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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities are living longer, with family homes and family caregivers increasingly identified as a key support to this ageing population of people with intellectual disabilities. METHOD: This systematic review sets out existing evidence from empirically evaluated intervention studies of future care planning for adults with intellectual disability by family carers. RESULTS: This systematic review identified a scarcity of systematic approaches to future care planning for adults with intellectual disabilities and their family carers. However, evidence from the review suggests positive outcomes for families once they engage in a future planning process. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary social policy orientation, which emphasizes reliance on families to provide care, along with an ageing population of people with intellectual disabilities, and diminishing caring capacity within family networks, suggests an urgent need for a more expansive research base that evaluates approaches to supporting adults with intellectual disabilities and their family carers to plan for their futures.

2.
Disabil Health J ; : 100935, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) have poor oral-hygiene and oral health. A better understanding of their oral-hygiene behaviours will inform interventions to improve personal and population health. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To identify the oral hygiene behaviours undertaken by and on behalf of older people with IDD. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey from the third wave of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) undertaken 2016-2017. Frequency of oral hygiene, level of support, type of brush used and for a subsample, brushing technique are reported. Bivariate analyses adopted Pearson's Chi Square test of independence. RESULTS: The sample (N = 609) had a mean age of 59.7 years (SD = 8.8); 88.4% (n = 536) reported tooth cleaning at least daily. The majority who had teeth to clean reported using standard toothbrushes (75.9%), with a minority using electric (9.6%) or modified toothbrushes (5.9%). Of the 505 who reported cleaning teeth, 285 (48.5%) did not report any assistance, 127 (25.2%) were totally dependent on another person and 133 (26.3%) reported assisted cleaning, of whom 40.0% (n = 52) were Supervised, reminded or encouraged, 27.7% (n = 36) reported Hand-on-Hand and 23.8% (n = 31) reported Brush-after-Brush techniques. An association was detected between assistance and type of toothbrush used (p < 0.001). None was detected between assistance and frequency-of-brushing (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with IDD present with a complex mix of supports, toothbrushes and techniques. This highlights the complexity of oral-hygiene behaviour for this population and indicates the need for bespoke individual care plans and complexity in interventions to improve population oral-hygiene.

3.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; : 1-4, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241202

RESUMO

Older adults with Intellectual Disability have been described as among the most medicated groups in society, with rates of polypharmacy significantly exceeding that of the general population. They are at heightened risk of medication-related harm and have high exposure to high-risk medications, for example, anticholinergic ad sedative medicines. There has been significant controversy internationally relating to the inappropriate use of antipsychotics for challenging behavior, often in the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis. Despite this, the evidence base of the safety of use of medicines in this population is lacking, the provision of healthcare is often suboptimal and this population is often excluded from Randomized Controlled Trials. In this editorial, we describe the unique challenges in ensuring safe and appropriate medicines in this population. We describe tools to date that has been used in this population to measure the burden of medicines that increase the risk of adverse outcomes. We outline current and future developments required to improve the quality and safety of medicines use in this population, for example, longitudinal cohort studies.

4.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An understanding of how dentists develop patient support techniques for use with adults with intellectual developmental disorders (IDD) may lead to a better understanding of how these techniques can be taught. In this study, we explored how skilled dentists developed non-physical, non-pharmacological patient support techniques (nPSTs) for use with adults with IDD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adopting a qualitative descriptive design, a synchronous online group interview was undertaken with six dentists. Informants were subsequently contacted in pairs, or individually, for further interview. All data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Author biases and rigour are considered. RESULTS: Three categories emerged: Motivation to learn; Formal learning; and Informal learning, and the latter had three subcategories: Observation; Trial; and error and Experience. Motivators to learn PST skills included perceived empathy and a sense of responsibility towards patients with IDD. Formal undergraduate learning was lacking leaving dentists to rely on paediatric training "A paediatric model from your training… needs to be restructured and re-emphasised with people with disabilities as they progress through the lifespan.", whereas specialist training was reported to be helpful where available. Over time, practitioners developed an individualised skillset through observation, trial and error and experience. "You learn. Just like any job, you learn on the job. You learn a lot from experience and mistakes." DISCUSSION: Essential patient support skills appear to be acquired in an ad hoc manner. How dentists learn their skills has implications for dental training for future and current dental professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Specific recommendations to improve education are made.

