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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1297: 163-171, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537944

RESUMO

Shared neurophysiology of addiction and sleep disorders results in a bidirectional interplay. Diagnosing and treating primary sleep disorders, particularly in adolescents, can prevent the development of addiction in susceptible individuals. Addressing sleep issues in early recovery, and throughout maintenance, can prevent relapse. Cannabis use for insomnia shows mixed results; assisting with onset sleep latency in early use, this subsides with chronic use and holds addiction risk. Insomnia is a primary complaint of cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a primary cause of relapse in cannabis use disorder. An ideal sleep aid would prevent relapse and have low abuse potential. Pharmaceutical and behavioral options include suvorexant, mirtazapine, trazodone, and aerobic exercise, but clinical trials are lacking to demonstrate efficacy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico
3.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(2)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antidepressant medications have a variety of effects on sleep, apart from their antidepressant effects. It is unknown whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has effects on perceived sleep in depressed patients. This secondary analysis examines the effects of ECT on perceived sleep, separate from its antidepressant effects. METHODS: Elderly patients with major depressive disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, received open-label high-dose, right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, combined with venlafaxine, as part of participating in phase 1 of the National Institute of Mental Health-supported study Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE). Phase 1 of PRIDE participant enrollment period extended from February 2009 to August 2014. Depression severity was measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 item (HDRS24), and measures of insomnia severity were extracted from the HDRS24. Participants were characterized at baseline as either "high-insomnia" or "low-insomnia" subtypes, based upon the sum of the 3 HDRS24 sleep items as either 4-6 or 0-3, respectively. Insomnia scores were followed during ECT and were adjusted for the sum of all the HDRS24 non-sleep items. Generalized linear models were used for longitudinal analysis of insomnia scores. RESULTS: Two hundred forty patients participated, with 48.3% in the high-insomnia and 51.7% in the low-insomnia group. Although there was a reduction in the insomnia scores in the high-insomnia group, only 12.4% of them experienced remission of insomnia after a course of ECT, despite an increase in utilization of sleep aids across the course of ECT, from 8.6% to 23.2%. The degree of improvement in insomnia symptoms paralleled the degree of improvement in non-insomnia symptoms. A "low" amount of improvement on the sum of the HDRS non-insomnia items (HDRS-sleep) was accompanied by a "low" amount of improvement in insomnia scores (change of -1.6 ± 1.2, P < .0001), while a "high" amount of improvement on the sum of the HDRS non-insomnia items was accompanied by a "higher" amount of improvement in insomnia scores (change of -3.1 ± 1.6, P < .0001). After adjustment for non-insomnia symptoms, there was no change in insomnia in the low-insomnia group. CONCLUSIONS: We found that ECT, combined with venlafaxine, has a modest anti-insomnia effect that is linked to its antidepressant effect. Most patients will have some degree of residual insomnia after ECT, and will require some consideration of whether additional, targeted assessment and treatment of insomnia is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01028508.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina , Idoso , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/efeitos adversos
4.
J Affect Disord ; 227: 721-730, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data have demonstrated seasonal and circadian patterns of suicidal deaths. Several reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed the relationship between sleep disturbance and suicidality. However, these reviews/meta-analyses have not focused on seasonal and circadian dysfunction in relation to suicidality, despite the common presence of this dysfunction in patients with mood disorders. Thus, the current literature review analyzed studies investigating person-specific chronotype, seasonality, and rhythmicity in relation to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. METHODS: Study authors reviewed articles related to individual-level chronotype, seasonality, and rhythmicity and suicidality that were written in English and not case reports or reviews. RESULTS: This review supports a relationship between an eveningness chronotype, greater seasonality, and decreased rhythmicity with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in those with unipolar depression, as well as in other psychiatric disorders and in children/adolescents. LIMITATIONS: These findings need to be explored more fully in mood disordered populations and other psychiatric populations, in both adults and children, with objective measurement such as actigraphy, and with chronotype, seasonality, and rhythmicity as well as broader sleep disturbance measurement all included so the construct(s) most strongly linked to suicidality can be best identified. CONCLUSIONS: Eveningness, greater seasonality, and less rhythmicity should be considered in individuals who may be at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors and may be helpful in further tailoring assessment and treatment to improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Actigrafia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Ideação Suicida
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 97: 65-69, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195125

