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1.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 62: 101591, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494463

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine factors including family history, medical history and comorbidities associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in young (18-49 years) and middle-age (50-69 years) individuals. METHODS: State records were used to identify individuals born in Western Australia between 1945 and 1996, and their first-degree relatives. Individuals in the cohort and their relatives were linked to State cancer registry, hospital and mortality data to identify diagnoses of CRC and other risk factors. The associations between CRC and identified risk factors were examined using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: For both young and middle-aged patients, family history of CRC, and a history of smoking, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease and non-CRC cancer were associated with a significant increase in odds of CRC. In middle-aged patients, having a colonoscopy in the previous 10 years was associated with a reduced odds of CRC regardless of the detection of polyps. However, in young patients only the absence of polyps as confirmed by colonoscopy was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (OR: 0.38, 95%CI: 0.26 - 0.54, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Many of the risk factors associated with CRC were similar in young and middle-aged persons, and should be used to identify high risk young patients for screening. The association between colonoscopy and polyps with CRC was modified by age, likely as the result of routine screening in middle-aged patients.

2.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 34(10): 1673-1680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival following colorectal cancer (CRC) survival may be influenced by a number of factors including family history, individual medical history, and comorbidities. The impact of these factors may vary based on the patient's age. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of individuals born in Western Australia between 1945 and 1996, who had been diagnosed with CRC prior to 2015 (n = 3220). Hospital, cancer, and mortality data were extracted for each patient from state health records and were used to identify potential risk factors associated with CRC survival. Family linkage data, in combination with cancer registry data, were used to identify first-degree family members with a history of CRC. The association between survival following CRC diagnosis and identified risk factors was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Age and sex were not significantly associated with survival in young patients. However, in middle-aged patients increasing age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p = 0.003) and being male (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.87, p < 0.001) were associated with reduced survival. Being diagnosed with polyps and having a colonoscopy prior to CRC diagnosis were associated with improved survival in both young and middle-aged patients, while a history of non-CRC and liver disease was associated with reduced survival. In middle-aged patients, having diabetes-related hospital admissions (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.03, p = 0.004) was associated with reduced survival. CONCLUSIONS: In both young and middle-aged patients with CRC, factors associated with early screening and detection were associated with increased CRC survival while a history of liver disease and non-CRC was associated with decreased CRC survival.

3.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 590-597, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554107

RESUMO

The FOXP2 gene is hypothesised to be involved in schizophrenia by affecting speech and language development. Associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXP2 and language have been inconsistent. We tested five previously associated SNPs for association with language in the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (n = 709, including n = 333 with schizophrenia/spectrum disorder) and found no significant associations. When we included all common FOXP2 variants, one SNP (rs2189008) was nominally associated with language. This is the most comprehensive analysis to date and indicates that common variants in FOXP2 do not play a major role in speech and language development in a clinical family sample.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955165

RESUMO

As it is likely that both common and rare genetic variation are important for complex disease risk, studies that examine the full range of the allelic frequency distribution should be utilized to dissect the genetic influences on mental illness. The rate limiting factor for inferring an association between a variant and a phenotype is inevitably the total number of copies of the minor allele captured in the studied sample. For rare variation, with minor allele frequencies of 0.5% or less, very large samples of unrelated individuals are necessary to unambiguously associate a locus with an illness. Unfortunately, such large samples are often cost prohibitive. However, by using alternative analytic strategies and studying related individuals, particularly those from large multiplex families, it is possible to reduce the required sample size while maintaining statistical power. We contend that using whole genome sequence (WGS) in extended pedigrees provides a cost-effective strategy for psychiatric gene mapping that complements common variant approaches and WGS in unrelated individuals. This was our impetus for forming the "Pedigree-Based Whole Genome Sequencing of Affective and Psychotic Disorders" consortium. In this review, we provide a rationale for the use of WGS with pedigrees in modern psychiatric genetics research. We begin with a focused review of the current literature, followed by a short history of family-based research in psychiatry. Next, we describe several advantages of pedigrees for WGS research, including power estimates, methods for studying the environment, and endophenotypes. We conclude with a brief description of our consortium and its goals.

5.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486958

RESUMO

The importance of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) has long been recognized in the etiology of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report here the results from the CNV analysis of whole-genome sequences from 91 multiplex schizophrenia families. Employing four algorithms (CNVnator, Cn.mops, DELLY and LUMPY) to identify CNVs, we find 1231 rare deletions and 287 rare duplications in 300 individuals (77 with schizophrenia (SZ), 32 with schizoaffective disorder (SAD), 82 with another neuropsychiatric diagnosis and 109 unaffected). The size of the CNVs ranges from a few hundred base-pairs to about 1.3Mb. The total burden of CNVs does not differ significantly between affected (SZ and SAD) and unaffected individuals. Parent-to-child transmission rate for rare CNVs affecting exonic regions is significantly higher for affected (SZ and SAD) probands as compared to their siblings, but rates for all CNVs is not. We observe heterogeneity between families in terms of genes involved in CNVs, and find several CNVs involving genes previously implicated in either schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders.

