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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although physical activity has been consistently associated with reduced breast cancer mortality, evidence is largely based upon data collected at one occasion. We examined how pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity was associated with survival outcomes in high-risk breast cancer patients. METHODS: Included were 1,340 patients enrolled in the DELCaP Study, a prospective study of lifestyle and prognosis ancillary to a SWOG clinical trial (S0221). Activity before diagnosis, during treatment, and at one-and two-year intervals after enrollment were collected. Patients were categorized according to the Physical Activity Guidelines as meeting the minimum Guidelines (yes/no) and incrementally as inactive, low-active, moderately active (meeting the Guidelines), or high-active. RESULTS: In joint-exposure analyses, patients meeting the Guidelines before and one-year after diagnosis experienced statistically significant reductions in hazards of recurrence (HR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.42-0.82) and mortality (HR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77); associations were stronger at two-year follow-up for recurrence (HR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.31-0.65) and mortality (HR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.52). In time-dependent analyses, factoring in activity from all time points, we observed striking associations with mortality for low- (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.68), moderate- (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23-0.76), and high-active patients (HR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Meeting the minimum Guidelines for physical activity both before diagnosis and after treatment appears to be associated with statistically significantly reduced hazards of recurrence and mortality among breast cancer patients. When considering activity from all time points, including during treatment, lower volumes of regular activity were associated with similar overall survival advantages as meeting and exceeding the Guidelines.

3.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(2): 252-256, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019657

RESUMO

Objectives: In this study, we identified differences in cessation, nicotine dependence, and quit attempts between smokers using non-menthol cigarettes and smokers using menthol cigarettes differing in menthol delivery method (eg, menthol in the tobacco only, crushable capsules only or both). Methods: We analyzed data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, Waves 1 and 2 (W1 and W2), to determine associations of delivery method of menthol with cessation, nicotine dependence, and quit attempts among current adult cigarette smokers. Results: Nearly 40% of US smokers reported using a mentholated cigarette product with most using a product mentholated in the tobacco only. Smokers included in this analysis had a moderate to low heaviness of smoking index score. The lowest average score was among those using products mentholated in a filter capsule only (1.3, SE = .10), and the highest among those using non-mentholated products (2.4, SE = .03). About 12% of smokers quit between W1 and W2. Cessation, nicotine dependence, and quit attempts at W2 were not associated with delivery method of menthol at W1. Conclusions: Method of menthol delivery did not impact cessation, nicotine dependence, and quit attempts.

4.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1240-1251, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens are plant-derived hormonally active compounds found in soy, cruciferous vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Although phytoestrogens have been associated with altered endogenous hormonal activity, luteal phase deficiency, and reduced endometrial decidualization, the literature reporting examinations of phytoestrogen intake and fertility presents mixed findings. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate prospectively the association between dietary phytoestrogen intake (isoflavones, lignans, and coumestans) and fecundability, the per-cycle probability of conception, in 2 cohorts of women planning pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO) and Snart Foraeldre (SF) are parallel web-based preconception cohort studies of women from North America and Denmark, respectively, who are trying to conceive. Participants complete an online baseline questionnaire on sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical factors. We ascertained intake of individual phytoestrogens from validated FFQs. We measured fecundability using data on menstruation and pregnancy status from bimonthly follow-up questionnaires. We analyzed data from 4880 PRESTO and 2898 SF female study participants who had been attempting conception for ≤6 cycles at study entry. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Phytoestrogen intake varied across cohorts, yet was associated with higher socioeconomic status and healthier behaviors in both cohorts. After adjustment for potential confounders, phytoestrogen intake was not substantially associated with fecundability in either cohort. We observed some evidence of improved fecundability with increasing isoflavone intake among women age ≥30 years in PRESTO (FR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.34, for comparison of ≥90th with <25th percentile intake) and SF (corresponding FR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.55). Lignan intake was associated with slightly increased fecundability in SF (FR for comparison of 75th to 90th with <25th percentile: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.26), but decreased fecundability in PRESTO (FR for comparison of ≥90th with <25th percentile: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe strong associations between phytoestrogen intake and prospectively-measured fecundability among North American or Danish pregnancy planners.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Renda , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , América do Norte , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Nutr Cancer ; 72(1): 52-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094219

