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1.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150848

RESUMO

There are many areas in medicine and industry where it would be advantageous to orally deliver bioactive proteins and peptides (BPPs), including ACE inhibitors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, hormones, enzymes, and vaccines. A major challenge in this area is that many BPPs degrade during storage of the product or during passage through the human gut, thereby losing their activity. Moreover, many BPPs have undesirable taste profiles (such as bitterness or astringency), which makes them unpleasant to consume. These challenges can often be overcome by encapsulating them within colloidal particles that protect them from any adverse conditions in their environment, but then release them at the desired site-of-action, which may be inside the gut or body. This article begins with a discussion of BPP characteristics and the hurdles involved in their delivery. It then highlights the characteristics of colloidal particles that can be manipulated to create effective BPP-delivery systems, including particle composition, size, and interfacial properties. The factors impacting the functional performance of colloidal delivery systems are then highlighted, including their loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency, protective properties, retention/release properties, and stability. Different kinds of colloidal delivery systems suitable for encapsulation of BPPs are then reviewed, such as microemulsions, emulsions, solid lipid particles, liposomes, and microgels. Finally, some examples of the use of colloidal delivery systems for delivery of specific BPPs are given, including hormones, enzymes, vaccines, antimicrobials, and ACE inhibitors. An emphasis is on the development of food-grade colloidal delivery systems, which could be used in functional or medical food applications. The knowledge presented should facilitate the design of more effective vehicles for the oral delivery of bioactive proteins and peptides.

2.
Food Res Int ; 130: 108844, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156340

RESUMO

Understanding lipid oxidation mechanisms in low moisture foods is necessary to develop antioxidant strategies to increase shelf life and/or to improve nutritional quality by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. In this study, we examined the influence of water activity (aw), sugars (glucose, maltose, maltodextrin, and cyclodextrin), and proteins (casein and gluten) on the lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phases of model crackers. Oxidative stability of crackers was in an order: aw 0.7 > aw 0.4 > aw 0.2 > aw 0.05. Higher water activities resulted in bigger differences between hydroperoxide lag phases and hexanal lag phases. Compared to non-reducing cyclodextrin and no added sugar controls, reducing sugars including glucose, maltose, and maltodextrin at the same dextrose equivalence increased both hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phases. At the same dextrose equivalence, oxidative stability was in the order of maltose > maltodextrin > glucose > control (no sugar added). The antioxidant effectiveness of maltose, a low sweetness profile sugar, increased with increasing concentrations from 1.1 to 13.8%. Increasing aw increased the antioxidant activity of maltose. For example, 1.1% maltose increased both hydroperoxides and hexanal lag phases by 9 days at an aw of 0.2, but increased hydroperoxide lag phase by 24 days and hexanal lag phase by 15 days at an aw of 0.7. Gluten was able to inhibit lipid oxidation with activity increasing with increasing aw while casein showed minimal antioxidant impact. Antioxidant activity of gluten decreased when its sulfhydryl groups were blocked by N-ethylmaleimide suggesting that cysteine was an important antioxidant component of gluten. Adjusting water activity and addition of reducing sugars and gluten could be strategies to increase oxidative stability of low moisture crackers.

3.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213858

RESUMO

The potential protective effect of nanoliposomes loaded with lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidin (LSOPC) against melanogenesis and skin damaging was investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that, after encapsulation, the LSOPC-nanoliposomes still possessed strong inhibitory effects against melanogenesis, reducing the activity of both monophenolase and diphenolase. Molecular docking indicated that LSOPC could generate intense interactive configuration with tyrosinase through arene-H, arene-arene, and hydrophobic interaction. An ultraviolet radiated cell-culture model (human foreskin fibroblast cell (HFF-1)) was used to determine the protective effects of the LSOPC-nanoliposomes against skin aging and damage. Results showed that LSOPC-nanoliposomes exerted the highest protective effects against both ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation groups compared with non-encapsulated LSOPC and a control (vitamin C). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) assays demonstrated the protection mechanism may be related to the anti-photooxidation activity of the procyanidin. Furthermore, a hydroxyproline assay suggested that the LSOPC-nanoliposomes had a strong protective effect against collagen degradation and/or synthesis after UVA irradiation.