5.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(4): 482-492, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recently, efforts have been made to quantify frailty among older adults with intellectual disability (ID). Medication exposure is associated with frailty among older adults without ID. However, there is little research on this association among older adults with ID. The aim of this study was to examine specifically in people with ID the association between frailty and medication exposure, including anticholinergic and sedative medication exposure. METHODS: Data were drawn from Wave 2 (2013/2014) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA), a nationally representative study of older adults with ID in Ireland. A modified version of Fried's frailty phenotype was constructed. Drug burden measures were polypharmacy, Drug Burden Index (DBI), Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) and Sedative Load Model. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and identify associations between frailty and drug burden. RESULTS: This study included 570 participants with ID. Excessive polypharmacy (use of ≥10 medications) was significantly associated with being pre-frail (P = .017; OR = 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-5.50) and frail (P < .001; OR 7.13; 95% CI 2.81-18.12), but DBI, ACB or Sedative Load score were not significantly associated with frailty status (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine frailty and its association with medication use including anticholinergic and sedative medication burden among older adults with ID. Further research is required to investigate frailty as measured by other frailty models in relation to medication burden in older adults with ID.

6.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 33(3): 278-283, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049764

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People with Down syndrome represent the world's largest population with a genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. This review will provide a short summary of what is known and will include recent findings from the field. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increasing focus on biomarker research in this population, with a number of studies presenting findings on promising new markers - Neurofilament Light (NfL) appears to be one such promising marker that has emerged. Imaging studies have increased our knowledge on the progression of Alzheimer's disease in this population. SUMMARY: The inclusion of people with Down syndrome in dementia research is vital from a scientific and an equity perspective. Recent advances in the field can have further impact with multisite, cross country collaborative efforts. For this to happen, instruments need to be validated across language and cultures.

7.
Res Dev Disabil ; 97: 103557, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with an intellectual disability (ID) are vulnerable to communication impairments, with consequences for employment, education, and social participation. AIMS: To identify the communication skills of a population of adults (40+ years) with ID and explore relationships between individual and environmental factors and communication skills. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Data from a sample of 601 adults with ID was selected from the Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) addressing communication characteristics, demographics, co-morbidities, challenging behaviours, and social participation. A multiple regression model and a decision-making tree were built to identify factors related to communication abilities. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Overall, 57.9 % of participants experienced communication difficulties, with 23.5 % reporting severe difficulties. Only 75.1 % of participants communicated verbally; more than half found communicating with professionals and non-familiar partners difficult. Level of ID, low social participation, challenging behaviours, and diagnosis of Down syndrome were significantly associated with communication difficulties. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Communication difficulties are prevalent in adults with ID and are influenced by complex factors. Interventions to enhance interaction and quality of life of individuals with ID should consider communication opportunities, needs, and barriers.

8.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation is a prevalent issue in older people with intellectual disabilities and may have a significant negative impact on quality of life. The use of laxatives have not been adequately studied in this population. OBJECTIVE: To examine laxatives in relation to prevalence, pattern, dosage, reported indication and correlates. SETTING: Older people with intellectual disabilities who live independently, in community group homes or residential care in Ireland. METHOD: Data was extracted from wave 2 (2013/2014) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA). Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression were carried out. Laxative use was analysed using two indicators for chronic constipation, reported doctor's diagnosis of constipation and Rome III criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laxative use. RESULTS: Among the cohort n = 677, chronic constipation was reported by 38.5% (n = 257). In total 41.5% (n = 281) reported 431 laxatives (mean ± 1.53 ± 0.74), with 74.3% (n = 209) of those with laxative use reporting chronic constipation. There were 40% (n = 113) who took 2 + laxatives, within which, 60% (n = 67) were using a combination from same laxative class. Reporting chronic constipation, living in residential care, exposure to anticholinergics and receiving soft/liquidized food were significantly associated with laxative use. CONCLUSION: Chronic constipation and laxative use were highly prevalent in this study of older adults with intellectual disabilities. The treatment of constipation appeared to be unsystematic. Intra-class laxative use was frequent. There is a need for evidence-based treatment guidelines developed especially for people with intellectual disabilities to provide effective, quality care.

