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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increased mutational burden for rare structural genomic variants in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders has so far not yielded therapies targeting the biological effects of specific mutations. We identified two carriers (mother and son) of a triplication of the gene encoding glycine decarboxylase, GLDC, presumably resulting in reduced availability of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonists glycine and D-serine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction. Both carriers had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. METHODS: We carried out two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor augmentation of psychotropic drug treatment in these two individuals. Glycine was used in the first clinical trial, and D-cycloserine was used in the second one. RESULTS: Glycine or D-cycloserine augmentation of psychotropic drug treatment each improved psychotic and mood symptoms in placebo-controlled trials. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide two independent proof-of-principle demonstrations of symptom relief by targeting a specific genotype and explicitly link an individual mutation to the pathophysiology of psychosis and treatment response.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(5): e002376, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939045

RESUMO

Background Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder caused by rare protein-truncating variants (PTV) in the gene encoding APOB (apolipoprotein B), the major protein component of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether heterozygous APOB deficiency is associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. We combined family-based and large scale gene-sequencing to characterize the association of rare PTVs in APOB with circulating LDL-C (LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, and risk for CHD. Methods We sequenced the APOB gene in 29 Japanese hypobetalipoproteinemia families, as well as 57 973 individuals derived from 12 CHD case-control studies-18 442 with early-onset CHD and 39 531 controls. We defined PTVs as variants that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice-sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift reading frame. We tested the association of rare APOB PTV carrier status with blood lipid levels and CHD. Results Among 29 familial hypobetalipoproteinemia families, 8 families harbored APOB PTVs. Carrying 1 APOB PTV was associated with 55 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=3×10-5) and 53% lower triglyceride level ( P=2×10-4). Among 12 case-control studies, an APOB PTV was present in 0.038% of CHD cases as compared to 0.092% of controls. APOB PTV carrier status was associated with a 43 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=2×10-7), a 30% decrease in triglycerides ( P=5×10-4), and a 72% lower risk for CHD (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64; P=0.002). Conclusions Rare PTV mutations in APOB which are associated with lower LDL-C and reduced triglycerides also confer protection against CHD.

3.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(3): 223-231, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801977

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are highly effective at identifying common risk variants for schizophrenia. Rare risk variants are also important contributors to schizophrenia etiology but, with the exception of large copy number variants, are difficult to detect with GWAS. Exome and genome sequencing, which have accelerated the study of rare variants, are expensive so alternative methods are needed to aid detection of rare variants. Here we re-analyze an Irish schizophrenia GWAS dataset (n = 3,473) by performing identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping followed by exome sequencing of individuals identified as sharing risk haplotypes to search for rare risk variants in coding regions. We identified 45 rare haplotypes (>1 cM) that were significantly more common in cases than controls. By exome sequencing 105 haplotype carriers, we investigated these haplotypes for functional coding variants that could be tested for association in independent GWAS samples. We identified one rare missense variant in PCNT but did not find statistical support for an association with schizophrenia in a replication analysis. However, IBD mapping can prioritize both individual samples and genomic regions for follow-up analysis but genome rather than exome sequencing may be more effective at detecting risk variants on rare haplotypes.

4.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1234-1239, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061737

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, we performed a genome-wide association study of >1,000,000 people, including 60,620 atrial fibrillation cases and 970,216 controls. We identified 142 independent risk variants at 111 loci and prioritized 151 functional candidate genes likely to be involved in atrial fibrillation. Many of the identified risk variants fall near genes where more deleterious mutations have been reported to cause serious heart defects in humans (GATA4, MYH6, NKX2-5, PITX2, TBX5)1, or near genes important for striated muscle function and integrity (for example, CFL2, MYH7, PKP2, RBM20, SGCG, SSPN). Pathway and functional enrichment analyses also suggested that many of the putative atrial fibrillation genes act via cardiac structural remodeling, potentially in the form of an 'atrial cardiomyopathy'2, either during fetal heart development or as a response to stress in the adult heart.