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between regular cruciferous vegetable intake and stomach cancer.Methods: A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in Buffalo, NY, which included 292 stomach cancer patients and 1168 cancer-free controls recruited between 1992 and 1998 as part of the Patient Epidemiology Data System (PEDS). Dietary and other epidemiologic and confounding variables were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between usual pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetable intake and stomach cancer, with adjustment for other stomach cancer risk factors and dietary characteristics.Results: We observed strong inverse associations between stomach cancer and highest versus lowest intakes of total cruciferous vegetables (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42-0.83), raw cruciferous vegetables (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.38-0.73), raw broccoli (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.86), raw cauliflower (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.73), and Brussels sprouts (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.48-0.91).Conclusions: These data suggest that consuming raw cruciferous vegetables may be associated with a lower odds of stomach cancer, even after considering other dietary characteristics.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos Crus/normas , Neoplasias Gástricas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(8): 804-814, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855498

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite reported widespread use of dietary supplements during cancer treatment, few empirical data with regard to their safety or efficacy exist. Because of concerns that some supplements, particularly antioxidants, could reduce the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy, we conducted a prospective study ancillary to a therapeutic trial to evaluate associations between supplement use and breast cancer outcomes. METHODS: Patients with breast cancer randomly assigned to an intergroup metronomic trial of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel were queried on their use of supplements at registration and during treatment (n =1,134). Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for clinical and lifestyle variables was used. Recurrence and survival were indexed at 6 months after enrollment using a landmark approach. RESULTS: There were indications that use of any antioxidant supplement (vitamins A, C, and E; carotenoids; coenzyme Q10) both before and during treatment was associated with an increased hazard of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR], 1.41; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.04; P = .06) and, to a lesser extent, death (adjHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.90 to 2.18; P = .14). Relationships with individual antioxidants were weaker perhaps because of small numbers. For nonantioxidants, vitamin B12 use both before and during chemotherapy was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival (adjHR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.92; P < .01) and overall survival (adjHR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.22 to 3.40; P < .01). Use of iron during chemotherapy was significantly associated with recurrence (adjHR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.67; P < .01) as was use both before and during treatment (adjHR, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.98 to 3.70; P = .06). Results were similar for overall survival. Multivitamin use was not associated with survival outcomes. CONCLUSION: Associations between survival outcomes and use of antioxidant and other dietary supplements both before and during chemotherapy are consistent with recommendations for caution among patients when considering the use of supplements, other than a multivitamin, during chemotherapy.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 265-274, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolism and excretion of the phytoestrogen enterolactone (ENL), which has been associated with breast cancer risk, may be affected by variation in steroid hormone and xenobiotic-metabolizing genes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover flaxseed intervention study in 252 healthy, postmenopausal women [137 European ancestry (EA) and 115 African ancestry (AA)] from western New York. Participants were randomly assigned to maintain usual diet or consume 10 g/day ground flaxseed for 6 weeks. After a 2-month washout period, participants crossed over to the other diet condition for an additional 6 weeks. Urinary ENL excretion was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 70 polymorphisms in 29 genes related to steroid hormone and xenobiotic metabolism were genotyped. Mixed additive genetic models were constructed to examine association of genetic variation with urinary ENL excretion at baseline and after the flaxseed intervention. RESULTS: SNPs in several genes were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with ENL excretion at baseline and/or after intervention: ESR1, CYP1B1, COMT, CYP3A5, ARPC1A, BCL2L11, SHBG, SLCO1B1, and ZKSCAN5. A greater number of SNPs were associated among AA women than among EA women, and no SNPs were associated in both races. No SNP-ENL associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in several genes related to steroid hormone metabolism was associated with lignan excretion at baseline and/or after flaxseed intervention among postmenopausal women. IMPACT: These findings may contribute to our understanding of the differences observed in urinary ENL excretion among AA and EA women and thus hormone-related breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Lignanas/urina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , 4-Butirolactona/metabolismo , 4-Butirolactona/urina , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Estudos Cross-Over , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dieta , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Linho , Humanos , Lignanas/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Pós-Menopausa , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(1): 1-12, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association of recreational physical activity (RPA) with mortality is well established only for breast and colon cancers and few studies have evaluated relationships for exercising before and after diagnosis, across multiple disease sites. We examined the joint associations of pre- and post- diagnosis RPA with mortality in a cohort of 5,807 patients enrolled in the Data Bank and BioRepository at Roswell Park. METHODS: Patients were classified into one of four activity categories (habitually active, increased activity after diagnosis, decreased activity after diagnosis, habitually inactive). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations of activity status with mortality. RESULTS: In comparison to patients who were habitually inactive, habitually active patients experienced a 39% decreased hazard of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.54-0.69) and a 36% decreased hazard of cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.56-0.73). Previously inactive patients who began exercising after diagnosis experienced a 28% decreased hazard of all-cause (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89) and cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91) in comparison to patients who remained inactive. Patients engaging in 3-4 sessions/week experienced the greatest survival advantages, but 1-2 sessions/week also yielded significant survival advantages in comparison to inactivity. CONCLUSION: Low-to-moderate frequency pre- and post-diagnosis RPA was associated with significantly decreased mortality in patients diagnosed with a variety of malignancies. These observations solidify the clinical and public health importance of the message that some regular activity is better than inactivity, which is particularly encouraging, given that cancer survivors can be overwhelmed by current daily physical activity recommendations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Neoplasias/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Nutr Cancer ; 71(3): 385-398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375890