4.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213953

RESUMO

There is interest in incorporating nanoemulsions into certain foods and beverages, including dips, dressings, drinks, spreads, and sauces, due to their potentially beneficial attributes. In particular, excipient nanoemulsions can enhance the bioavailability of nutraceuticals in fruit- and vegetable-containing products consumed with them. There is, however, potential for them to also raise the bioavailability of undesirable substances found in these products, such as pesticides. In this research, we studied the impact of excipient nanoemulsions on the bioaccessibility of pesticide-treated tomatoes. We hypothesized that the propensity for nanoemulsions to raise pesticide bioaccessibility would depend on the polarity of the pesticide molecules. Bendiocarb, parathion, and chlorpyrifos were therefore selected because they have Log P values of 1.7, 3.8, and 5.3, respectively. Nanoemulsions with different oil contents (0%, 4%, and 8%) were fabricated to study their impact on pesticide uptake. In the absence of oil, the bioaccessibility increased with increasing pesticide polarity (decreasing Log P): bendiocarb (92.9%) > parathion (16.4%) > chlorpyrifos (2.8%). Bendiocarb bioaccessibility did not depend on the oil content of the nanoemulsions, which was attributed to its relatively high water-solubility. Conversely, the bioaccessibility of the more hydrophobic pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos) increased with increasing oil content. For instance, for chlorpyrifos, the bioaccessibility was 2.8%, 47.0%, and 70.7% at 0%, 4%, and 8% oil content, respectively. Our findings have repercussions for the utilization of nanoemulsions as excipient foods in products that may have high levels of undesirable non-polar substances, such as pesticides.

5.
Food Chem ; 320: 126653, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217430

RESUMO

Curcumin is claimed to have many health benefits, but it has low chemical stability. In this study, the influence of food-grade antioxidants on the chemical degradation of curcumin-enriched oil-in-water emulsions was examined. The curcumin degradation rate and extent depended on antioxidant type. The water-soluble antioxidants were more effective at protecting curcumin from degradation than the oil-soluble ones, which may have been because curcumin degrades faster in water than in oil. Interestingly, the amphiphilic antioxidant was almost as effective as the water-soluble ones. The oil-soluble antioxidant actually slightly promoted curcumin degradation. In summary, curcumin retention after storage declined in the following order: 82.6% (Trolox) ~82.2% (ascorbic acid) >79.5% (ascorbyl palmitate) ≫57.9% (control) >52.7% (α-tocopherol). The effectiveness of ascorbic acid in stabilizing curcumin increased as its concentration was raised (0-300 µM). Our results may facilitate the creation of curcumin-enriched foods and beverages with enhanced bioactivity.

6.
Food Funct ; 11(3): 1933-1945, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141468

RESUMO

A number of major challenges facing modern society are related to the food supply. As the global population grows, it will be critical to feed everyone without damaging the environment. Advances in biotechnology, nanotechnology, structural design, and artificial intelligence are providing farmers and food manufacturers will new tools to address these problems. More and more people are migrating from rural to urban environments, leading to a change in their dietary habits, especially increasing consumption of animal-based products and highly-processed foods. Animal-based foods lead to more greenhouse gas production, land use, water use, and pollution than plant-based ones. Moreover, many animal-based and highly-processed foods have adverse effects on human health and wellbeing. Consumers are therefore being encouraged to consume more plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, and legumes. Many people, however, do not have the time, money, or inclination to prepare foods from fresh produce. Consequently, there is a need for the food industry to create a new generation of processed foods that are desirable, tasty, inexpensive, and convenient, but that are also healthy and sustainable. This article highlights some of the main food-related challenges faced by modern society and how scientists are developing innovative technologies to address them.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 151: 333-343, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084464

RESUMO

The potential of using insect proteins to encapsulate and protect hydrophobic nutraceuticals within biopolymer nano-complexes was examined. Insect proteins were used to form nanoparticles that were uncoated or coated with chitosan. Initially, the nature of the curcumin-mealworm protein interaction was investigated. Curcumin mainly interacted with the hydrophobic core of the insect protein nanoparticles through hydrophobic forces. About one curcumin molecule bound per protein molecule in both the absence and presence of chitosan. The binding constants (K) were 1.1 × 104 M-1 and 0.7 × 104 M-1 for curcumin loaded in the uncoated and coated nanoparticles, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry showed increased thermal stability of the proteins after interaction with curcumin or chitosan. Encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin within the biopolymer nano-complexes was 30-47% depending on the system. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis showed that the biopolymer nano-complexes were spherical and relatively small (d = 143-178 nm). FTIR suggests that curcumin was stabilized more effectively in the coated nano-complexes, due to non-covalent intermolecular interactions. Curcumin release under oral, gastric, and intestinal conditions showed that over 90% of the nutraceutical was released after exposure to model gastrointestinal conditions. The findings demonstrate the potential of using insect proteins for fabricating colloidal delivery systems for water-insoluble nutraceuticals.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 152: 117-125, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068064

