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1.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus in screening for osteoporosis in adults with axial spondyloarthropathy (axSpA). METHOD: Postmenopausal women and men over 50 years with axSpA were recruited for this observational cross-sectional study. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessed bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and hip. QUS of the calcaneus produced broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index (SI), and T-scores. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis determined the ability of QUS to discriminate between low and normal BMD. Thresholds were identified to (1) out rule low BMD, (2) identify osteoporosis, and (3) identify low BMD. The number of DXAs which could be avoided using this approach was calculated. RESULTS: 56 participants were analyzed. BUA, SI, and T-score QUS parameters correlated with BMD by DXA; SOS did not. All QUS parameters had the ability to discriminate between low and normal BMD (area under the curve varied from 0.695 to 0.779). QUS identified individuals without low BMD with 90% confidence, with BUA performing best (sensitivity 93%, negative predictive value 86%). Using QUS as a triage tool, up to 27% of DXA assessments could have been avoided. QUS could not confidently identify individuals with osteoporosis. CONCLUSIONS: QUS of the calcaneus confidently out ruled low BMD in individuals with axSpA, reducing the need for onward DXA referral by up to 27%. QUS is promising as a non-invasive triage tool in the assessment of osteoporosis in adults with axSpA.Key Points• Osteoporosis is common in axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA), but evaluation of bone health is suboptimal in this population.• Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus can out rule low bone mineral density in individuals with axial SpA, reducing the need for DXA assessment.• QUS is a promising non-invasive triage tool in the assessment of bone health in axial SpA.

2.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 23(3): 358-366, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909570

RESUMO

AIM: Osteoporosis in axial spondyloarthropathy (axSpA) is difficult to accurately diagnose due to osteoproliferation of the spine interfering with conventional (anteroposterior, AP) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This study compares AP and lateral projections of DXA when assessing bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and investigates the impact of osteoproliferation on AP DXA. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, structured standardized assessments collected demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiographic data. DXA assessed BMD of the spine using PA and lateral projections. Hip BMD was assessed in the usual manner. World Health Organization (WHO) criteria assessed prevalence of low BMD. Incorporating lateral DXA in the bone health assessment of axSpA was investigated. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients had paired AP and lateral DXA studies: 78% were male, mean (SD) age 52 (12) years. BMD of the spine measured by AP projection was significantly higher than BMD measured by lateral projection (mean difference 0.34 g/cm2 , 95% CI 0.30-0.37). More patients had low BMD with lateral compared to AP projection (47% vs 16%, P = .01). At the hip, 34% of patients had low BMD. Disease duration, body mass index and radiographic severity independently predicted a difference between AP and lateral measurements of the spine. CONCLUSION: Lateral DXA of the spine is unaffected by osteoproliferation of the spine in axSpA and detects significantly more cases of low BMD than conventional AP DXA. Lateral DXA should be included in BMD assessment of patients with axSpA.

3.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 891988719882091, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665962

RESUMO

Osteoporotic fractures are associated with major morbidity and mortality, particularly among older age groups. In recent decades, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) antidepressants have been linked to reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of fragility fracture. However, up to one-third of antidepressant prescriptions are for classes other than SSRIs. Older patients, who are particularly vulnerable to osteoporosis and its clinical and psychosocial consequences, may be prescribed non-SSRI antidepressants preferentially because of increasing awareness of the risks SSRIs pose to bone health. However, to date, the skeletal effects of non-SSRI antidepressants have not been comprehensively reviewed. In this article, we collate and review the available data and discuss the findings. Based on the current literature, we tentatively suggest that tricyclic antidepressants may increase the risk of fracture via mechanisms other than a direct effect on bone mineral density. The risk is apparently confined to current users only and is greatest in the earliest stage of treatment, diminishing thereafter. There is, as yet, insufficient data to conclusively determine the effects of other antidepressant classes on bone. Judicious prescribing of antidepressants among higher risk groups necessitates a thorough review of the individual's risk factors for osteoporosis as well as attention to their falls risk. Further longitudinal, rigorously controlled studies are needed to answer some of the remaining questions on the effects of non-SSRI antidepressants on bone and the mechanisms by which they are exerted.