RESUMO

Lignan intake, and its richest food source, flaxseed, have been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Endogenous sex hormones, such as estrogens, play a role in breast cancer development, and lignans may alter these sex hormone levels. To assess the effect of flaxseed on circulating sex hormones, a randomized controlled trial was conducted among 99 postmenopausal women in Toronto, Canada. The intervention arm consumed 2 tablespoons (15 g) of ground flaxseed daily for 7 weeks; the control arm maintained usual diet. Baseline and week 7 concentrations of 14 serum sex hormones were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoassay, and serum enterolignans (lignan biomarker) using LC-MS/MS. Intervention effects on sex hormone levels were assessed using analysis of covariance. Serum enterolignans increased among the flaxseed arm (+516%). Women consuming flaxseed (vs. controls) had increased serum 2-hydroxyestrone [treatment effect ratio (TER) = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.18-2.00] and 2:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio (TER =1.54; 95% CI: 1.15-2.06); effects on other hormones were not statistically significant. Within the flaxseed arm, change in enterolignan level was positively correlated with changes in 2-hydroxyestrone and 2:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio, and negatively with prolactin. Findings suggest flaxseed affects certain circulating sex hormone levels with possible implications for future breast cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Dieta , Linho , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Feminino , Linho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidroxiestronas/sangue , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolactina/sangue
10.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 146, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is not well understood. Currently, dose reduction is the only recommendation for alleviating symptoms, often leading to premature treatment cessation. The primary aim of this analysis was to determine the association between components of diet during taxane treatment for breast cancer and change in CIPN symptoms over treatment. METHODS: Women with stage II or III invasive breast cancer were enrolled into an ancillary study to the North American Breast Cancer Intergroup phase III trial (S0221) led by the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). Questionnaires including a food frequency questionnaire and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity were administered to assess diet and neuropathic conditions at baseline and during chemotherapy. Ordinal regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between various food groups and change in neuropathy score (< 10%, 10-30%, > 30%) (n = 900). RESULTS: The odds of worse neuropathy decreased by 21% for each increase in tertile of grain consumption (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94, p = 0.009). We also observed a nominal 19% increase with higher consumption of citrus fruits (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Distinguishing between those who experienced a moderate and a severe change in neuropathy, we found that citrus fruit and grain consumption may play a role in the severity of symptoms. Since there are no existing dietary recommendations for the management of CIPN, further research is needed to investigate whether there may be certain foods that could worsen or alleviate neuropathy symptoms associated with treatment for breast cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03413761 . Registered retrospectively on 29 January 2018.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/dietoterapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200564

RESUMO

Lack of variability in dietary intake within a population makes identification of relationships between diet and disease difficult. Studies in populations with greater interindividual variation can provide important insights. The Puerto Rican diet is in transition from a traditional to a more Western-type diet, resulting in greater interindividual variability. We identified foods contributing to absolute intake and variability in the intake of macronutrients among Puerto Rican women. One hundred women, aged 30⁻79, residents of San Juan, Puerto Rico, completed three, interviewer-administered, 24-h dietary recalls from which foods contributing to absolute intake and intake variability in intake of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate and dietary fiber were determined. The overall prevalence of intake of foods was also calculated. Traditional Puerto Rican foods such as legumes, rice, and plantains were important contributors to the intake of calories and macronutrients as were foods more typical of Western diets including white bread and sweetened carbonated beverages. Identification of food sources of nutrients for this population with a diet in transition can contribute to the development of instruments to measure dietary intake and to understand the contribution of diet to the etiology of chronic disease among Puerto Rican women.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental/etnologia , Dieta/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Valor Nutritivo/etnologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica Individual , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Porto Rico , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Nutr Cancer ; 70(4): 678-683, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693426