RESUMO

We examined whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plus medications ("STABLE + PHARM" group) had superior HRQOL compared with medications alone ("PHARM" group) as continuation strategy after successful acute right unilateral ECT for major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) would be higher during continuation treatment in the "STABLE + PHARM" group versus the "PHARM" group. The overall study design was called "Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly" (PRIDE). Remitters to the acute course of ECT were re-consented to enter a 6 month RCT of "STABLE + PHARM" versus "PHARM". Measures of depressive symptoms and cognitive function were completed by blind raters; SF-36 measurements were patient self-report every 4 weeks. Participants were 120 patients >60 years old. Patients with dementia, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or substance abuse were excluded. The "PHARM" group received venlafaxine and lithium. The "STABLE + PHARM" received the same medications, plus 4 weekly outpatient ECT sessions, with additional ECT session as needed. Participants were mostly female (61.7%) with a mean age of 70.5 ± 7.2 years. "STABLE + PHARM" patients received 4.5 ± 2.5 ECT sessions during Phase 2. "STABLE + PHARM" group had 7 point advantage (3.5-10.4, 95% CI) for Physical Component Score of SF-36 (P < 0.0001), and 8.2 point advantage (4.2-12.2, 95% CI) for Mental Component Score (P < 0.0001). Additional ECT resulted in overall net health benefit. Consideration should be given to administration of additional ECT to prevent relapse during the continuation phase of treatment of MDD. CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV: NCT01028508.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
9.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 29(1): 62-70, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a high burden of disability and mortality and frequently is treatment resistant. There is little to offer patients who are not responding to standard interventions. Thus, the objective of this report is to systematically review human data on whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in PTSD. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review from 1958 through August 2016 for clinical studies and case reports published in English examining the efficacy of ECT in improving PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: The literature search generated 3 retrospective studies, 1 prospective uncontrolled clinical trial, and 5 case reports. It is not clear, given the small sample size and lack of a large randomized trial, whether favorable outcomes were attributed to improvement in depression (as opposed to core PTSD symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Current efficacy data do not separate conclusively the effects of ECT on PTSD symptoms from those on depression. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to examine the use of ECT in medication-refractory PTSD patients with and without comorbid depression. Subsequent studies may address response in PTSD subtypes, and the use of novel techniques, such as memory reactivation, before ECT.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Eletroconvulsoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Depressão/psicologia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Humanos
10.
J Affect Disord ; 209: 39-45, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) referred for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have poorer Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL), compared with other patients with MDD, but ECT is associated with significant and durable improvement in HRQOL. However, no prior research has focused exclusively on elderly patients with MDD receiving ECT. METHODS: HRQOL data from 240 depressed patients over the age of 60 was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). The SF-36 was measured before and after a course of acute ECT. Predictors of change in HRQOL scores were identified by generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: At baseline, participants showed very poor HRQOL. After treatment with ECT, the full sample showed marked and significant improvement across all SF-36 measures, with the largest gains seen in dimensions of mental health. Across all participants, the Physical Component Summary (PCS) score improved by 2.1 standardized points (95% CI, 0.61,3.56), while the Mental Component Summary (MCS) score improved by 12.5 points (95% CI, 7.2,10.8) Compared with non-remitters, remitters showed a trend toward greater improvement in the PCS summary score of 2.7 points (95%CI, -0.45, 5.9), while the improvement in the MCS summary score was significantly greater (8.5 points, 95% CI, 4.6,12.3) in the remitters than non-remitters. Post-ECT SF-36 measurements were consistently and positively related to baseline scores and remitter/non-remitter status or change in depression severity from baseline. Objective measures of cognitive function had no significant relationships to changes in SF-36 scores. LIMITATIONS: This study's limitations include that it was an open label study with no comparison group, and generalizability is limited to elderly patients. DISCUSSION: ECT providers and elderly patients with MDD treated with ECT can be confident that ECT will result in improved HRQOL in the short-term. Attaining remission is a key factor in the improvement of HRQOL. Acute changes in select cognitive functions were outweighed by improvement in depressive symptoms in determining the short term HRQOL of the participants treated with ECT.