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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(11): e27929, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339233

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of pathologic immune activation, often associated with genetic defects of lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Though a distinctive constellation of features has been described for HLH, diagnosis remains challenging as patients have diverse presentations associated with a variety of triggers. We propose two concepts to clarify how HLH is diagnosed and treated: within the broader syndrome of HLH, "HLH disease" should be distinguished from "HLH disease mimics" and HLH subtypes should be categorized by specific etiologic associations, not the ambiguous dichotomy of "primary" and "secondary." We provide expert-based advice regarding the diagnosis and initiation of treatment for patients with HLH, rooted in improved understanding of its pathophysiology.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27798, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic forms of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood (S-EBV-T-LPD) comprise three major forms: EBV-positive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma (S-EBV-TCL), and systemic chronic active EBV infection (S-CAEBV). These disorders occur rarely in children in Western countries. Here, we described eight children of such entities. DESIGN: Eight cases (six clinical and two autopsy) with S-EBV-T-LPD of childhood were retrospectively identified from 1990 to 2015. Clinicopathologic parameters including histomorphology, immunophenotype, EBV studies, and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies were recorded. RESULTS: Patients include five females and three males of Hispanic, Asian, and Caucasian origins with an age range of 14 months to 9 years. Fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, abnormal EBV serologies, and very high EBV viral loads were common findings. Histologic findings showed EBV+ T-cell infiltrates with variable degrees of architectural distortion and cytologic atypia ranging from no to mild cytologic atypia to overt lymphoma and tissue hemophagocytosis. All showed aberrant CD4+ or CD8+ T cells with dim to absent CD5, CD7, and CD3, and bright CD2 and CD45 by flow cytometry or loss of CD5 by immunohistochemistry. TCR gene rearrangement studies showed monoclonal rearrangements in all clinical cases (6/6). Outcomes were poor with treatment consisting of chemotherapy per the HLH-94 or HLH-2004 protocols with or without bone marrow transplant. CONCLUSION: In this large pediatric clinicopathologic study of S-EBV-T-LPD of childhood in the United States, EBV-HLH, S-EBV-TCL, and S-CAEBV show many overlapping features. Diagnosis is challenging, and overall outcome is poor using current HLH-directed therapies.

4.
Blood ; 132(19): 2005-2006, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409894
5.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; : 1-7, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468406

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is produced in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) lesions and is elevated in plasma of patients with active LCH. It has been postulated that TNF-α may play a role in the pathophysiology of LCH. Etanercept, an anti-TNF-α antibody, has been used in TNF-modulated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a phase II study to determine the efficacy of etanercept for patients with refractory or relapsed LCH. Five LCH patients who had failed at least 2 prior treatments (range 2-9) received etanercept at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg twice weekly for up to a total of 24 doses. Disease response was assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. None of the five patients had improvement in their disease with etanercept treatment. Three progressed at week 4 and 1 progressed at week 8. One subject died after 3 weeks of treatment from disease progression. During the study, only one drug-related toxicity was noted which spontaneously resolved. The study was concluded early due to lack of response to etanercept and insufficient accrual rate. This data suggests that etanercept as given in this study may not be effective for relapsed or refractory LCH. However, the number of patients treated was not adequate enough to power this study and it is possible that a different dose and regimen of etanercept may be required to successfully treat this disease.

6.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 19(10): e522-e530, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis poses significant challenges due to limited tools to guide clinical decisions in a population at high risk of death. We sought to assess whether disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatobiliary dysfunction, significant comorbidities seen in critical care settings, would identify hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients with increased risk of mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single-center PICU. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to a tertiary care children's hospital diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from 2005 to 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-three patients were diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with median age of 61 months. The 5-year overall survival was 51% (22/43). Univariate analyses revealed ferritin levels greater than 10,000 (ng/mL), international normalized ratio greater than 1.5, or platelet counts less than 100,000/µL at initiation of dexamethasone were individually associated with mortality. Development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, or both increased the likelihood of death in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients (relative risk; 95% CI) (6; 1.4-34; p < 0.05), (4.1; 1.8-10; p < 0.05), and (7.5; 1.8-42; p < 0.05). Of 12 autopsies performed, 75% had at least one active infection, 66% had chronic lymphopenia, 50% had lymphocyte depletion in the spleen, thymus, or bone marrow, 42% had evidence of microvascular thrombosis, and 92% had evidence of hepatocellular injury. CONCLUSIONS: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis continues to have high mortality with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-1994/2004 (dexamethasone/etoposide), the current standard of care for all children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients who developed disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, or both had higher risk of death with mortalities of 60%, 77%, and 77%, respectively. Phenotypic classifications are urgently needed to guide individualized treatment strategies to improve outcomes for children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(8): 521-528, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Potential roles of inherited and environmental risk factors in pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), a myeloid neoplastic disorder, are undefined. We therefore evaluated the role of parental and perinatal factors on the risk of this childhood cancer. METHODS: Information on LCH cases (n = 162) for the period 1995-2011 was obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Birth certificate controls were frequency-matched on year of birth at a ratio of 10:1 for the same period. Variables evaluated included parental age, race/ethnicity, size for gestational age, and birth order. Logistic regression was used to generate an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) testing the association between each factor and LCH. RESULTS: Few perinatal or parental factors were associated with LCH risk, with the exception of race/ethnicity. Mothers of Hispanic ethnicity were more likely to have children who developed LCH compared to non-Hispanic whites (aOR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.02-2.25). This risk increased when both parents were Hispanic (aOR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.13-2.87). Non-Hispanic black mothers were suggested as less likely to give birth to offspring who developed LCH compared to non-Hispanic whites (aOR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.24-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: LCH is characterized by somatic mutations in MAPK pathway genes in myeloid precursors. Increased risk for LCH in children of Hispanic parents suggests potential impact of inherited factors on LCH pathogenesis.