5.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992288

RESUMO

Motivation: The bulk of space taken up by NGS sequencing CRAM files consists of per-base quality values. Most of these are unnecessary for variant calling, offering an opportunity for space saving. Results: On the CHM1+CHM13 test set, a 17 fold reduction in the quality storage portion of a CRAM file can be achieved while maintaining variant calling accuracy. The size reduction of an entire CRAM file varied from 2.2 to 7.4 fold, depending on the non-quality content of the original file. See Supplementary Data section 6 for details. Availability: Crumble is OpenSource and can be obtained from https://github.com/jkbonfield/crumble. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880880

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders are a group of genetically related diseases with highly polygenic architectures. Genome-wide association analyses have made substantial progress towards understanding the genetic architecture of these disorders. More recently, exome- and whole-genome sequencing of cases and families have identified rare, high penetrant variants that provide direct functional insight. There remains, however, a gap in the heritability explained by these complementary approaches. To understand how multiple genetic variants combine to modify both severity and penetrance of a highly penetrant variant, we sequenced 48 whole genomes from a family with a high loading of psychiatric disorder linked to a balanced chromosomal translocation. The (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation directly disrupts three genes: DISC1, DISC2, DISC1FP and has been linked to multiple brain imaging and neurocognitive outcomes in the family. Using DNA sequence-level linkage analysis, functional annotation and population-based association, we identified common and rare variants in GRM5 (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05), PDE4D (MAF > 0.2) and CNTN5 (MAF < 0.01) that may help explain the individual differences in phenotypic expression in the family. We suggest that whole-genome sequencing in large families will improve the understanding of the combined effects of the rare and common sequence variation underlying psychiatric phenotypes.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 874-889, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727688

RESUMO

Large-scale human genetics studies are ascertaining increasing proportions of populations as they continue growing in both number and scale. As a result, the amount of cryptic relatedness within these study cohorts is growing rapidly and has significant implications on downstream analyses. We demonstrate this growth empirically among the first 92,455 exomes from the DiscovEHR cohort and, via a custom simulation framework we developed called SimProgeny, show that these measures are in line with expectations given the underlying population and ascertainment approach. For example, within DiscovEHR we identified ∼66,000 close (first- and second-degree) relationships, involving 55.6% of study participants. Our simulation results project that >70% of the cohort will be involved in these close relationships, given that DiscovEHR scales to 250,000 recruited individuals. We reconstructed 12,574 pedigrees by using these relationships (including 2,192 nuclear families) and leveraged them for multiple applications. The pedigrees substantially improved the phasing accuracy of 20,947 rare, deleterious compound heterozygous mutations. Reconstructed nuclear families were critical for identifying 3,415 de novo mutations in ∼1,783 genes. Finally, we demonstrate the segregation of known and suspected disease-causing mutations, including a tandem duplication that occurs in LDLR and causes familial hypercholesterolemia, through reconstructed pedigrees. In summary, this work highlights the prevalence of cryptic relatedness expected among large healthcare population-genomic studies and demonstrates several analyses that are uniquely enabled by large amounts of cryptic relatedness.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 939-946, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696747

RESUMO

Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are chromosomal fragments difficult to characterize genomically. Here, we detail a proband with schizoaffective disorder and a mother with bipolar disorder with psychotic features who present with a marker chromosome that segregates with disease. We explored the architecture of this marker and investigated its temporal origin. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed three duplications and three triplications that spanned the short arm of chromosome 9, suggestive of a chromoanasynthesis-like event. Segregation of marker genotypes, phased using sSMC mosaicism in the mother, provided evidence that it was generated during a germline-level event in the proband's maternal grandmother. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to resolve the structure and junctions of the chromosomal fragments, revealing further complexities. While structural variations have been previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and marker chromosomes, here we detail the precise architecture, human life-cycle genesis, and propose a DNA replicative/repair mechanism underlying formation.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 378(12): 1096-1106, 2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the genetic factors underlying chronic liver disease may reveal new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We used exome sequence data and electronic health records from 46,544 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study to identify genetic variants associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Variants that were replicated in three additional cohorts (12,527 persons) were evaluated for association with clinical diagnoses of chronic liver disease in DiscovEHR study participants and two independent cohorts (total of 37,173 persons) and with histopathological severity of liver disease in 2391 human liver samples. RESULTS: A splice variant (rs72613567:TA) in HSD17B13, encoding the hepatic lipid droplet protein hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13, was associated with reduced levels of ALT (P=4.2×10-12) and AST (P=6.2×10-10). Among DiscovEHR study participants, this variant was associated with a reduced risk of alcoholic liver disease (by 42% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 20 to 58] among heterozygotes and by 53% [95% CI, 3 to 77] among homozygotes), nonalcoholic liver disease (by 17% [95% CI, 8 to 25] among heterozygotes and by 30% [95% CI, 13 to 43] among homozygotes), alcoholic cirrhosis (by 42% [95% CI, 14 to 61] among heterozygotes and by 73% [95% CI, 15 to 91] among homozygotes), and nonalcoholic cirrhosis (by 26% [95% CI, 7 to 40] among heterozygotes and by 49% [95% CI, 15 to 69] among homozygotes). Associations were confirmed in two independent cohorts. The rs72613567:TA variant was associated with a reduced risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but not steatosis, in human liver samples. The rs72613567:TA variant mitigated liver injury associated with the risk-increasing PNPLA3 p.I148M allele and resulted in an unstable and truncated protein with reduced enzymatic activity. CONCLUSIONS: A loss-of-function variant in HSD17B13 was associated with a reduced risk of chronic liver disease and of progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others.).