9.
J Aging Health ; 31(10_suppl): 22S-38S, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718414

RESUMO

Objective: The study was to test the feasibility of supplementary materials (DD-CDSMP) supporting people with developmental disabilities who are aging to participate in the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). CDSMP is a six-session group intervention designed to increase self-management of chronic health conditions. Method: Supplementary materials were utilized within two CDSMP workshops. Each workshop involved seven to nine persons with developmental disabilities and five to seven staff. Supplementary materials to the existing intervention manual were reviewed using a framework for modifications and adaptions for evidence-based interventions. Process interviews with leaders and participants, pre- and posttests on self-management activity and satisfaction surveys assessed outcomes and feasibility. Results: Classes were successfully held with a 70% completer rate, and all materials proved useful. Discussion: People with developmental disabilities as they age tend to have more comorbid conditions than the general population. Developing and implementing materials and strategies to making self-management more accessible to people with developmental disabilities in mainstream rather than segregated settings will improve the quality of people's lives.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have much lower rates of employment than their counterparts without intellectual disability, which increases their risk of poverty and social exclusion. Differential treatment of people with intellectual disability in welfare and training policies suggests an expectation they will be passive welfare recipients rather than productive employees. METHODS: This paper aims to examine occupational activities by older people with intellectual disability in Ireland, exploring factors influencing outcomes using data from the IDS-TILDA study (n = 708). RESULTS: Most people were unemployed but engaged in regular occupational activity. Occupational activity was associated with better emotional/mental health. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) functioning was associated with an active occupational status, while social supports most strongly predicted high occupational engagement across a range of activities. CONCLUSIONS: A focus on the individual meaning derived from a broad range of engagement may better support people with intellectual disabilities to benefit from regular occupational activity.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transport is an important basis for social participation. Challenges to accessing and using transport for people with intellectual disabilities increase their risk of exclusion and loneliness. METHOD: Data from a nationally representative study of older people with intellectual disabilities (n = 708) were used to examine longitudinal changes in transport usage and factors associated with using public transport and other travel options. RESULTS: Findings confirmed that this population depends on others for transportation. The most frequently used mode, staff-supported transport, showed no significant longitudinal change. Public transport was secondary, with only moderate continued use between data collection points. Level of intellectual disability most strongly predicted public transport use, while community residence most strongly predicted using public transport to attend work or day programmes. CONCLUSIONS: Transport usage is associated with demand and supply factors linked to the person's environment, including having somewhere to go that requires transport and availability of transport options.

12.
J Intellect Disabil ; 23(3): 413-431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496388

RESUMO

Most people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) live at home with family, and most carers and care recipients wish to continue this arrangement. However, despite worry about what will happen when carers are unable to continue caring, most families do not plan for the future. The Future Care Road Map (FCRM) pilot study sought to enhance future care planning for families of adults with ID. Twelve families were facilitated through the FCRM process to establish future care plans, including future living and care arrangements. The pilot successfully improved future planning, but readiness of families and facilitation were important to outcomes. Continued care within the family was the most common future wish of care recipients. However, caring capacity emerged as a pervasive theme. Ultimately, it may be the capacity of the family, services or individual with ID themselves to provide future care which determines how feasibly future wishes translate into future plans.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Envelhecimento , Cuidadores , Família , Deficiência Intelectual/enfermagem , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e025736, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of deinstitutionalisation for adults with intellectual disabilities. DESIGN: Systematic review. POPULATION: Adults (aged 18 years and over) with intellectual disabilities. INTERVENTION: Deinstitutionalisation, that is, the move from institutional to community settings. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies were eligible if evaluating within any cost-consequence framework (eg, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis) or resource use typically considered to fall within the societal viewpoint (eg, cost to payers, service-users, families and informal care costs). SEARCH: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EconLit, Embase and Scopus to September 2017 and supplemented this with grey literature searches and handsearching of the references of the eligible studies. We assessed study quality using the Critical Appraisals Skills Programme suite of tools, excluding those judged to be of poor methodological quality. RESULTS: Two studies were included; both were cohort studies from the payer perspective of people leaving long-stay National Health Service hospitals in the UK between 1984 and 1992. One study found that deinstitutionalisation reduced costs, one study found an increase in costs. CONCLUSION: A wide-ranging literature review found limited evidence on costs associated with deinstitutionalisation for people with intellectual disabilities. From two studies included in the review, the results were conflicting. Significant gaps in the evidence base were observable, particularly with respect to priority populations in contemporary policy: older people with intellectual disabilities and serious medical illness, and younger people with very complex needs and challenging behaviours. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018077406.