6.
Atherosclerosis ; 269: 42-49, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a measure of thromboxane A2 formation in vivo, predicts future atherothrombotic events. To further understand this relationship, the genetic determinants of 11-dehydro TxB2 and their associations with cardiovascular morbidity were investigated in this study. METHODS: Genome-wide and targeted genetic association studies of urinary 11-dehydro TxB2 were conducted in 806 Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) participants. RESULTS: The strongest associations were in PPARGC1B (rs4235745, rs32582, rs10515638) and CNTN4 (rs10510230, rs4684343), these 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were independently associated with 11-dehydro TxB2 formation. Haplotypes of 11-dehydro TxB2 increasing alleles for both PPARGC1B and CNTN4 were significantly associated with 11-dehydro TxB2, explaining 5.2% and 4.5% of the variation in the whole cohort, and 8.8% and 7.9% in participants not taking aspirin, respectively. In a second ASCOT population (n = 6199), addition of these 5 SNPs significantly improved the covariate-only Cox proportional hazards model for cardiovascular events (chisq = 14.7, p=0.01). Two of the risk alleles associated with increased urinary 11-dehydro TxB2 were individually associated with greater incidences of cardiovascular events - rs10515638 (HR = 1.31, p=0.01) and rs10510230 (HR = 1.25, p=0.007); effect sizes were larger in those not taking aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: PPARGC1B and CNTN4 genotypes are associated with elevated thromboxane A2 formation and with an excess of cardiovascular events. Aspirin appears to blunt these associations. If specific protection of PPARGC1B and CNTN4 variant carriers by aspirin is confirmed by additional studies, PPARGC1B and CNTN4 genotyping could potentially assist in clinical decision making regarding the use of aspirin in primary prevention.

7.
Hum Genet ; 137(1): 45-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181734

RESUMO

Over two billion adults are overweight or obese and therefore at an increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). Obesity-related anthropometric traits genetically correlated with CMS may provide insight into CMS aetiology. The aim of this study was to utilise an empirically derived genetic relatedness matrix to calculate heritabilities and genetic correlations between CMS and anthropometric traits to determine whether they share genetic risk factors (pleiotropy). We used genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data on 4671 Busselton Health Study participants. Exploiting both known and unknown relatedness, empirical kinship probabilities were estimated using these SNP data. General linear mixed models implemented in SOLAR were used to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities (h 2) and genetic correlations (r g) between 15 anthropometric and 9 CMS traits. Anthropometric traits were adjusted by body mass index (BMI) to determine whether the observed genetic correlation was independent of obesity. After adjustment for multiple testing, all CMS and anthropometric traits were significantly heritable (h 2 range 0.18-0.57). We identified 50 significant genetic correlations (r g range: - 0.37 to 0.75) between CMS and anthropometric traits. Five genetic correlations remained significant after adjustment for BMI [high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-height ratio; non-HDL-C and waist-height ratio; insulin and iliac skinfold thickness]. This study provides evidence for the presence of potentially pleiotropic genes that affect both anthropometric and CMS traits, independently of obesity.

8.
Schizophr Bull ; 44(4): 908-921, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040798

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a major barrier to understanding the genetic architecture underlying schizophrenia. Incorporating endophenotypes is one way to reduce heterogeneity and facilitate more powerful genetic analysis. Candidate endophenotypes require systematic assessment against endophenotype criteria, and a ranking of their potential utility for genetic analysis. In this study we assess 20 cognitive and personality measures in a sample of 127 families with at least 2 cases of schizophrenia per family (n = 535) plus a set of 30 control families (n = 121) against 4 endophenotype criteria: (a) be associated with the illness but not be a part of its diagnosis, (b) be heritable, (c) co-segregate with the illness in families, and (d) be found in unaffected relatives at a higher rate than in the general population. The endophenotype ranking score (endophenotype ranking variable [ERV]) was used to rank candidate endophenotypes based on their heritability and genetic correlation with schizophrenia. Finally, we used factor analysis to explore latent factors underlying the cognitive and personality measures. Evidence for personality measures as endophenotypes was at least equivalent to that of the cognitive measures. Factor analysis indicated that personality and cognitive traits contribute to independent latent dimensions. The results suggest for this first time that a number of cognitive and personality measures are independent and informative endophenotypes. Use of these endophenotypes in genetic studies will likely improve power and facilitate novel aetiological insights.