9.
Blood ; 131(26): 2877-2890, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720485

RESUMO

Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease (RDD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by accumulation of activated histiocytes within affected tissues. RDD, which now belongs to the R group of the 2016 revised histiocytosis classification, is a widely heterogeneous entity with a range of clinical phenotypes occurring in isolation or in association with autoimmune or malignant diseases. Recent studies have found NRAS, KRAS, MAP2K1, and ARAF mutations in lesional tissues, raising the possibility of a clonal origin in some forms of RDD. More than 1000 reports have been published in the English literature; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding approach for the clinical management of RDD. Although in most cases RDD can be observed or treated with local therapies, some patients with refractory or multifocal disease experience morbidity and mortality. Here we provide the first consensus multidisciplinary recommendations for the diagnosis and management of RDD. These recommendations were discussed at the 32nd Histiocyte Society Meeting by an international group of academic clinicians and pathologists with expertise in RDD. We include guidelines for clinical, laboratory, pathologic, and radiographic evaluation of patients with RDD together with treatment recommendations based on clinical experience and review of the literature.

10.
Cancer ; 124(12): 2607-2620, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS-LCH) brain involvement may include mass lesions and/or a neurodegenerative disease (LCH-ND) of unknown etiology. The goal of this study was to define the mechanisms of pathogenesis that drive CNS-LCH. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including CSF proteins and extracellular BRAFV600E DNA were analyzed in CSF from patients with CNS-LCH lesions compared with patients with brain tumors and other neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, the presence of BRAFV600E was tested in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) as well as brain biopsies from LCH-ND patients, and the response to BRAF-V600E inhibitor was evaluated in 4 patients with progressive disease. RESULTS: Osteopontin was the only consistently elevated CSF protein in patients with CNS-LCH compared with patients with other brain pathologies. BRAFV600E DNA was detected in CSF of only 2/20 (10%) cases, both with LCH-ND and active lesions outside the CNS. However, BRAFV600E+ PBMCs were detected with significantly higher frequency at all stages of therapy in LCH patients who developed LCH-ND. Brain biopsies of patients with LCH-ND demonstrated diffuse perivascular infiltration by BRAFV600E+ cells with monocyte phenotype (CD14+ CD33+ CD163+ P2RY12- ) and associated osteopontin expression. Three of 4 patients with LCH-ND treated with BRAF-V600E inhibitor experienced significant clinical and radiologic improvement. CONCLUSION: In LCH-ND patients, BRAFV600E+ cells in PBMCs and infiltrating myeloid/monocytic cells in the brain is consistent with LCH-ND as an active demyelinating process arising from a mutated hematopoietic precursor from which LCH lesion CD207+ cells are also derived. Therapy directed against myeloid precursors with activated MAPK signaling may be effective for LCH-ND. Cancer 2018;124:2607-20. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

11.
Blood ; 132(1): 89-100, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632024

RESUMO

The HLH-2004 criteria are used to diagnose hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), yet concern exists for their misapplication, resulting in suboptimal treatment of some patients. We sought to define the genomic spectrum and associated outcomes of a diverse cohort of children who met the HLH-2004 criteria. Genetic testing was performed clinically or through research-based whole-exome sequencing. Clinical metrics were analyzed with respect to genomic results. Of 122 subjects enrolled over the course of 17 years, 101 subjects received genetic testing. Biallelic familial HLH (fHLH) gene defects were identified in only 19 (19%) and correlated with presentation at younger than 1 year of age (P < .0001). Digenic fHLH variants were observed but lacked statistical support for disease association. In 28 (58%) of 48 subjects, research whole-exome sequencing analyses successfully identified likely molecular explanations, including underlying primary immunodeficiency diseases, dysregulated immune activation and proliferation disorders, and potentially novel genetic conditions. Two-thirds of patients identified by the HLH-2004 criteria had underlying etiologies for HLH, including genetic defects, autoimmunity, and malignancy. Overall survival was 45%, and increased mortality correlated with HLH triggered by infection or malignancy (P < .05). Differences in survival did not correlate with genetic profile or extent of therapy. HLH should be conceptualized as a phenotype of critical illness characterized by toxic activation of immune cells from different underlying mechanisms. In most patients with HLH, targeted sequencing of fHLH genes remains insufficient for identifying pathogenic mechanisms. Whole-exome sequencing, however, may identify specific therapeutic opportunities and affect hematopoietic stem cell transplantation options for these patients.