14.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 173, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug Burden Index (DBI), a measure of exposure to medications with anticholinergic and sedative activity, has been associated with poorer physical function in older adults in the general population. While extensive study has been conducted on associations between DBI and physical function in older adults in the general population, little is known about associations in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This is the first study which aims to examine the association between DBI score and its two sub-scores, anticholinergic and sedative burden, with two objective measures of physical performance, grip strength and timed up and go, and a measure of dependency, Barthel Index activities of daily living, in older adults with ID. METHODS: Data from Wave 2 (2013/2014) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) was analysed. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to detect associations and produce adjusted means for the physical function and dependency measures with respect to categorical DBI scores and the anticholinergic and sedative sub-scores (DBA and DBS). RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders (age, level of ID, history of falls, comorbidities and number of non-DBI medications, Down syndrome (grip strength only) and gender (timed up and go and Barthel Index)), neither grip strength nor timed up and go were significantly associated with DBI, DBA or DBS score > 0 (p > 0.05). Higher dependency in Barthel Index was associated with DBS exposure (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: DBI, DBA or DBS scores were not significantly associated with grip strength or timed up and go. This could be as a result of established limitations in physical function in this cohort, long-term exposure to these types of medications or lifelong sedentary lifestyles. Higher dependency in Barthel Index activities of daily living was associated with sedative drug burden, which is an area which can be examined further for review.

15.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 32(4): 981-993, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that antipsychotics may be used inappropriately in adults with intellectual disability for problem behaviours in the absence of a diagnosed mental health condition. The aim was to examine the prevalence and patterns of antipsychotic use and their association with problem behaviours and mental health conditions in older adults with intellectual disability. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were drawn from Wave 2 (2013/2014) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA). Medication data were available for 95.6% (n = 677). Those who reported antipsychotic use and reported psychotic or other mental health conditions and those who reported problem behaviours were compared. RESULTS: In total, 45.1% (n = 305) had antipsychotics, and of those with antipsychotic use and diagnosis information (n = 282), 25.9% (73) had a psychotic disorder. 58% of those exposed to antipsychotics reported problem behaviours. CONCLUSION: Reported use of antipsychotics significantly exceeded reported doctor's diagnosis of psychotic conditions in this study.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Problema , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
16.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e026939, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and (2) to examine alternative optimal bone screening techniques. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: Wave 2 (2013-2106) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. PARTICIPANTS: A national representative sample of 604 male and female persons with ID aged 43 years and over. In total, 575 participants completed quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements for one or both feet. OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants underwent health assessments consisting of eight objective health measures including the standardised QUS of the calcaneus bone using a GE Lunar Achilles. A preinterview questionnaire and face-to-face interview were also completed. RESULTS: Objectively QUS identified poorer rates of bone health in people with ID overall with 74% indicating evidence of osteopenia (33.2%) or osteoporosis (41%). Females scored lower than males in the QUS t-scores -2.208 (±1.77) versus -1.78(±1.734). Bone status was stratified by gender (p=0.114), age (p=0.003), level of ID (p<0.0001) and living circumstance (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown the prevalence of poor bone health in people with ID is substantial implying an increased risk of fracture due to reduced skeletal integrity. QUS screening has been shown to be useful when combined with clinical risk factors.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025735, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the evidence on how deinstitutionalisation affects quality of life (QoL) for adults with intellectual disabilities. DESIGN: Systematic review. POPULATION: Adults (aged 18 years and over) with intellectual disabilities. INTERVENTIONS: A move from residential to community setting. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies were eligible if evaluating effect on QoL or life quality, as defined by study authors. SEARCH: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EconLit, Embase and Scopus to September 2017 and supplemented this with grey literature searches. We assessed study quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme suite of tools, excluding those judged to be of poor methodological quality. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included; eight quantitative studies, two qualitative, two mixed methods studies and one case study. There was substantial agreement across quantitative and qualitative studies that a move to community living was associated with improved QoL. QoL for people with any level of intellectual disabilities who move from any type of institutional setting to any type of community setting was increased at up to 1 year postmove (standardised mean difference [SMD] 2.03; 95% CI [1.21 to 2.85], five studies, 246 participants) and beyond 1 year postmove (SMD 2.34. 95% CI [0.49 to 4.20], three studies, 160 participants), with total QoL change scores higher at 24 months comparative to 12 months, regardless of QoL measure used. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review demonstrated a consistent pattern that moving to the community was associated with improved QoL compared with the institution. It is recommended that gaps in the evidence base, for example, with regard to growing populations of older people with intellectual disability and complex needs are addressed. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018077406.

