle was 19.4° (-15.2° to 48°, sd 11.4°), the mean inclination angle 43.4° (27.3° to 60.5°, sd 6.6°), and the mean wear rate 0.055 mm/year (sd 0.060). Exactly half of the hips were positioned inside the 'safe zone'. There was no difference (median difference, 0.012 mm/year; p = 0.091) in the rate of wear between acetabular components located within or outside the 'safe zone'. When compared to acetabular components located inside the 'safe zone', the wear rate was no different for acetabular components that only achieved the target anteversion angle (median difference, 0.012 mm/year; p = 0.138), target inclination angle (median difference, 0.013 mm/year; p = 0.354), or neither target (median difference, 0.012 mm/year; p = 0.322). Conclusion: Placing the acetabular component within or outside the 'safe zone' did not alter the wear rate of HXLPE at long-term follow-up to a level that risked osteolysis. HXLPE appears to be a forgiving bearing material in terms of articular surface wear, but care must still be taken to position the acetabular component correctly so that the implant is stable. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:891-7.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Polietileno/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Desenho de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Análise Radioestereométrica , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(2): 170-175, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437058

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term inducible displacement of cemented tibial components ten years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 15 patients from a previously reported prospective trial of fixation using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) were examined at a mean of 11 years (10 to 11) postoperatively. Longitudinal supine RSA examinations were acquired at one week, one year, and two years postoperatively and at final follow-up. Weight-bearing RSA examinations were also undertaken with the operated lower limb in neutral and in maximum internal rotation positions. Maximum total point motion (MTPM) was calculated for the longitudinal and inducible displacement examinations (supine versus standing, standing versus internal rotation, and supine versus standing with internal rotation). RESULTS: All patients showed some inducible displacement. Two patients with radiolucent lines had greater mean standing-supine MTPM displacement (1.35; sd 0.38) compared with the remaining patients (0.68; sd 0.36). These two patients also had a greater mean longitudinal MTPM at ten years (0.64; sd 0.50) compared with the remaining patients (0.39; sd 0.13 mm). CONCLUSION: Small inducible displacements in well-fixed cemented tibial components were seen ten years postoperatively, of a similar magnitude to that which has been reported for well-fixed components one to two years postoperatively. Greater displacements were found in components with radiolucent lines. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:170-5.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Falha de Prótese , Tíbia/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Análise Radioestereométrica , Suporte de Carga
4.
Bone Joint J ; 98-B(5): 616-21, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143731

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term fixation of a cemented fixed-bearing polished titanium tibial baseplate (Genesis ll). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled in a previous two-year prospective trial (n = 35) were recalled at ten years. Available patients (n = 15) underwent radiostereometric analysis (RSA) imaging in a supine position using a conventional RSA protocol. Migration of the tibial component in all planes was compared between initial and ten-year follow-up. Outcome scores including the Knee Society Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, 12-item Short Form Health Survey, Forgotten Joint Score, and University of California, Los Angeles Activity Score were recorded. RESULTS: At ten years, the mean migration of the tibial component was less than 0.1 mm and 0.1° in all planes relative to the post-operative RSA exam. Maximum total point movement increased with time (p = 0.002) from 0.23 mm (sd 0.18) at six weeks to 0.42 mm (sd 0.20) at ten years. CONCLUSION: The low level of tibial baseplate migration found in the present study correlates to the low rate of revision for this implant as reported in individual studies and in joint replacement registries. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Overall, the implant was found to be well fixed at ten years, supporting its continued clinical use and the predictive power of RSA for determining long-term fixation of implants. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:616-21.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Prótese do Joelho , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise Radioestereométrica , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia , Titânio
5.
Bone Joint J ; 98-B(1): 28-32, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26733512