12.
Blood ; 131(13): 1393-1394, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599143
13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944988

RESUMO

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can include mass lesions of the hypothalamic pituitary axis, choroid plexus, cerebrum, and cerebellum or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormalities of the cerebellum, pons, and basal ganglia. The term neurodegenerative (ND) CNS-LCH has been given to the MRI signal abnormalities and neurologic dysfunction, although initially patients may have no clinical symptoms. Standardized evaluations to better understand the natural history and response to therapy are needed. We propose guidelines for clinical, radiologic, and physiologic tests as a framework for developing the best methods of evaluation, which can then be tested in prospective treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico por imagem , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
Hematol Oncol ; 36(1): 307-315, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219109

RESUMO

BRAF p.V600E mutations are detected in greater than 50% of pediatric Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) lesions. However, the use of mutation-specific BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a surrogate for molecular testing in pediatric LCH is unknown. We tested the mutation-specific BRAF V600E monoclonal antibody (clone VE1) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded LCH samples from 26 pediatric patients (14 males and 12 females, ages 7 mo-17 y) using allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a limit of detection of 0.5% as the comparative gold standard. BRAF VE1 staining was scored for both intensity (0-3+) and percentage of immunoreactive tumor cells (0%-100%). BRAF VE1 immunoreactivity was determined using both lenient (≥1+, ≥1%) and stringent (≥2+, ≥10%) scoring criteria. Using lenient-scoring criteria, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of IHC compared with allele-specific real-time PCR were 100.0% and 18.2%, respectively. The poor specificity of lenient IHC analysis was attributable to weak, 1+ staining in both BRAF-mutated and wild-type LCH. Using stringent-scoring criteria, we found that specificity improved to 100.0% at the expense of sensitivity that decreased to 80.0%. Stringent scoring generated 3 false-negative results, but in all cases, neoplastic tissue comprised less than 5% of the stained section and/or the specimen was decalcified. In conclusion, highly sensitive molecular assays remain the gold standard for BRAF mutation analysis in LCH paraffin-embedded lesions. To avoid false-positive results, unequivocal VE1 staining of 2+ intensity in greater than or equal to 10% neoplastic histiocytes is required. However, negative VE1 results require additional studies to exclude false-negatives, and stringent-scoring criteria may not be optimal for scant or decalcified specimens.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/enzimologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Masculino
15.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 35(7-8): 427-433, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since patients with langerhans cell histiocytosis and neurologic dysfunction (LCH-ND) often have incomplete treatment responses we sought a new treatment regimen. Because of clinical benefit from rituximab in multiple sclerosis patients with neurodegeneration, we evaluated its use in patients with LCH-ND. PARTICIPANTS: Eight LCH-ND patients who had failed prior therapies. METHODS: Charts of the 8 patients treated with rituximab were reviewed. Signs/symptoms and MRI responses were assessed. RESULTS: Seven of eight patients experienced some clinical improvement: gait abnormalities and tremors in four children, proprioceptive deficits in 2, and dysarthria/dysphagia in 2. Five of eight patients demonstrated improvement in intellectual/behavioral/psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that prospective studies are warranted to define safety and efficacy of rituximab for patients with LCH-ND.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/patologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Rituximab/efeitos adversos
16.
Blood ; 130(25): 2728-2738, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935695