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Affect Disord ; 208: 577-581, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) including childhood abuse and trauma increase depressive symptoms. The role of resilience and how it interacts with both ACEs and the potential development of depressive symptoms, including how race and ethnicity moderate these effects, are much less studied. The aims of this study were to examine: 1) whether there is a dose-response relationship between trauma and depressive symptoms; 2) whether early trauma affected European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) in a similar fashion; and 3) whether resilience mitigates the effect of trauma. METHODS: The present study comprised a cross-sectional study of subjects from a longitudinal cohort. All subjects were 19 years or older with traumatic experiences prior to age 18. Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms as well as resilience. RESULTS: In 413 subjects enrolled, ACEs were significantly associated with depression severity in a dose-response fashion (p<0.001). Notably, AAs had lower depression scores at low to moderate levels of ACEs than EAs, but reported comparable levels of depression with severe exposure to ACEs (pInteraction=0.05). In both EAs and AAs, young adults with high and medium levels of resilience showed less depressive symptoms compared to those with low resilience (p<0.05). LIMITATIONS: to consider are the cross-sectional design, possibility of other confounders, and potential for recall bias of this study. CONCLUSION: While ACEs were significantly associated with severity of depression in a dose-response fashion, higher resilience mitigated the impact of childhood adversities on depressive symptoms in young adults. The results are encouraging, and guides research for therapeutics to boost resilience.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Afro-Americanos , Depressão/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Psychiatry ; 174(1): 18-25, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27609243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is associated with increased risk for suicide. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has mandated that warnings regarding suicide be included in the prescribing information for hypnotic medications. The authors conducted a review of the evidence for and against the claim that hypnotics increase the risk of suicide. METHOD: This review focused on modern, FDA-approved hypnotics, beginning with the introduction of benzodiazepines, limiting its findings to adults. PubMed and Web of Science were searched, crossing the terms "suicide" and "suicidal" with each of the modern FDA-approved hypnotics. The FDA web site was searched for postmarketing safety reviews, and the FDA was contacted with requests to provide detailed case reports for hypnotic-related suicide deaths reported through its Adverse Event Reporting System. RESULTS: Epidemiological studies show that hypnotics are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, none of these studies adequately controlled for depression or other psychiatric disorders that may be linked with insomnia. Suicide deaths have been reported from single-agent hypnotic overdoses. A separate concern is that benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics can cause parasomnias, which in rare cases may lead to suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior in persons who were not known to be suicidal. On the other hand, ongoing research is testing whether treatment of insomnia may reduce suicidality in adults with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The review findings indicate that hypnotic medications are associated with suicidal ideation. Future studies should be designed to assess whether increases in suicidality result from CNS impairments from a given hypnotic medication or whether such medication decreases suicidality because of improvements in insomnia.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/envenenamento , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/mortalidade , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos
13.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 54(12): 39-43, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28001286