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in young patients using either a conventional (CPE) or a highly cross-linked (HXLPE) polyethylene liner in terms of functional outcome, incidence of osteolysis, radiological wear and rate of revision. METHODS: We included all patients between the ages of 45 and 65 years who, between January 2000 and December 2001, had undergone a primary THA for osteoarthritis at our hospital using a CPE or HXLPE acetabular liner and a 28 mm cobalt-chrome femoral head. From a total of 160 patients, 158 (177 hips) were available for review (CPE 89; XLPE 88). The mean age, body mass index (BMI) and follow-up in each group were: CPE: 56.8 years (46 to 65); 30.7 kg/m(2) (19 to 58); 13.2 years (2.1 to 14.7) and HXLPE: 55.6 years (45 to 65); BMI: 30 kg/m(2) (18 to 51); 13.1 years (5.7 to 14.4). RESULTS: The mean Harris hip score (HHS) at final follow-up was 89.3 for the CPE group and 90.9 for the HXLPE group (p = 0.078). Osteolysis was present around 15 acetabular (17%) and 16 femoral (18%) components in the CPE hips compared with none (0%) in the HXLPE hips. The mean radiological linear wear of the CPE liners was 0.11 mm/year compared with 0.035 mm/year for the HXLPE liners (p = 0.006). The cumulative implant survival, with revision for polyethylene wear as the endpoint, was 86% (95% confidence interval 78 to 94) in the CPE group and 100% in the HXLPE group at 13 years (numbers at risk at 13 years - CPE: 65, XLPE: 61). DISCUSSION: This study shows that HXLPE liners are associated with significantly less osteolysis and a lower rate of revision THA than CPE liners at long-term follow-up. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: The findings of this study highlight the clinical benefits of using HXLPE liners in THA and support the routine use of the material in order to improve implant longevity and to decrease the number of patients needing revision for aseptic osteolysis.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Prótese de Quadril , Polietileno/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/instrumentação , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteólise/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Bone Joint J ; 97-B(12): 1640-4, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26637678

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) for post-operative stiffness with a matched cohort of TKA patients who did not requre MUA. In total 72 patients (mean age 59.8 years, 42 to 83) who underwent MUA following TKA were identified from our prospective database and compared with a matched cohort of patients who had undergone TKA without subsequent MUA. Patients were evaluated for range of movement (ROM) and clinical outcome scores (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, Short-Form Health Survey, and Knee Society Clinical Rating System) at a mean follow-up of 36.4 months (12 to 120). MUA took place at a mean of nine weeks (5 to 18) after TKA. In patients who required MUA, mean flexion deformity improved from 10° (0° to 25°) to 4.4° (0° to 15°) (p < 0.001), and mean range of flexion improved from 79.8° (65° to 95°) to 116° (80° to 130°) (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in ROM or functional outcome scores at three months, one year, or two years between those who required MUA and those who did not. There were no complications associated with manipulation. At most recent follow-up, patients requiring MUA achieved equivalent ROM and clinical outcome scores when compared with a matched control group. While other studies have focused on ROM after manipulation, the current study adds to current literature by supplementing this with functional outcome scores.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Manipulação Ortopédica/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Bone Joint J ; 97-B(5): 595-602, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25922451

RESUMO

This was a randomised controlled trial studying the safety of a new short metaphyseal fixation (SMF) stem. We hypothesised that it would have similar early clinical results and micromovement to those of a standard-length tapered Synergy metaphyseal fixation stem. Using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) we compared the two stems in 43 patients. A short metaphyseal fixation stem was used in 22 patients and a Synergy stem in 21 patients. No difference was found in the clinical outcomes pre- or post-operatively between groups. RSA showed no significant differences two years post-operatively in mean micromovement between the two stems (except for varus/valgus tilt at p = 0.05) (subsidence 0.94 mm (SD 1.71) vs 0.32 mm (SD 0.45), p = 0.66; rotation 0.96° (SD 1.49) vs 1.41° (SD 2.95), p = 0.88; and total migration 1.09 mm (SD 1.74) vs 0.73 mm (SD 0.72), p = 0.51). A few stems (four SMF and three Synergy) had initial migration > 1.0 mm but stabilised by three to six months, with the exception of one SMF stem which required revision three years post-operatively. For most stems, total micromovement was very low at two years (subsidence < 0.5 mm, rotation < 1.0°, total migration < 0.5 mm), which was consistent with osseous ingrowth. The small sample makes it difficult to confirm the universal applicability of or elucidate the potential contraindications to the use of this particular new design of stem.