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women, primarily due to diagnosis at late stages. Therefore, identification of modifiable risk factors for this disease is warranted. Using the Patient Epidemiology Data System (PEDS), collected from 1981 to 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control analysis of self-reported cruciferous vegetable intake and ovarian cancer among 675 women with primary, incident ovarian cancer, and 1275 without cancer. Cruciferous vegetable intake was queried using a 44-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking status, parity, family history of ovarian cancer, total fruit consumption, total meat consumption, and total noncruciferous vegetable consumption. We observed a significant inverse association for women with highest vs. lowest intakes of total vegetables (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.46-0.92), cooked cauliflower (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.67-0.99), and cooked greens (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.46-0.86) and an inverse, dose-dependent association between cooked cruciferous vegetables intake and ovarian cancer (for each additional ten servings per month, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96). These findings suggest that a diet that includes cruciferous vegetables could be an important modifiable risk factor for ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177055

RESUMO

Background: Studying cancer and other diseases poses a problem due to their protracted and multifactorial nature. Prospective studies are useful to investigate chronic disease processes since collection of lifestyle information, exposure data and co-incident health issues are collected before the condition manifests. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study is one of the first prospective studies following privately-owned dogs throughout life to investigate the incidence and risk factors for disease outcomes, especially cancer.Owners of golden retrievers in the contiguous United States volunteered their dogs in early life. Owners and veterinarians complete online questionnaires about health status and lifestyle; dogs undergo a physical examination and collection of biological samples annually. The data presented summarize the initial study visits and the corresponding questionnaires for 3044 dogs in the cohort. Results: The median age of dogs at enrollment was 14.0 months (interquartile range (IQR): 8-20 months). Approximately half of the population had undergone gonadectomy by their initial study visit. Medical conditions reported at enrollment consisted primarily of integumentary, gastrointestinal and urinary dysfunction. A large majority of the dogs have a record of having received preventive care (vaccines, parasiticides, flea and heartworm prevention) by the time of the initial study visit. Clinical pathology data were unremarkable. Conclusions: This study represents one of the first lifetime observational investigations in veterinary medicine. The population characteristics reported here indicate a healthy cohort of golden retrievers cared for by owners committed to their dogs' health. Data acquired over the study period will provide valuable information about genetic, dietary and environmental risk factors associated with disease in golden retrievers and a framework for future prospective studies in veterinary medicine.

14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 129(6): 1059-1067, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk using pooled data from 17 studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis with individual-level data from three cohort and 14 case-control studies. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the association between breastfeeding and risk of endometrial cancer using multivariable logistic regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. We investigated between-study heterogeneity with I  and Q statistics and metaregression. RESULTS: After excluding nulliparous women, the analyses included 8,981 women with endometrial cancer and 17,241 women in a control group. Ever breastfeeding was associated with an 11% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer (pooled OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98). Longer average duration of breastfeeding per child was associated with lower risk of endometrial cancer, although there appeared to be some leveling of this effect beyond 6-9 months. The association with ever breastfeeding was not explained by greater parity and did not vary notably by body mass index or histologic subtype (grouped as endometrioid and mucinous compared with serous and clear cell). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that reducing endometrial cancer risk can be added to the list of maternal benefits associated with breastfeeding. Ongoing promotion, support, and facilitation of this safe and beneficial behavior might therefore contribute to the prevention of this increasingly common cancer.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 105(6): 1362-1371, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424184