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatopatias/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
NPJ Schizophr ; 4(1): 5, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555928

RESUMO

Recent work has highlighted a possible role for altered epigenetic modifications, including differential DNA methylation, in susceptibility to psychiatric illness. Here, we investigate blood-based DNA methylation in a large family where a balanced translocation between chromosomes 1 and 11 shows genome-wide significant linkage to psychiatric illness. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled in whole-blood-derived DNA from 41 individuals using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). We found significant differences in DNA methylation when translocation carriers (n = 17) were compared to related non-carriers (n = 24) at 13 loci. All but one of the 13 significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) mapped to the regions surrounding the translocation breakpoints. Methylation levels of five DMPs were associated with genotype at SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with the translocation. Two of the five genes harbouring significant DMPs, DISC1 and DUSP10, have been previously shown to be differentially methylated in schizophrenia. Gene Ontology analysis revealed enrichment for terms relating to neuronal function and neurodevelopment among the genes harbouring the most significant DMPs. Differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis highlighted a number of genes from the MHC region, which has been implicated in psychiatric illness previously through genetic studies. We show that inheritance of a translocation linked to major mental illness is associated with differential DNA methylation at loci implicated in neuronal development/function and in psychiatric illness. As genomic rearrangements are over-represented in individuals with psychiatric illness, such analyses may be valuable more widely in the study of these conditions.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4394, 2017 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663568

RESUMO

Obesity is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Using targeted and whole-exome sequencing, we studied 32 human and 87 rodent obesity genes in 2,548 severely obese children and 1,117 controls. We identified 52 variants contributing to obesity in 2% of cases including multiple novel variants in GNAS, which were sometimes found with accelerated growth rather than short stature as described previously. Nominally significant associations were found for rare functional variants in BBS1, BBS9, GNAS, MKKS, CLOCK and ANGPTL6. The p.S284X variant in ANGPTL6 drives the association signal (rs201622589, MAF~0.1%, odds ratio = 10.13, p-value = 0.042) and results in complete loss of secretion in cells. Further analysis including additional case-control studies and population controls (N = 260,642) did not support association of this variant with obesity (odds ratio = 2.34, p-value = 2.59 × 10-3), highlighting the challenges of testing rare variant associations and the need for very large sample sizes. Further validation in cohorts with severe obesity and engineering the variants in model organisms will be needed to explore whether human variants in ANGPTL6 and other genes that lead to obesity when deleted in mice, do contribute to obesity. Such studies may yield druggable targets for weight loss therapies.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15927, 2017 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643794

RESUMO

The genetic features of isolated populations can boost power in complex-trait association studies, and an in-depth understanding of how their genetic variation has been shaped by their demographic history can help leverage these advantageous characteristics. Here, we perform a comprehensive investigation using 3,059 newly generated low-depth whole-genome sequences from eight European isolates and two matched general populations, together with published data from the 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K. Sequencing data give deeper and richer insights into population demography and genetic characteristics than genotype-chip data, distinguishing related populations more effectively and allowing their functional variants to be studied more fully. We demonstrate relaxation of purifying selection in the isolates, leading to enrichment of rare and low-frequency functional variants, using novel statistics, DVxy and SVxy. We also develop an isolation-index (Isx) that predicts the overall level of such key genetic characteristics and can thus help guide population choice in future complex-trait association studies.

