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J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 70(7): 729-738, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223684


Toxic gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of routes at rates estimated at over 5000 tonnes per annum, a large fraction of which is Anthropogenic. It is then widely disbursed atmospherically and eventually deposited, where it is subject to further biogeochemical cycling, including re-emission. Research into capture of point source mercury emissions revolves almost exclusively around the use of activated carbons, various catalytic oxidation substrates, or as a by-product of acidic treatments of flue gas during SOx and NOx reduction methods. GEM is very non-reactive in its native state, but capture rates are greatly enhanced if GEM is first oxidized, or at least where oxidation states play a role at the substrate GEM interface. Little research has been devoted to capture of GEM directly. However, presented here is a novel adaption of coir fibers for use as a substrate in capturing GEM emissions directly. Various coir modifications were investigated, with the most effective being fibers coated with CuI crystals dispersed in a non-crosslinked poly-siloxane matrix. Scanning electron microscopy was used to view surface morphologies, and sorption characteristics were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). These results indicate that coir fibers modified by CuI-[SiO2] n show great promise in their ability to efficiently sorb GEM, and could potentially be utilized in a variety of configurations and settings where GEM emissions need to be captured. IMPLICATIONS: Highly toxic gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) has proved very difficult to capture, requiring complex catalytic oxidation or expensive gas scrubbing technologies. The modified coir fiber described in this work can effectively capture GEM without prior catalytic oxidation or any other physicochemical treatment of the gas. The solution provided here is made from renewable resources, is low cost, and the raw materials are readily available in bulk. Further, the mercury is bound in a stable and insoluble form that can be readily isolated from the substrate. This filtration device can be adapted to suit a variety of settings for GEM capture.

Chemosphere ; 184: 694-699, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633064


Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation. The P. veronii-biopolymer mix was then coated onto natural zeolite granules. Zeolite immobilised cells remained viable for at least 16 weeks stored under ambient room temperature. Furthermore, the immobilised cells were shown to retain both viability and Hg volatilisation functionality after transportation from Australia to the USA, where they were applied to Hg contaminated soil. Maximum flux rates exceeded 10 µg Hg m2 h-1 from mine tailings (≈7 mg kg-1 Hg with 50% v/v water). This was 4 orders of magnitude above background flux levels. It is envisioned that emitted gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can be readily captured, and transformed back into metallic Hg, which can then be stored appropriately or recycled. This breaks the Hg cycle, as GEM is no longer translocated back to the atmospheric compartment. The immobilising excipients used in this research overcome many logistical issues with delivery of suitable microbial loads to locations of mercury contamination and presents a facile and inexpensive method of augmenting contaminated sites with selected microbial consortia for bioremediation.

Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Atmosfera , Austrália , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mineração , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Volatilização
Sex Health ; 14(2): 179-187, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914484


Background International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. METHODS: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013. The primary outcome was NPEP failure following NPEP presentation among MSM reporting RAIU, stratified by the number of drugs prescribed. RESULTS: Among 1482 MSM reporting 2002 episodes of RAIU and prescribed two- or three-drug NPEP, 70 seroconverted to HIV, but only 19 were considered possible NPEP failures. HIV diagnosis incidence among men reporting RAIU was 1.2/100 person years (PY) (95%CI=1.0-1.6); 1.1/100 PY (95%CI=0.8-1.4) among MSM prescribed two drugs and 2.2/100 PY (95%CI=1.4-3.7) among MSM prescribed three drugs (P<0.01). Of the 19 possible NPEP failures, 13 (0.7%) were prescribed two drugs and six (2.7%) three drugs (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that two-drug NPEP regimens do not result in excess seroconversions compared with three-drug regimens when used following RAIU. Clinical services should carefully consider their use of three drug NPEP and whether resources might be better invested in other prevention strategies, particularly pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Vigilância da População , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitória/epidemiologia
J Clin Microbiol ; 42(5): 2127-33, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15131180


Human group C rotavirus was identified in central Australia in each of eight years over a 16-year period between 1982 and 1997. Cases occurred either sporadically but over a relatively short period of time or as clustered outbreaks. These are the only reports of human group C rotavirus in Australia other than that of a single case reported approximately 1,800 km away in 1982. The electrophoretic genome profiles of isolates were identical for all those identified within the same year but different between those identified in different years. The VP7 genes of four isolates identified in four different years over a 7-year period between 1987 and 1993, and the VP4 genes of two of these isolates showed relatively little variation in genome and deduced amino acid sequence upon comparison of the equivalent genes between isolates. The sequences were also very similar to those from the corresponding genes from most of the human group C rotavirus isolates from other countries. This continues the observation of a high degree of gene sequence conservation among human group C rotaviruses worldwide.

Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Lactente , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores de Tempo