18.
J Oral Rehabil ; 46(2): 170-178, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study tests whether total tooth loss is a risk indicator for difficulty eating among a population with intellectual disability and whether complete denture wear mediates this risk. METHODS: Dentate status and difficulty eating were reported for a Nationally representative sample of 690 adults over forty with intellectual disabilities as part of The Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA). A logistic regression model tested the relationship between the Difficulty eating and Dentate status, controlling for the effects of other factors. RESULTS: Of the 690 participants, 505 had some teeth (Group 1), 56 had no teeth and reported wearing dentures (Group 2) and 129 had no teeth, not using dentures (Group 3). A parsimonious regression model was developed including all 406 cases with no missing data. Adjusting for the effects of other factors, it was found that, compared to Group 1, the odds of difficulty eating was twice as great (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.02-4.03) among people without teeth, not using dentures (Group 3). Conversely, edentulous participants who had dentures (Group 2) had far lower odds (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.64) of reporting difficulty eating compared with Group 1. CONCLUSIONS: For adults with ID, total tooth loss was predictive of difficulty eating only when untreated. People with disabilities should be encouraged to maintain a functional dentition through preventive and conservative treatment. When adults with ID become edentulous, oral rehabilitation may reduce the risk of difficulty eating. Dental assessment should be undertaken if people with ID present with difficulty eating.


Assuntos
Dentaduras , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Boca Edêntula/complicações , Boca Edêntula/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca Edêntula/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco
19.
J Intellect Disabil ; 23(4): 526-540, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088982

RESUMO

A better understanding of how communication-based behaviour supports are applied with adults with intellectual disabilities may reduce reliance on restrictive practices such as holding, sedation and anaesthesia in dentistry. In this study, we explore how communication is used by dentists who provide treatment for adults with intellectual disabilities. A descriptive qualitative study, adopting synchronous online focus groups, was undertaken with six expert dentists in Ireland. Members were contacted again in pairs or individually for further data collection, analysed using thematic content analysis. Two relevant categories emerged from the data, relating to the selection and application of communication-based behaviour support for adults with intellectual disabilities. Decision-making processes were explored. Building on these categories, a co-regulating process of communication emerged as the means by which dentists iteratively apply and adapt communicative strategies. This exploration revealed rationalist and intuitive decision-making. Implications for education, practice and research are identified.

20.
Res Dev Disabil ; 85: 116-130, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551091

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The cognitive discrepancy approach to loneliness is often used to describe loneliness in ageing populations, but to date, it has never been used to explore loneliness in older people with an intellectual disability. An analysis is needed utilising a refined list of causes of loneliness in this population. METHOD: Using data from a nationally representative dataset of people aged over 40 with an intellectual disability (N = 708), this analysis runs repeated regressions of variables grouped into conceptual blocks, organised from sociodemographic to network quality. RESULTS: Variables selected predicted 23% of the loneliness variance. Functional limitations, education, working in the community, transport difficulties, pain, stress caused by service change, emotional health problems and confiding were all significant predictors of loneliness. CONCLUSION: That for those with fewer functional limitations only transport difficulties precipitated loneliness, suggests living a more independent life protects from loneliness, in this group. Those with functional limitations and who lead a more service dependent life appear more exposed to loneliness precipitating variables.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Educação de Pessoa com Deficiência Intelectual , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transportes
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