Assuntos
Prótese de Quadril , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Análise Radioestereométrica
8.
J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 93(3): 321-5, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21357952

RESUMO

We evaluated the outcome of primary total hip replacement (THR) in 3290 patients with the primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis at a minimum follow-up of two years. They were stratified into categories of body mass index (BMI) based on the World Health Organisation classification of obesity. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine if there was a difference in the post-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, the Harris hip score and the Short-Form-12 outcome based on the BMI. While the pre- and post-operative scores were lower for the group classified as morbidly obese, the overall change in outcome scores suggested an equal if not greater improvement compared with the non-morbidly obese patients. The overall survivorship and rate of complications were similar in the BMI groups although there was a slightly higher rate of revision for sepsis in the morbidly obese group. Morbid obesity does not affect the post-operative outcome after THR, with the possible exception of a marginally increased rate of infection. Therefore withholding surgery based on the BMI is not justified.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/complicações , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 93(3): 409-13, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21357966

RESUMO

We present a case of early retrieval of an Oxinium femoral head and corresponding polyethylene liner where there was significant surface damage to the head and polyethylene. The implants were retrieved at the time of revision surgery to correct leg-length discrepancy just 48 hours after the primary hip replacement. Appropriate analysis of the retrieved femoral head demonstrated loss of the Oxinium layer with exposure of the underlying substrate and transfer of titanium from the acetabular shell at the time of a reduction of the index total hip replacement. In addition, the level of damage to the polyethylene was extensive despite only 48 hours in situ. The purpose of this report is to highlight the care that is required at the time of reduction, especially with these hard femoral counter-faces such as Oxinium. To our knowledge, the damage occurring at the time of reduction has not been previously reported following the retrieval of an otherwise well-functioning hip replacement.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Quadril , Falha de Prótese , Análise de Falha de Equipamento/métodos , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietileno , Desenho de Prótese , Reoperação
10.
J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 92(7): 935-40, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20595110

RESUMO

This was a safety study where the hypothesis was that the newer-design CPCS femoral stem would demonstrate similar early clinical results and micromovement to the well-established Exeter stem. Both are collarless, tapered, polished cemented stems, the only difference being a slight lateral to medial taper with the CPCS stem. A total of 34 patients were enrolled in a single-blinded randomised controlled trial in which 17 patients received a dedicated radiostereometric CPCS stem and 17 a radiostereometric Exeter stem. No difference was found in any of the outcome measures pre-operatively or post-operatively between groups. At two years, the mean subsidence for the CPCS stem was nearly half that seen for the Exeter stem (0.77 mm (-0.943 to 1.77) and 1.25 mm (0.719 to 1.625), respectively; p = 0.032). In contrast, the mean internal rotation of the CPCS stem was approximately twice that of the Exeter (1.61 degrees (-1.07 degrees to 4.33 degrees ) and 0.59 degrees (0.97 degrees to 1.64 degrees ), respectively; p = 0.048). Other migration patterns were not significantly different between the stems. The subtle differences in designs may explain the different patterns of migration. Comparable migration with the Exeter stem suggests that the CPCS design will perform well in the long term.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/instrumentação , Migração de Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Prótese de Quadril , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Cimentação , Feminino , Migração de Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Radiografia , Rotação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego
11.
J Bone Joint Surg Br ; 87(10): 1333-6, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16189303

RESUMO

We identified five (2.3%) fractures of the stem in a series of 219 revision procedures using a cementless, cylindrical, extensively porous-coated, distally-fixed femoral stem. Factors relating to the patients, the implant and the operations were compared with those with intact stems. Finite-element analysis was performed on two of the fractured implants. Factors associated with fracture of the stem were poor proximal bone support (type III-type IV; p = 0.001), a body mass index > 30; (p = 0.014), a smaller diameter of stem (< 13.5 mm; p = 0.007) and the use of an extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO 4/5: p = 0.028). Finite-element analysis showed that the highest stresses on the stem occurred adjacent to the site of the fracture. The use of a strut graft wired over an extended trochanteric osteotomy in patients lacking proximal femoral cortical support decreased the stresses on the stem by 48%.We recommend the use of a strut allograft in conjunction with an extended trochanteric osteotomy in patients with poor proximal femoral bone stock.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Prótese de Quadril , Falha de Prótese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia , Desenho de Prótese , Reoperação , Estresse Mecânico
12.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; (406): 282-96, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12579029