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D may have anticancer activities. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in African Americans (AAs) may be a contributing factor to the cancer health disparities between AAs and European Americans (EAs).Objectives: We compared concentrations of 25(OH)D and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) in AA and EA women and investigated determinants of the vitamin D-biomarker concentrations in both populations.Design: We used data and biospecimens from 909 AA and 847 EA healthy control subjects from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) and the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS) in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We measured plasma 25(OH)D and VDBP concentrations in all participants and genotyped 67 vitamin D-related genes in AA women only.Results: AA women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than did EA women (mean ± SD: 14.2 ± 8.1 compared with 21.1 ± 11.5 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.0001) but similar concentrations of VDBP (mean ± SD: 344 ± 133 compared with 336 ± 124 µg/mL, respectively; P = 0.25). With VDBP and other factors controlled for, the observed racial difference in 25(OH)D concentrations did not diminish. Relations of demographic and lifestyle factors with 25(OH)D were similar between AA and EA women. Although none of the genetic variants that have been identified in previous genome-wide association studies of 25(OH)D concentrations in EAs were significant (P > 0.05) in AAs, AA women who carried the allele of a functional single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235, which has been previously associated with lactase expression and lactose tolerance, had higher dietary vitamin D intake and higher measured 25(OH)D concentrations.Conclusions: AA women have lower concentrations of total 25(OH)D than EA women do, but both groups have similar VDBP concentrations, suggesting that there are lower concentrations of free 25(OH)D in AAs. Although demographic and lifestyle determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations are similar between the 2 groups, genetic determinants may be ethnicity specific. Larger studies in AAs will be needed to fully elucidate the underlying determinants of low vitamin D concentrations in AA populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genótipo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactase/sangue , Intolerância à Lactose/genética , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(5): 787-794, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420652

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol is a recognized risk factor for invasive breast cancer, but few studies involve African American women.Methods: The current analysis included 22,338 women (5,108 cases of invasive breast cancer) from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. The association between number of alcoholic drinks per week (dpw) and breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders, and stratifying by breast cancer subtype.Results: Approximately 35% of controls were current drinkers at interview. Women who reported current drinking of ≥14 dpw had an elevated risk of breast cancer compared with light drinkers (>0-<4 dpw) [adjusted OR (ORadj), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.64]. We observed elevated risk among women drinking ≥7 dpw for ER - [ORadj, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.72], PR - [ORadj, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.63], HER2 - [ORadj, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.70], and triple-negative [ORadj, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.98-2.00] molecular subtype. Among receptor-positive cases, ORs remained elevated but attenuated relative to receptor-negative cases. Sensitivity analysis of age-defined windows of exposure (<30 years, 30-49, 50+ years of age) did not reveal variation in patterns of association. Risk associated with alcohol intake did not vary significantly by oral contraceptive use, smoking status, or menopausal status.Conclusions: Among African American women, similar to women of European descent, drinking ≥7 alcoholic dpw was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer regardless of subtype.Impact: Alcohol intake is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer, and reduced intake among African American women should be encouraged. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 787-94. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(1): 97-103, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27407090

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our previous work has shown low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in association with aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is central for vitamin D-mediated transcription regulation. Few studies have examined breast VDR expression with tumor characteristics or patient survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: VDR expression in breast tumor tissue microarrays was determined by immunohistochemistry in 1,114 female patients as low, moderate, and strong expression based on an immunoreactive score, and examined with histopathologic tumor characteristics and survival outcomes including progression-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: A majority (58%) of breast tumors showed moderate or strong VDR expression. VDR expression was inversely related to aggressive tumor characteristics, including large tumor size, hormonal receptor (HR) negativity, and triple-negative subtype (P < 0.05). In addition, VDR expression was also inversely related to Ki-67 expression among patients older than 50 years. Nevertheless, VDR expression was not associated with any patient survival outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS: In a large patient population, VDR expression is inversely associated with more aggressive breast cancer, but not with breast cancer survival outcomes. The present findings of VDR expression are consistent with our previous results of circulating vitamin D biomarkers, which provide two converging lines of evidence supporting the putative benefits of vitamin D against aggressive breast cancer. Because of the observational nature of our analyses, future studies are warranted to establish the causality of the reported associations. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 97-103. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Carga Tumoral
18.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(3): 351-357, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832250