4.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 639-644, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327261

RESUMO

There has been much interest in investigating vitamin D status with orthostatic hypotension. However, studies have been small, inconsistent, and with a lack of standardization. The aim of this study was to investigate the association with vitamin D status in a large, nationally representative older adult population using a traceable standard of measurement and an accurate assessment of beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP). This study used participants aged >50 years from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Impaired stabilization of BP on standing was defined as a sustained drop of ≥20 mm Hg systolic BP or ≥10 mm Hg diastolic BP up to 40 seconds post stand (impaired stabilization of BP on standing). We also analyzed participants who sustained a drop of ≥20 mm Hg systolic BP or ≥10 mm Hg diastolic BP throughout the 110 seconds stand (OH110). Vitamin D was categorized into sufficient (≥50 nmol/L), insufficient (30-50 nmol/L), and deficient (<30 nmol/L) status. After exclusion criteria 4209 participants were included. Those with deficiency were more likely to be smokers, take antihypertensive medications and had higher levels of cardiovascular disorders compared with those with sufficient status. In a univariate logistic regression those with deficient (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.86-1.61; P=0.303) or insufficient (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.91; P=0.272) status were no more likely to have evidence of impaired stabilization of BP on standing on active stand compared with sufficiency. Similar findings were found for OH110: deficient (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.52-1.40; P=0.528) or insufficient (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.61-1.21; P=0.384) versus sufficiency. In conclusion, vitamin D is not significantly associated with orthostatic hypotension in older adults.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Hipotensão Ortostática/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Irlanda , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(10): 4837-4847, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920623

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Emerging evidence suggests that deficiencies of folate-related B vitamins can arise with metformin treatment and are independently linked with cognitive dysfunction, a comorbidity of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of hyperglycemia and metformin use on relevant B vitamin biomarkers and cognitive outcomes in older adults. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults (74.1 ± 8.3 years, n = 4160) without dementia, recruited to the Trinity, Ulster and Department of Agriculture cohort study in 2008 to 2012, were classified as normoglycemic (n = 1856) or hyperglycemic, based on HbA1c ≥5.7% (39 mmol/mol), either with (n = 318) or without (n = 1986) metformin treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Biomarkers of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and riboflavin were measured. Cognitive assessments included the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). RESULTS: Metformin use was associated with higher risk of deficiency of vitamin B12 (combined B12 index ≤-1; OR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.02) and vitamin B6 (plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate <30.0 nmol/L; OR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.15). Fortified foods when eaten regularly had a positive impact on all relevant B vitamin biomarkers, even with hyperglycemia. After adjustment for relevant covariates, metformin use was associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction as assessed with the RBANS (OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.80) and FAB (OR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.74). CONCLUSIONS: Use of metformin by older adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance; B vitamin deficiency may be implicated. Fortified foods can optimize B vitamin status and may be beneficial for maintaining better cognitive health in older people with or at risk for diabetes.

6.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(5): 551-557.e1, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mental health disorders are major contributors to disease burden in older people. Deficient status of folate and the metabolically related B vitamins may be implicated in these conditions. This study aimed to investigate folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and riboflavin in relation to depression and anxiety in aging and also considered the role of fortified foods as a means of optimizing B-vitamin status and potentially reducing the risk of these mental health disorders. DESIGN: The Trinity Ulster Department of Agriculture (TUDA) aging study was a cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults (n = 5186; ≥60 years) recruited from 2 jurisdictions within the island of Ireland from 2008 to 2012. MEASURES: Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scales, respectively. The following B-vitamin biomarkers were measured: red blood cell folate, serum total vitamin B12, plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP; vitamin B6), and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRac; riboflavin). RESULTS: Biomarker values in the lowest 20% of status for folate (odds ratio [OR] 1.79; 95% CI 1.23-2.61), vitamin B6 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.01-2.06), or riboflavin (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10-2.00), but not vitamin B12, were each associated with an increased risk of depression (CES-D score ≥16). Correspondingly, B vitamin-fortified foods if consumed daily were associated with a reduced risk of depression (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.70). A deficient status of vitamin B6 (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.81), but not other vitamins, was associated with increased anxiety. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Better B-vitamin status may have a role in impacting positively on mental health in older adults. Regular intake of fortified foods can provide a means of optimizing B-vitamin status and thus could contribute to reducing depression. If confirmed by a randomized trial, these results may have implications for nutrition and mental health policy, and thus quality of life, in older people.