RESUMO

A prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial was done to evaluate polyethylene versus metal bearing surfaces in total hip replacement. Forty-one patients were randomized to receive either a metal (23 patients) or a polyethylene (18 patients) insert. The femoral and acetabular components were identical with the acetabular insert the only variable. Patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using radiographs, multiple outcome measures (Western Ontario MacMaster University Score, Harris hip score, Short Form-12), erythrocyte metal ion analysis (cobalt, chromium, titanium), and urine metal ion analysis (cobalt, chromium, titanium). Patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years (mean 3.2 years; range, 2.2-3.9 years). There were no differences in radiographic outcomes or outcome measurement tools between patients. Patients receiving a metal-on-metal articulation had significantly elevated erythrocyte and urine metal ions compared with patients receiving a polyethylene insert. Patients who had metal-on-metal inserts had on average a 7.9-fold increase in erythrocyte cobalt, a 2.3-fold increase in erythrocyte chromium, a 1.7-fold increase in erythrocyte titanium, a 35.1-fold increase in urine cobalt, a 17.4-fold increase in urine chromium, and a 2.6-fold increase in urine titanium at 2 years followup. Patients receiving a polyethylene insert had no change in erythrocyte titanium, urine cobalt, or urine chromium and a 1.5-fold increase in erythrocyte cobalt, a 2.2-fold increase in erythrocyte chromium, and a 4.2-fold increase in urine titanium. Forty-one percent of patients receiving metal-on-metal articulations had increasing metal ion levels at the latest followup.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Metais , Polietilenos , Cromo/sangue , Cromo/urina , Cobalto/sangue , Cobalto/urina , Humanos , Metais/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Titânio/sangue , Titânio/urina , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 83-A(3): 390-7, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11263643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With extensive use of posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty implants, it is increasingly important to assess the mechanical performance of this design alternative. The purpose of this study was to examine the wear patterns at the femoral cam-tibial post interface in a series of posterior stabilized prostheses retrieved at revision arthroplasty. METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative wear analysis was performed over the surface of the stabilizing posts from twenty-three retrieved total knee components that had been implanted for a mean of 35.6 months (range, 2.3 to 107.2 months). The implants were designs from four different manufacturers. Digital images of the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral surfaces of the tibial post were made for quantitative analysis and determination of a post wear score. Wear was characterized with a grading system that isolates adhesive, abrasive, and fatigue wear, inferring a weighted score from an estimation of generated polyethylene debris. RESULTS: Evidence of wear or damage was observed on all twenty-three of the stabilizing posts, including those revised because of infection. On the average, 39.9% (range, 18.5% to 60%) of the post surface demonstrated some form of deformation, with adhesive wear, or burnishing, being the predominant wear mechanism. Seven posts (30%) exhibited severe damage with gross loss of polyethylene. The wear caused premature failure and early revision of two components: one of these failures was related to isolated post wear and the other, to severe post wear and subsequent fracture. Overall, wear was primarily posterior, but wear over the anterior, medial, and lateral surfaces was also notable. CONCLUSIONS: The cam-post articulation in posterior stabilized implants can be an additional source of polyethylene wear debris. The variability in wear patterns observed among designs may be due to differences in cam-post mechanics, post location, and post geometry. The surgeon should be aware that the cam-post interface is not an innocuous articulation, and manufacturers should be motivated to produce implants that maintain the function of the post while limiting wear and surface damage.


Assuntos
Prótese do Joelho , Falha de Prótese , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Polietilenos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia
14.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; (393): 168-80, 2001 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11764347

RESUMO

Instability after a total hip arthroplasty is a serious complication. Dislocation rates as much as 6.5% after posterior approaches have been reported within the past decade. For this reason, the authors use the direct lateral approach for primary and revision total hip arthroplasties. A review of the arthroplasty database yielded 1515 primary total hip arthroplasties done via a direct lateral approach in 1333 patients. These arthroplasties were done within a 10-year period and patients with followup data less than 12 months were excluded. At the most recent examination, 11.6% of the patients had a moderate or severe limp and 2.5% had severe heterotopic ossification. Only six hips (0.4%) had a dislocation or episode of instability. Three patients had more than one dislocation and required revision surgery. The results of the current study show that dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty almost can be eliminated using the direct lateral approach. The associated risks of heterotopic ossification or limp are acceptable.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Luxação do Quadril/etiologia , Articulação do Quadril , Instabilidade Articular/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ossificação Heterotópica/etiologia , Reoperação
15.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; (393): 38-51, 2001 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11764369