14.
Nature ; 546(7658): 370-375, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28489815

RESUMO

Technology utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has enormous potential to provide improved cellular models of human disease. However, variable genetic and phenotypic characterization of many existing iPS cell lines limits their potential use for research and therapy. Here we describe the systematic generation, genotyping and phenotyping of 711 iPS cell lines derived from 301 healthy individuals by the Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Initiative. Our study outlines the major sources of genetic and phenotypic variation in iPS cells and establishes their suitability as models of complex human traits and cancer. Through genome-wide profiling we find that 5-46% of the variation in different iPS cell phenotypes, including differentiation capacity and cellular morphology, arises from differences between individuals. Additionally, we assess the phenotypic consequences of genomic copy-number alterations that are repeatedly observed in iPS cells. In addition, we present a comprehensive map of common regulatory variants affecting the transcriptome of human pluripotent cells.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Controle de Qualidade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
N Engl J Med ; 377(3): 211-221, 2017 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28538136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function variants in the angiopoietin-like 3 gene (ANGPTL3) have been associated with decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. It is not known whether such variants or therapeutic antagonism of ANGPTL3 are associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We sequenced the exons of ANGPTL3 in 58,335 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study. We performed tests of association for loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 with lipid levels and with coronary artery disease in 13,102 case patients and 40,430 controls from the DiscovEHR study, with follow-up studies involving 23,317 case patients and 107,166 controls from four population studies. We also tested the effects of a human monoclonal antibody, evinacumab, against Angptl3 in dyslipidemic mice and against ANGPTL3 in healthy human volunteers with elevated levels of triglycerides or LDL cholesterol. RESULTS: In the DiscovEHR study, participants with heterozygous loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 had significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol than participants without these variants. Loss-of-function variants were found in 0.33% of case patients with coronary artery disease and in 0.45% of controls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.85; P=0.004). These results were confirmed in the follow-up studies. In dyslipidemic mice, inhibition of Angptl3 with evinacumab resulted in a greater decrease in atherosclerotic lesion area and necrotic content than a control antibody. In humans, evinacumab caused a dose-dependent placebo-adjusted reduction in fasting triglyceride levels of up to 76% and LDL cholesterol levels of up to 23%. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic and therapeutic antagonism of ANGPTL3 in humans and of Angptl3 in mice was associated with decreased levels of all three major lipid fractions and decreased odds of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01749878 .).


Assuntos
Angiopoietinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Mutação , Idoso , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina , Angiopoietinas/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Circ Res ; 121(1): 81-88, 2017 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506971

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Therapies that inhibit CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) have failed to demonstrate a reduction in risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Human DNA sequence variants that truncate the CETP gene may provide insight into the efficacy of CETP inhibition. OBJECTIVE: To test whether protein-truncating variants (PTVs) at the CETP gene were associated with plasma lipid levels and CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sequenced the exons of the CETP gene in 58 469 participants from 12 case-control studies (18 817 CHD cases, 39 652 CHD-free controls). We defined PTV as those that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift frame. We also genotyped 1 Japanese-specific PTV in 27561 participants from 3 case-control studies (14 286 CHD cases, 13 275 CHD-free controls). We tested association of CETP PTV carrier status with both plasma lipids and CHD. Among 58 469 participants with CETP gene-sequencing data available, average age was 51.5 years and 43% were women; 1 in 975 participants carried a PTV at the CETP gene. Compared with noncarriers, carriers of PTV at CETP had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (effect size, 22.6 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 18-27; P<1.0×10-4), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-12.2 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -23 to -0.98; P=0.033), and lower triglycerides (-6.3%; 95% confidence interval, -12 to -0.22; P=0.043). CETP PTV carrier status was associated with reduced risk for CHD (summary odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.90; P=5.1×10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with noncarriers, carriers of PTV at CETP displayed higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower triglycerides, and lower risk for CHD.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(6): 865-884, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552196