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome comprising familial/genetic HLH (FHL) and secondary HLH. In the HLH-94 study, with an estimated 5-year probability of survival (pSu) of 54% (95% confidence interval, 48%-60%), systemic therapy included etoposide, dexamethasone, and, from week 9, cyclosporine A (CSA). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was indicated in patients with familial/genetic, relapsing, or severe/persistent disease. In HLH-2004, CSA was instead administered upfront, aiming to reduce pre-HSCT mortality and morbidity. From 2004 to 2011, 369 children aged <18 years fulfilled HLH-2004 inclusion criteria (5 of 8 diagnostic criteria, affected siblings, and/or molecular diagnosis in FHL-causative genes). At median follow-up of 5.2 years, 230 of 369 patients (62%) were alive (5-year pSu, 61%; 56%-67%). Five-year pSu in children with (n = 168) and without (n = 201) family history/genetically verified FHL was 59% (52%-67%) and 64% (57%-71%), respectively (familial occurrence [n = 47], 58% [45%-75%]). Comparing with historical data (HLH-94), using HLH-94 inclusion criteria, pre-HSCT mortality was nonsignificantly reduced from 27% to 19% (P = .064 adjusted for age and sex). Time from start of therapy to HSCT was shorter compared with HLH-94 (P =020 adjusted for age and sex) and reported neurological alterations at HSCT were 22% in HLH-94 and 17% in HLH-2004 (using HLH-94 inclusion criteria). Five-year pSu post-HSCT overall was 66% (verified FHL, 70% [63%-78%]). Additional analyses provided specific suggestions on potential pre-HSCT treatment improvements. HLH-2004 confirms that a majority of patients may be rescued by the etoposide/dexamethasone combination but intensification with CSA upfront, adding corticosteroids to intrathecal therapy, and reduced time to HSCT did not improve outcome significantly.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Blood ; 130(2): 167-175, 2017 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512190

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) are rare histiocytic disorders induced by somatic mutation of MAPK pathway genes. BRAFV600E mutation is the most common mutation in both conditions and also occurs in the hematopoietic neoplasm hairy cell leukemia (HCL). It is not known if adult LCH or ECD arises from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), nor which potential blood borne precursors lead to the formation of histiocytic lesions. In this study, BRAFV600E allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to map the neoplastic clone in 20 adults with LCH, ECD, and HCL. BRAFV600E was tracked to classical monocytes, nonclassical monocytes, and CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) in the blood, and mutations were observed in HSCs and myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow of 4 patients. The pattern of involvement of peripheral blood myeloid cells was indistinguishable between LCH and ECD, although the histiocytic disorders were distinct to HCL. As reported in children, detection of BRAFV600E in peripheral blood of adults was a marker of active multisystem LCH. The healthy counterparts of myeloid cells affected by BRAF mutation had a range of differentiation potentials depending on exogenous signals. CD1c+ DCs acquired high langerin and CD1a with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and transforming growth factor ß alone, whereas CD14+ classical monocytes required additional notch ligation. Both classical and nonclassical monocytes, but not CD1c+ DCs, made foamy macrophages easily in vitro with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and human serum. These studies are consistent with a hematopoietic origin and >1 immediate cellular precursor in both LCH and ECD.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/diagnóstico , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD1/genética , Antígenos CD1/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/genética , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/imunologia , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/patologia , Feminino , Células Espumosas/imunologia , Células Espumosas/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/patologia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/genética , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/imunologia , Receptores Notch/genética , Receptores Notch/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia
19.
Oncotarget ; 8(28): 46065-46070, 2017 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512266

RESUMO

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare histiocytic disorder that is usually benign and self-limiting. We present a case of atypical, aggressive JXG harboring a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway mutation in the MAPK1 gene, which encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 or extracellular signal-regulated 2 (ERK2). Our analysis revealed that the mutation results in constitutive ERK activation that is resistant to BRAF or MEK inhibitors but susceptible to an ERK inhibitor. These data highlight the importance of identifying specific MAPK pathway alterations as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with histiocytic disorders rather than initiating empiric treatment with MEK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Histiócitos/patologia , Linfonodos/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Xantogranuloma Juvenil/genética , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Tratamento Farmacológico , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Indução de Remissão , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Xantogranuloma Juvenil/diagnóstico
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(5)2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is one of the most common pediatric malignancies; however, there are few well-established risk factors. Therefore, we investigated if maternal and perinatal characteristics influenced the risk of childhood lymphoma. PROCEDURE: Information on cases (n = 374) diagnosed with lymphoma and born in Texas for the period 1995-2011 was obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Birth certificate controls were randomly selected at a ratio of 10 controls per 1 case for the same period of 1995-2011. Unconditional logistic regression was used to generate unadjusted (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the following histologic subtypes: Hodgkin (HL), Burkitt (BL), and non-BL non-HLs (non-BL NHLs). RESULTS: Overall, our findings indicate specific maternal and perinatal characteristics influence childhood lymphoma risk. Mexico-born mothers were more likely to have offspring who developed BL compared to mothers born in the United States (U.S.; aOR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.06-4.36). Further, mothers who resided at time of delivery in a county on the U.S.-Mexico border were more likely to give birth to offspring who developed non-BL NHL (aOR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.11-2.67) compared to mothers not living on the U.S.-Mexico border at time of infant birth. Last, infants born large-for-gestational-age experienced a twofold increase in BL risk (aOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.10-3.65). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based assessment, we confirmed previously reported risk predictors of childhood lymphoma, including sex of infant, while highlighting novel risk factors that warrant assessment in future studies.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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