RESUMO

Importance: There are long-standing interests in the potential benefits of vitamin D for preventing breast cancer recurrence and mortality, yet data from prospective cohort studies are limited. Objective: To investigate a serum biomarker of vitamin D status, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) measured at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, to determine the association with prognosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Pathways Study is a prospective cohort study of breast cancer survivors established in 2006. Enrollment was completed in 2013; follow-up is ongoing. The cohort was established in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system in northern California. Women with a diagnosis of incident invasive breast cancer were typically consented and enrolled within 2 months of diagnosis. The overall enrollment rate was 46% (4505 of 9820). Participants are followed for health outcomes and comorbidities at 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 months after baseline interview. A case-cohort design was used for efficiency assay of 25OHD, selecting 1666 cohort members with serum samples and ensuring representation in the subcohort of races and clinical subtypes. The data analysis was performed from January 5, 2014, to March 15, 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes are breast cancer recurrence, second primary cancer, and death. Results: Mean (SD) age was 58.7 (12.4) years. Serum 25OHD concentrations were lower in women with advanced-stage tumors, and the lowest in premenopausal women with triple-negative cancer. Levels were also inversely associated with hazards of disease progression and death. Compared with the lowest tertile, women with the highest tertile of 25OHD levels had superior overall survival (OS). This association remained after adjustment for clinical prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.98). Among premenopausal women, the association with OS was stronger, and there were also associations with breast cancer-specific survival and invasive disease-free survival (OS: HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.96; breast cancer-specific survival: HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.93; invasive disease-free survival: HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34-1.01; all after full adjustment). Conclusions and Relevance: Serum 25OHD levels were independently associated with breast cancer prognostic characteristics and patient prognosis, most prominently among premenopausal women. Our findings from a large, well-characterized prospective cohort provide compelling observational evidence on associations of vitamin D with lower risk of breast cancer morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Sobreviventes , Vitamina D/sangue
19.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 1(3): e000422, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955696

RESUMO

Background: Dairy foods are complex mixtures which include nutrients and non-nutrient substances that could potentially influence cancer etiology, including breast cancer. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the types and quantity of dairy foods consumed and the risk of breast cancer among women participating in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute Data Bank and BioRepository (DBBR) between 2003 and 2014. Methods: Archived clinical and questionnaire data were obtained from the DBBR from 1941 women diagnosed with breast cancer between December 2003 and October 2014, and 1237 control participants. Intakes of dairy foods were queried with a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire and grouped into monthly intakes of total dairy, milk, yogurt, low-fat cheese, other cheese, and sweet dairy. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated with unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, race, body mass index, menopausal status, energy intake, type of milk usually consumed, cigarette smoking status, and family history of breast cancer. Results: Total dairy intakes were associated with a non-significant 15% reduction in breast cancer risk (P = 0.11). Higher intakes of yogurt were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.82) and higher intakes of American, cheddar, and cream cheeses were associated with a marginally significant increased risk (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 0.99, 2.34; P = 0.05). Associations with dairy foods were mixed when stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and in general reflected those of overall breast cancer. However, we observed positive associations between milk intake and risk of ER- breast cancer (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.37) and inverse associations between sweet dairy and ER+ breast cancer (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.95). Conclusions: Specific dairy foods may contribute to breast cancer risk in women, although the risk varies by source of dairy. Future studies are warranted to confirm the protective potential of yogurt in this type of cancer.

20.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 1(8): e000448, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955715

RESUMO

Background: The chemopreventive activities of cruciferous vegetables were recognized in the early 1990s, followed by a growth of evidence in various cancer models, including breast cancer. To our knowledge, no studies have examined whether consumption of cruciferous vegetables has changed accordingly, and what impact, if any, on breast cancer risk may have resulted. Objective: The time trend in cruciferous vegetable intake was investigated between 1982 and 1998, and its associations with breast cancer risk were examined. Methods: In a hospital-based case-control study in 1491 patients with breast cancer and 1482 controls, loess curves were constructed to describe the relation between median consumption of cruciferous vegetables and year of admission. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, year of admission, family income, body mass index, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, family history of breast cancer, hormone replacement therapy, and total meat intake. Results: Consumption patterns differed between cases and controls. A slow but steady increase in cruciferous vegetable intake was observed in the cases, although among controls, cruciferous vegetable consumption increased from 1982 to 1987, reached a plateau during 1988-1992, and then declined from 1993 to 1998. Accordingly, although an overall inverse association with breast cancer risk was observed for cruciferous vegetable intake (highest compared with lowest quartile-OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.86; P-trend = 0.0006), the inverse association tended to be more pronounced within more recent-year strata, with an OR of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.83) for 1993-1998 compared with an OR of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.23) for 1982-1987. Conclusions: The consumption of cruciferous vegetables increased during the past 2 decades, showing different trends in cases and controls. The subtle but sustained increase in cruciferous vegetable intake reported by the cases could influence association studies with breast cancer risk.

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