7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(5): 517-523, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prospective relationship between vitamin D status and incident depression in a large cohort of nondepressed community-dwelling older people. DESIGN: Longitudinal study examining the relationship between vitamin D levels at baseline (wave 1) and incident depression at 2 and 4 years (waves 2 and 3), embedded within the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging. Participants with depression at wave 1 were excluded. Logistic regression models reporting odds ratios were used to analyze the longitudinal association of vitamin D categories with incident depression. Analysis was weighted for attrition. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Almost 4000 community-dwelling people aged ≥50 years. MEASURES: A score ≥9 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-8 at wave 2 or 3 was indicative of incident depression. Vitamin D analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were defined as <30, 30-50, and >50 nmol/L, respectively. RESULTS: The incident depression group (400/3965) had a higher likelihood of baseline vitamin D deficiency (proportional estimation 19.4) [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.1-24.7] vs [12.4 (95% CI 11.1-14.0); Z = 3.93; P < .001]. Logistic regression models demonstrated that participants with vitamin D deficiency had a significantly higher likelihood of incident depression (odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.24-2.46; t = 3.21; P = .001). This finding remained robust after controlling for relevant covariates including physical activity, chronic disease burden, cardiovascular disease and antidepressant use. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This study demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of developing depression in later life. These findings are important, given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among older people, the fact that supplementation has a low risk of toxicity or side effects, as well as the significant adverse effect depression can have on functional status and longevity in later life.

8.
Br J Nutr ; 120(5): 517-527, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058503

RESUMO

Previous reports investigating adiposity and cognitive function in the population allude to a negative association, although the relationship in older adults is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of adiposity (BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR)) with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years). Participants included 5186 adults from the Trinity Ulster Department of Agriculture ageing cohort study. Neuropsychological assessment measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Multi-variable linear regression models were used to assess the association between adiposity and cognitive function adjusting for insulin resistance, inflammation and cerebrovascular disease. The mean ages were 80·3 (sd 6·7), 71·0 (sd 7·3) and 70·2 (sd 6·3) years on the cognitive, bone and hypertensive cohorts, respectively. In the cognitive cohort, BMI was positively associated with immediate and delay memory, visuospatial/constructional ability, language and MMSE, and negatively with FAB (log-transformed), whereas WHR was negatively associated with attention. In the bone cohort, BMI was not associated with any cognitive domain, whereas WHR was negatively associated with visuospatial/constructional ability, attention and MMSE. In the hypertensive cohort, BMI was not associated with any cognitive domain, whereas WHR was negatively associated with immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional ability, language and MMSE and positively with FAB (log-transformed). In the cognitive and bone cohorts, the association of WHR and attention disappeared by further controlling for C-reactive protein and HbA1C. In this study of older adults, central adiposity was a stronger predictor of poor cognitive performance than BMI. Older adults could benefit from targeted public health strategies aimed at reducing obesity and obeseogenic risk factors to avoid/prevent/slow cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agricultura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Vida Independente , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Linguagem , Masculino , Memória , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/psicologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(7): 1269-1275, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between area-level deprivation and risk of cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: The Trinity, Ulster, and Department of Agriculture (TUDA) study from 2008 to 2012. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 74.0 ± 8.3 without dementia (N = 5,186; 67% female). MEASUREMENTS: Adopting a cross-jurisdictional approach, geo-referenced address-based information was used to map and link participants to official socioeconomic indicators of deprivation within the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Participants were assigned an individual deprivation score related to the smallest administrative area in which they lived. These scores were categorized into comparable quintiles, that were then used to integrate the datasets from both countries. Cognitive health was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); cognitive dysfunction was defined as a MMSE score of 24 or less. RESULTS: Approximately one-quarter of the cohort resided within the most-deprived districts in both countries. Greater area-level deprivation was associated with significantly lower MMSE scores; fewer years of formal education; greater anxiety, depression, smoking and alcohol use, and obesity; and more adverse outcomes, including higher blood pressure and diabetes risk. After adjustment for relevant covariates, area deprivation was associated with significantly higher risk of cognitive dysfunction (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.87, P = .02, for most vs least deprived). CONCLUSION: This analysis combining data from two health systems shows that area deprivation is an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in older adults. Adults living in areas of greatest socioeconomic deprivation may benefit from targeted strategies aimed at improving modifiable risk factors for dementia. Further cross-national analysis investigating the impact of area- level deprivation is needed to address socioeconomic disparities and shape future policy to improve health outcomes in older adults.© 2018 American Geriatrics Society and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido
10.
J Nutr ; 147(5): 858-868, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331054