RESUMO

Cemented fixation of the femoral stem is the gold standard for patients older than 60 years. The importance of reliably achieving an adequate cement mantle has been shown in many studies. Currently, inspection and grading of plain radiographs is the accepted method for study of the cement mantle. However, the reliability of plain radiographs for this purpose has been questioned. In addition, the interobserver agreement of current grading systems has been shown to be limited. A new in vitro method of cement mantle analysis is described. Plastic replicas of six contemporary stems were implanted into femurs from cadavers. The specimens were imaged with a computed tomography scanner. Detailed, computer-assisted analysis of mantle thickness was done. Comparisons were made between designs. A subset was compared with standard radiographs. Plain radiographs overestimated thickness and underestimated the deficiencies. There was significant variability in the mantle produced by the different designs. Commonly used designs had deficiencies in their mantles by standard criteria despite proper surgical technique. The importance of being fully acquainted with the particular implant one uses is emphasized by these results. This is a valuable technique for investigation of the effects on the cement mantle of implant design, surgical technique, and patient anatomy.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Cimentos para Ossos , Prótese de Quadril , Imagem Tridimensional , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Distinções e Prêmios , Ortopedia , Desenho de Prótese
16.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; (380): 30-5, 2000 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11064970

RESUMO

The authors report the results of a prospective randomized clinical trial using continuous passive motion after total knee arthroplasty. One hundred twenty patients were assigned randomly to one treatment group: No continuous passive motion (Group I), continuous passive motion from 0 degrees to 50 degrees and increased as tolerated (Group II), and continuous passive motion from 70 degrees to 110 degrees (Group III). The continuous passive motion was initiated in the recovery room and was maintained for a maximum of 24 hours at which point all patients began identical postoperative physiotherapy regimens. Patients were assessed preoperatively, during their hospital stay, at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 26 weeks, and 52 weeks after their surgery. There were no statistical differences between any of the treatment groups regarding cumulative analgesic requirements, range of motion at any measured interval, length of stay (Group I, 5.1 days; Group II, 5.2 days; Group III, 5 days) or Knee Society scores. The current study does not support the use of short-term continuous passive motion after total knee replacement. A standard and a high flexion continuous passive motion protocol failed to show any advantage over physiotherapy alone in the parameters evaluated.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Terapia Passiva Contínua de Movimento , Analgésicos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Tempo de Internação , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 79(3): 421-7, 1997 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9070533

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Compressive testing to failure in the weight-bearing axis was done on 255 specimens of cancellous bone that had been machined from forty-four femora from human cadavera. The donors had ranged in age from twenty to 102 years at the time of death. After mechanical testing, the apparent density and trabecular architecture were determined. Linear regression analysis showed that the compressive strength decreased by 8.5 per cent each decade (p < 0.001). Apparent density and volume fraction also decreased significantly with age (p < 0.001). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the surface-to-volume ratio and the mean separation of the trabecular plate increased with age, whereas the mean thickness and connectivity of the trabecular plate decreased. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that age-related changes in apparent density played an important role in the decrease in mechanical strength, accounting for a 92 per cent reduction. Microstructural changes were highly correlated with apparent density and therefore had little independent effect. Thus, similar to the situation with cortical bone, the quantitative changes in aging cancellous-bone tissue, rather than the qualitative changes, influenced the mechanical competence of the bone. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study provides information concerning the difference in the properties of human cancellous bone as a function of age. Because of the importance of changes in apparent density, non-invasive means can be used to estimate the mechanical properties of cancellous bone in vivo. Thus, it may be possible to predict the risk of fracture and to explain further some aspects of the mechanics of fracture in the elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Análise de Variância , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Mecânico
18.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 75(8): 1193-205, 1993 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8354678

RESUMO

Tensile testing to failure was done on 235 cortical specimens that had been machined from forty-seven femora from human cadavera. The donors had ranged in age from twenty to 102 years at the time of death. After mechanical testing, the porosity, mineralization, and microstructure were determined. Linear regression analysis showed that the mechanical properties deteriorated markedly with age. Ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and energy absorption decreased by 5, 9, and 12 per cent per decade, respectively. The porosity of bone increased significantly with age, while the mineral content was not affected. Microstructural analysis demonstrated that the amount of haversian bone increased with age. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated the importance of age-related changes in porosity to the decline in mechanical properties. Changes in porosity accounted for 76 per cent of the reduction in strength. Microstructural changes were highly correlated with porosity and therefore had little independent effect. Mineral content did not play a major role. Thus, the quantitative changes in aging bone tissue, rather than the qualitative changes, influence the mechanical competence of the bone.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porosidade , Resistência à Tração
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