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the oldest and best treatments for severe mental illness. A safe and highly effective option for treatment-resistant mood disorders, ECT can be a lifesaving treatment for people suffering from catatonia and acute suicidality. Less recognized are the benefits of ECT in the treatment of primary psychotic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and status epilepticus. Evidence from multisite clinical trials in the past decade shows an evolving standard for the delivery of ECT to achieve and maintain remission and quality of life. Today, the optimal practice of ECT is defined by evidence-based treatment planning, including patient selection, choice of electrode placement and stimulus parameters, augmentation with pharmacotherapy, and the use of continuation/maintenance treatment. Research into biomarkers and neuroplasticity related to ECT response, as well as new investigational methods of delivering ECT, provide a glimpse into the future of this time-tested treatment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (12), 39-43.].


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/terapia
16.
Am J Psychiatry ; 173(11): 1101-1109, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study evaluated the efficacy of right unilateral ultrabrief pulse electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with venlafaxine for the treatment of geriatric depression. METHOD: PRIDE was a two-phase multisite study. Phase 1 was an acute course of right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, combined with open-label venlafaxine at seven academic medical centers. In phase 2 (reported separately), patients who had remitted were randomly assigned to receive pharmacotherapy (venlafaxine plus lithium) or pharmacotherapy plus continuation ECT. In phase 1, depressed patients received high-dose ECT (at six times the seizure threshold) three times per week. Venlafaxine was started during the first week of treatment and continued throughout the study. The primary outcome measure was remission, assessed with the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), which was administered three times per week. Secondary outcome measures were post-ECT reorientation and safety. Paired t tests were used to estimate and evaluate the significance of change from baseline in HAM-D scores. RESULTS: Of 240 patients who entered phase 1 of the study, 172 completed it. Overall, 61.7% (148/240) of all patients met remission criteria, 10.0% (24/240) did not remit, and 28.3% (68/240) dropped out; 70% (169/240) met response criteria. Among those who remitted, the mean decrease in HAM-D score was 24.7 points (95% CI=23.4, 25.9), with a mean final score of 6.2 (SD=2.5) and an average change from baseline of 79%. The mean number of ECT treatments to remission was 7.3 (SD=3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, combined with venlafaxine, is a rapidly acting and highly effective treatment option for depressed geriatric patients, with excellent safety and tolerability. These data add to the evidence base supporting the efficacy of ECT to treat severe depression in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Eletroconvulsoterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/efeitos adversos
17.
Am J Psychiatry ; 173(11): 1110-1118, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The randomized phase (phase 2) of the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of continuation ECT plus medication compared with medication alone in depressed geriatric patients after a successful course of ECT (phase 1). METHOD: PRIDE was a two-phase multisite study. Phase 1 was an acute course of right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, augmented with venlafaxine. Phase 2 compared two randomized treatment arms: a medication only arm (venlafaxine plus lithium, over 24 weeks) and an ECT plus medication arm (four continuation ECT treatments over 1 month, plus additional ECT as needed, using the Symptom-Titrated, Algorithm-Based Longitudinal ECT [STABLE] algorithm, while continuing venlafaxine plus lithium). The intent-to-treat sample comprised 120 remitters from phase 1. The primary efficacy outcome measure was score on the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the secondary efficacy outcome was score on the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale (CGI-S). Tolerability as measured by neurocognitive performance (reported elsewhere) was assessed using an extensive test battery; global cognitive functioning as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is reported here. Longitudinal mixed-effects repeated-measures modeling was used to compare ECT plus medication and medication alone for efficacy and global cognitive function outcomes. RESULTS: At 24 weeks, the ECT plus medication group had statistically significantly lower HAM-D scores than the medication only group. The difference in adjusted mean HAM-D scores at study end was 4.2 (95% CI=1.6, 6.9). Significantly more patients in the ECT plus medication group were rated "not ill at all" on the CGI-S compared with the medication only group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in MMSE score. CONCLUSIONS: Additional ECT after remission (here operationalized as four continuation ECT treatments followed by further ECT only as needed) was beneficial in sustaining mood improvement for most patients.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletroconvulsoterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lítio/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/efeitos adversos
20.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 16(7): 749-53, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095363

RESUMO

A small body of literature suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may respond to ECT. Laboratory research has identified changes in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex that might explain the treatment response. One randomized controlled trial in depressed patients in a laboratory setting demonstrated the use of ECT to impair reconsolidation of reactivated, emotionally-aversive test memories. It can therefore be hypothesized that ECT may be more effective in patients with PTSD if the trauma memories are deliberately recalled immediately before each ECT session. This hypothesis has received preliminary support in a single case report and may be worthy of formal study in carefully designed clinical trials. Practical challenges are discussed.


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Córtex Pré-Frontal
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