RESUMO

Background: UVB-induced skin synthesis is considered the key source of vitamin D, yet exposure to UVB is poorly accounted for in epidemiological studies.Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with accurately measured ambient UVB dose, sun enjoyment, supplements, and other factors.Methods: An all-Irish cohort of community-dwelling participants aged >60 y [median age: 73; 67% female; median 25(OH)D: 54.5 nmol/L] was used. Participants from this large, cross-sectional study completed a questionnaire to provide information on demographic factors and lifestyle (including supplement use and sun enjoyment). The Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service database was used to extract the daily ambient UVB dose at wavelengths that could induce vitamin D synthesis (D-UVB) over Ireland (latitude: 51°N-55°N). Blood sampling occurred throughout the year. Ambient exposure at the place of residence was calculated for each participant individually. Associations between determinants and serum 25(OH)D concentration were examined in a multivariate model. Random forest analysis was used to establish prediction models of vitamin D deficiency, and area under the curve (AUC) is shown.Results: In total, 5138 individuals were included. Median D-UVB was 63 mJ/cm2, which varied between seasons and latitudes, despite the small latitude differential. Vitamin D supplementation (ß = 27.7; P < 10 × 10-10), D-UVB (ß = 1.58 per 1000 mJ/cm2; P < 10 × 10-10), and sun enjoyment (ß = 6.6; P < 0.001) were strongly positively associated with serum 25(OH)D. Those who avoided sunshine were largely at risk of deficiency (<40 nmol/L), whereas those who enjoyed sunshine tended to be vitamin D sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). D-UVB and sun enjoyment improved prediction of deficiency in non-supplement-taking individuals; the overall AUC improved by 3.5%.Conclusion: D-UVB and sun enjoyment are important predictors of vitamin D status, even in this elderly population at northern latitudes. Accurate estimation of ambient UVB can help to further clarify the role of other determinants of vitamin D status and inform sunshine recommendation guidelines.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Luz Solar , Raios Ultravioleta , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/biossíntese , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
11.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 29(6): 338-343, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a short battery designed to assess frontal executive functioning, but data for interpretation of performance are limited. OBJECTIVES: The Trinity, Ulster, Department of Agriculture (TUDA) study provided the opportunity to derive performance data from a large sample of community-dwelling hospital outpatient or general practitioner (GP) attenders. METHODS: Normative analysis based on 2508 TUDA participants meeting these criteria: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) >26/30, not depressed (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression <16) or anxious (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale <8), no history of stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Correlation and regression analyses were used to evaluate the effects of age, education, gender, and general cognition (MMSE). Norms for FAB were created stratified by age and education, using overlapping midpoint ranges of 10 years with a 3-year interval from age 60 to 97. RESULTS: Age and education accounted for 9.6% of variance in FAB score ( r2 = .096) with no significant effect of gender. The FAB and MMSE were modestly correlated ( r = .29, P < .01) with MMSE increasing the model's total explained variance in FAB score from 9.6% to 14%. CONCLUSION: This is the largest study to date to create normative data for the FAB. Age and education had the most significant impact on FAB performance, which was largely independent of global cognition (MMSE). These data may be of benefit in interpreting FAB performance in individuals with similar demographic/health status characteristics in hospital outpatient or GP settings.