RESUMO

Deep sequence-based imputation can enhance the discovery power of genome-wide association studies by assessing previously unexplored variation across the common- and low-frequency spectra. We applied a hybrid whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and deep imputation approach to examine the broader allelic architecture of 12 anthropometric traits associated with height, body mass, and fat distribution in up to 267,616 individuals. We report 106 genome-wide significant signals that have not been previously identified, including 9 low-frequency variants pointing to functional candidates. Of the 106 signals, 6 are in genomic regions that have not been implicated with related traits before, 28 are independent signals at previously reported regions, and 72 represent previously reported signals for a different anthropometric trait. 71% of signals reside within genes and fine mapping resolves 23 signals to one or two likely causal variants. We confirm genetic overlap between human monogenic and polygenic anthropometric traits and find signal enrichment in cis expression QTLs in relevant tissues. Our results highlight the potential of WGS strategies to enhance biologically relevant discoveries across the frequency spectrum.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Estatura/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lipodistrofia/genética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Obesidade/genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Caracteres Sexuais , Síndrome , Reino Unido
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(4): 477-484, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28145424

RESUMO

Isolated populations with enrichment of variants due to recent population bottlenecks provide a powerful resource for identifying disease-associated genetic variants and genes. As a model of an isolate population, we sequenced the genomes of 1463 Finnish individuals as part of the Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu) Project. We compared the genomic profiles of the 1463 Finns to a sample of 1463 British individuals that were sequenced in parallel as part of the UK10K Project. Whereas there were no major differences in the allele frequency of common variants, a significant depletion of variants in the rare frequency spectrum was observed in Finns when comparing the two populations. On the other hand, we observed >2.1 million variants that were twice as frequent among Finns compared with Britons and 800 000 variants that were more than 10 times more frequent in Finns. Furthermore, in Finns we observed a relative proportional enrichment of variants in the minor allele frequency range between 2 and 5% (P<2.2 × 10-16). When stratified by their functional annotations, loss-of-function variants showed the highest proportional enrichment in Finns (P=0.0291). In the non-coding part of the genome, variants in conserved regions (P=0.002) and promoters (P=0.01) were also significantly enriched in the Finnish samples. These functional categories represent the highest a priori power for downstream association studies of rare variants using population isolates.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Polimorfismo Genético , População/genética , Sequência Conservada , Finlândia , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Reino Unido
19.
Bioinformatics ; 33(13): 2037-2039, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28205675

RESUMO

Motivation: Prediction of functional variant consequences is an important part of sequencing pipelines, allowing the categorization and prioritization of genetic variants for follow up analysis. However, current predictors analyze variants as isolated events, which can lead to incorrect predictions when adjacent variants alter the same codon, or when a frame-shifting indel is followed by a frame-restoring indel. Exploiting known haplotype information when making consequence predictions can resolve these issues. Results: BCFtools/csq is a fast program for haplotype-aware consequence calling which can take into account known phase. Consequence predictions are changed for 501 of 5019 compound variants found in the 81.7M variants in the 1000 Genomes Project data, with an average of 139 compound variants per haplotype. Predictions match existing tools when run in localized mode, but the program is an order of magnitude faster and requires an order of magnitude less memory. Availability and Implementation: The program is freely available for commercial and non-commercial use in the BCFtools package which is available for download from http://samtools.github.io/bcftools . Contact: pd3@sanger.ac.uk. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Mutação INDEL
20.
Stem Cell Reports ; 8(3): 519-528, 2017 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28216146

RESUMO

In the process of generating presumably clonal human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from two carriers of a complex structural rearrangement, each having a psychotic disorder, we also serendipitously generated isogenic non-carrier control hiPSCs, finding that the rearrangement occurs as an extrachromosomal marker (mar) element. All confirmed carrier hiPSCs and differentiated neural progenitor cell lines were found to be mosaic. We caution that mar elements may be difficult to functionally evaluate in hiPSC cultures using currently available methods, as it is difficult to distinguish cells with and without mar elements in live mosaic cultures.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos , Marcadores Genéticos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Regiões de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Mosaicismo , Trissomia
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