9.
J Hypertens ; 35(1): 132-139, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a complex heterogeneous disease commonly defined by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy. Women experiencing preeclampsia have increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. Preeclampsia and CVD share risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dysregulated inflammation and raised blood pressure. Despite commonalities, little is known about the contribution of shared genes (pleiotropy) to these diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether genetic risk factors for hypertension or inflammation are pleiotropic by also being associated with preeclampsia. METHODS: We genotyped 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in women with preeclampsia (n = 1006) and nonpreeclamptic controls (n = 816) from the Norwegian HUNT Study. SNPs were chosen on the basis of previously reported associations with either nongestational hypertension or inflammation in genome-wide association studies. The SNPs were tested for association with preeclampsia in a multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: The minor (G) allele of the intronic SNP rs17367504 in the gene methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was associated with a protective effect on preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.80) in the Norwegian cohort. This association did not replicate in an Australian preeclampsia case-control cohort (P = 0.68, odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.32, minor allele frequency = 0.15). CONCLUSION: MTHFR is important for regulating transmethylation processes and is involved in regulation of folate metabolism. The G allele of rs17367504 has previously been shown to protect against nongestational hypertension. Our study suggests a novel association between this allele and reduced risk for preeclampsia. This is the first study associating the minor (G) allele of a SNP within the MTHFR gene with a protective effect on preeclampsia, and in doing so identifying a possible pleiotropic protective effect on preeclampsia and hypertension.


Assuntos
Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Inflamação/genética , Noruega , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção , Adulto Jovem
10.
Schizophr Res ; 185: 9-16, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939555

RESUMO

The exome array assays rare-but-recurrent, likely deleterious, exonic variants and represents an intermediary between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and sequencing for genetic association studies. Multiplex families with multiple affected individuals may be enriched for disease-associated variants of this class compared to unrelated populations. We present an exome array study of schizophrenia in 99 multiplex families (n=341, including 118 cases) from the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (WAFSS). Compared to 55,726 individuals from the DIAGRAM sample not selected for schizophrenia, overall allele frequency of exome variants was higher in the WAFSS (P<2.2E-16). This was pronounced in variants nominally associated (P<0.05) with schizophrenia. Genes harbouring variants present only in WAFSS cases were enriched (FDR-corrected P=0.05) for membership of the 'extracellular matrix (ECM) - receptor interaction' biological pathway, adding to evidence that processes affecting the composition or turnover of ECM may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. We did not find individual variants significantly associated with schizophrenia, although like previous studies, power to detect associations of small effect size was low. Cases did not exhibit a higher burden of variants compared to their unaffected relatives and the finding of previous exome chip studies of unrelated samples that 'schizophrenia gene-sets' were enriched for case-only variants was not replicated in the WAFSS. The higher frequency of moderately rare, exonic variants in these multiplex families compared to a population-based sample may account for some of their genetic liability to schizophrenia, and adds to evidence for a role of exome array variants from previous studies of unrelated samples.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Saúde da Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
11.
Genom Data ; 9: 18-21, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27330997

RESUMO

We compared genotype data from the HumanExomeCore Array in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and low passage lymphoblastoid cell lines from the same 24 individuals to test for genotypic errors caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus transformation process. Genotype concordance across the 24 comparisons was 99.57% for unfiltered genotype data, and 99.63% following standard genotype quality control filters. Mendelian error rates and levels of heterozygosity were not significantly different between lymphoblastoid cell lines and their parent peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results show that at low passage numbers, genotype discrepancies are minimal even before stringent quality control, and extend current evidence qualifying the use of low-passage lymphoblastoid cell lines as a reliable DNA source for genotype analysis.