12.
J Hypertens ; 34(6): 1036-43, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Orthostatic hypotension is a common condition among older adults and is associated with a range of deleterious outcomes. Recently, interest has developed in hypovitaminosis D (defined as low 25 hydroxiyvitamin D levels) as a potential risk factor for orthostatic hypotension. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association of orthostatic hypotension between study participants with and without hypovitaminosis D, including the adjustment of potential confounders (age, sex, BMI, renal function, comorbidities, seasonality, use of antihypertensive medications, and supplementation with cholecalciferol). METHODS: A systematic literature search of major electronic databases from inception until 09/2015 was made for articles providing data on orthostatic hypotension and hypovitaminosis D. A random effects meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies investigating orthostatic hypotension prevalence comparing participants with vs. those without hypovitaminosis D was undertaken, calculating the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of 317 initial hits, five cross-sectional studies were meta-analysed including 3646 participants (1270 with hypovitaminosis D and 2376 without). The participants with hypovitaminosis D had a higher prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.25-2.84; I = 68%) that was not affected by adjusting for a median of five potential confounders (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.13-3.68; I = 73%). People with orthostatic hypotension had significantly reduced serum vitamin D concentrations (standardized mean difference = -0.42; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.12). One longitudinal study confirmed the association between hypovitaminosis D and orthostatic hypotension. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis highlights that hypovitaminosis D is associated with orthostatic hypotension, independent of potential confounders. Further longitudinal studies and clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/sangue , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
13.
Age Ageing ; 44(5): 847-53, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26265675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in older adults living in Northern Europe and is influenced by several factors which may vary significantly with age. OBJECTIVE: we aimed to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in older Irish adults and in particular to examine the effect of supplement use and surrogate markers of sun exposure. METHODS: subjects were non-institutionalised community dwelling Irish adults aged over 60 years who were participants of a large cross-sectional study comprising three disease defined cohorts. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy. Associations between 25(OH)D and potential confounders were explored in forward regression models in each cohort. RESULTS: the three cohorts comprised 1895, 1233 and 1316 participants (respective mean ages 70.1, 71.0 and 80.4 years). Statistical models explained between a fifth to a third of the variation in 25(OH)D. Supplement use and global solar radiation were positive predictors of 25(OH)D in all cohorts whereas the only universal negative predictor was body mass index. Supplement use was associated with a mean increase in 25(OH)D of between 21.4 and 35.4 nmol/l. The other main predictors varied by cohort but included sun holiday travel, enjoyment of sunshine when outside, use of vitamin D fortified milk, smoking, oily fish and egg consumption and physical frailty. CONCLUSION: supplement use was the most important determinant of vitamin D status. Vitamin D fortified milk and spending time in the sun, even in the oldest old may also be useful strategies to improve 25(OH)D.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Fatores de Tempo , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
14.
Age Ageing ; 41(6): 810-3, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22789765

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: we aimed to investigate on the potential relationship between vitamin D and orthostatic hypotension (OH) in a case-control model in older adults. METHODS: all participants were community-dwelling adults who were not taking vitamin D supplements. Cases were subjects aged 64 or older who were diagnosed with OH at a Falls and Blackout Unit. Controls were age- (within 5 years) and gender-matched subjects who had no history of blackouts, falls or orthostatic dizziness in the preceding year. OH was defined according to standard criteria and was diagnosed with an active stand test. Serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: seventy-six subjects were included in the analysis (38 controls and 38 cases). Twenty-four in each group were female and mean age was between 78 and 79 years. Subjects with OH had lower serum 25(OH)D compared to controls (mean difference = 20.6 nmol/l, P = 0.0002). Lower vitamin D status was associated with an increased risk of OH after adjustment for season, body mass index, presence of stroke, diabetes and angina (P = 0.035) but not with impaired orthostatic haemodynamics. DISCUSSION: findings suggest that vitamin D may play a role in the aetiology of OH. Further studies will be required to explore on this relationship.


Assuntos
Hipotensão Ortostática/sangue , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
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