12.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 9(5-6): 610-7, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25786980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We have previously demonstrated associations between the urinary proteome profile and coronary artery disease (CAD) in cross-sectional studies. Here, we evaluate the potential of a urinary proteomic panel as a predictor of CAD in the hypertensive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HACVD) substudy population of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-seven cases with primary CAD endpoint were matched for sex and age to controls who had not reached a CAD endpoint during the study. Spot urine samples were analyzed using CE coupled to Micro-TOF MS. A previously developed 238-marker CE-MS model for diagnosis of CAD (CAD238 ) was assessed for its predictive potential. RESULTS: Sixty urine samples (32 cases; 28 controls; 88% male, mean age 64 ± 5 years) were analyzed. There was a trend toward healthier values in controls for the CAD model classifier (-0.432 ± 0.326 versus -0.587 ± 0.297, p = 0.170), and the CAD model showed statistical significance on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis p = 0.021. We found 190 individual markers out of 1501 urinary peptides that separated cases and controls (AUC >0.6). Of these, 25 peptides were also components of CAD238 . CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A urinary proteome panel originally developed in a cross-sectional study predicts CAD endpoints independent of age and sex in a well-controlled prospective study.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/urina , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/urina , Idoso , Aterosclerose/mortalidade , Aterosclerose/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/urina , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica
13.
BMC Genomics ; 15: 981, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several individual studies have suggested that autosomal CpG methylation differs by sex both in terms of individual CpG sites and global autosomal CpG methylation. However, these findings have been inconsistent and plagued by spurious associations due to the cross reactivity of CpG probes on commercial microarrays. We collectively analysed 76 published studies (n = 6,795) for sex-associated differences in both autosomal and sex chromosome CpG sites. RESULTS: Overall autosomal methylation profiles varied substantially by study, and we encountered substantial batch effects. We accounted for these by conducting random effects meta-analysis for individual autosomal CpG methylation associations. After excluding non-specific probes, we found 184 autosomal CpG sites differentially methylated by sex after correction for multiple testing. In line with previous studies, average beta differences were small. Many of the most significantly associated CpG probes were new. Of note was differential CpG methylation in the promoters of genes thought to be involved in spermatogenesis and male fertility, such as SLC9A2, SPESP1, CRISP2, and NUPL1. Pathway analysis revealed overrepresentation of genes differentially methylated by sex in several broad Gene Ontology biological processes, including RNA splicing and DNA repair. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a comprehensive analysis of sex-specific methylation patterns. We demonstrate the existence of sex-specific methylation profiles and report a large number of novel DNA methylation differences in autosomal CpG sites between sexes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos , Metilação de DNA , Cromossomos Humanos X , Biologia Computacional , Ilhas de CpG , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Fatores Sexuais , Inativação do Cromossomo X
14.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 7(6): 873-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25210050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) is highly heritable, but our understanding of the genetic causes underlying variations in BP is incomplete. In this study, we explored whether novel loci associated with BP could be identified using a genecentric approach in 3 community-based cohorts with accurate BP measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genotyping of 1857 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 91 ion channel genes was performed in a discovery cohort (n=358). Thirty-four SNPs associated with BP traits (P≤0.01) were followed up in an independent population (n=387); significant SNPs from this analysis were looked up in another independent population (n=1010) and meta-analyzed. Repeated clinic and ambulatory measurements were available for all but the discovery cohort (clinic only). Association analyses were performed, with systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures as quantitative traits, adjusting for age and sex. Quantile-quantile plots indicated that the genecentric approach resulted in an inflation of association signals. Of the 29 SNPs taken forward from the discovery cohort, 2 SNPs were associated with BP phenotypes with the same direction of effect, with experiment-wide significance, in follow-up cohort I. These were rs2228291, in the chloride channel gene CLCN2, and rs10513488, in the potassium channel gene KCNAB1. Both associations were subsequently replicated in follow-up cohort II. CONCLUSIONS: Using a genecentric design and 3 well-phenotyped populations, this study identified 2 previously unreported, biologically plausible, genetic associations with BP. These results suggest that dense genotyping of genes, in pathways known to influence BP, could add to candidate-gene and Genome Wide Association studies in further explaining BP heritability.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Canais Iônicos/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
15.
Stroke ; 44(10): 2703-2709, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure (vBP) is associated with ischemic stroke. We sought to determine whether such variability has genetic causes and whether genetic variants associated with BP variability are also associated with ischemic stroke. METHODS: A Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) for loci influencing BP variability was undertaken in 3802 individuals from the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcome Trial (ASCOT) study, in which long-term visit-to-visit and within-visit BP measures were available. Because BP variability is strongly associated with ischemic stroke, we genotyped the sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism in an independent ischemic stroke population comprising 8624 cases and 12 722 controls and in 3900 additional (Scandinavian) participants from the ASCOT study to replicate our findings. RESULTS: The ASCOT discovery GWAS identified a cluster of 17 correlated single nucleotide polymorphisms within the NLGN1 gene (3q26.31) associated with BP variability. The strongest association was with rs976683 (P=1.4×10(-8)). Conditional analysis of rs976683 provided no evidence of additional independent associations at the locus. Analysis of rs976683 in patients with ischemic stroke found no association for overall stroke (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97-1.07; P=0.52) or its subtypes: cardioembolic (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.16; P=0.17), large vessel disease (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07; P=0.60), and small vessel disease (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.17; P=0.19). No evidence for association was found between rs976683 and BP variability in the additional (Scandinavian) ASCOT participants (P=0.18). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the NLGN1 locus showing significant association with BP variability. Follow-up analyses did not support an association with risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Isquemia Encefálica , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
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