RESUMO

Starch-based nanoparticles (SNPs) have attracted great interest for their ability to encapsulate, protect, and orally deliver bioactive components because of their diverse functionality, high biocompatibility, and environmental friendliness. SNPs can be synthesized with a broad range of particle sizes, ranging from a few nanometers to a few hundred nanometers (approximately 8-448 nm), which is comparable to the dimensions of proteins (1-10 nm), nucleic acids (2 nm wide, 5-100 nm long), viruses (10-500 nm), and cell organelles (5-100 mm). The ability to tune the dimensions and properties of SNPs allows them to be used to construct complexes with various biological entities, thereby altering their functional performance. SNPs can also be used to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic substances and to improve the nutritional attributes of bioactives. For instance, SNPs can be designed to increase the bioavailability of bioactives or to target their delivery to specific regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, we provide an overview of the methods available for preparing SNPs, the application of SNPs for encapsulating and delivering bioactives, and the potential gastrointestinal fate of SNPs.

9.
Food Res Int ; 128: 108781, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955754

RESUMO

Complex coacervation is a useful approach for creating biopolymer-based colloidal particles for the oral delivery of bioactives, such as nutraceuticals, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we examined the possibility of using anionic É£-poly-glutamic acid (PGA) and cationic ɛ-poly-l-lysine (PLL) to form polyelectrolyte complexes. Initially, the formation and properties of the complexes were characterized using visual observations, UV-visible spectrophotometry, microelectrophoresis (ζ-potential), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The impact of pH, ionic strength, temperature, and polymer ratio on complex formation was examined. The electrostatic complexes formed had a 1:4 mass ratio of polyanion-to-polycation at saturation (pH 7.4). The surface potential and aggregation stability of the complexes was highly dependent on solution pH (2-12), which was attributed to alterations in the electrical characteristics of the two polyelectrolytes. In particular, insoluble complexes were formed under pH conditions where there was a strong electrostatic attraction between the two polyelectrolytes, whereas soluble complexes were formed when there was only a weak attraction. The addition of salt (≥20 mM NaCl) promoted aggregation of the complexes, presumably due to screening of the electrostatic interactions between them. Conversely, temperature (25-90 °C) did not have a major impact on the stability of the complexes. These results may be useful for the design of effective oral delivery systems for bioactive agents in foods and other products.

10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 230: 118023, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927512

RESUMO

Alpha-glucosidase is one of the main enzymes responsible for digesting starch. Inhibiting its activity is therefore being targeted as a strategy for tackling diabetes. Certain food components have the potential to act as natural α-glucosidase (SCG) inhibitors, such as the polyphenols found in tea. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was shown to strongly inhibit SCG activity (IC50 value = 3.7 × 10-5 M). Multi-spectroscopic binding molecular simulations indicated that EGCG spontaneously bound to SCG through a combination of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The hypothesis was supported by the results from intrinsic fluorescence quenching, conformational change, surface hydrophobicity decrease, and molecular docking analysis of the SCG after binding. Molecular docking provided powerful visual insights into the nature of the molecular interactions involved. This research provides important new information about the interaction mechanism of EGCG and SCG, which may be beneficial to the development of functional foods to prevent diabetes.

11.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 11: 45-70, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905012

RESUMO

The legal sale of cannabis-enriched foods and beverages for medical or recreational purposes is increasing in many states and countries, especially in North America and Europe. These food-based cannabis delivery systems vary considerably in their compositions and structures, ranging from low-viscosity watery beverages to solid fatty chocolates. The rate and extent of release of the bioactive components in cannabis within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) affect their health and psychoactive effects. Studies with other types of hydrophobic bioactives, such as nutraceuticals and vitamins, have shown that food composition and structure have a major impact on their bioaccessibility, transformation, and absorption within the GIT, thereby influencing their bioavailability and bioactivity. This review outlines how insights on the bioavailability of other lipophilic bioactives can be used to facilitate the design of more efficacious and consistent cannabis-enriched products intended for oral consumption. In particular, the importance of food-matrix composition (such as fat type and level) and structural organization (such as fat domain dimensions) are discussed.

12.
J Texture Stud ; 51(1): 45-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107991

RESUMO

Rheology is a powerful and versatile analytical tool for providing information about changes in the composition, structure, and interactions of food emulsions. Moreover, an understanding of emulsion rheology is essential for designing efficient food processing operations and emulsion-based foods with the desired physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional attributes, such as appearance, texture, flavor, shelf life, and bioavailability. This article provides a brief overview of the current understanding of food emulsions, with a focus on how their viscosity is related to the properties of the emulsion droplets present.

13.
Food Chem ; 310: 125828, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812319

RESUMO

There is growing interest in the identification of plant-based functional ingredients for utilization within the food industry. Complexes were fabricated from pea protein (PP) and tannic acid (TA) and then their ability to act as antioxidant emulsifiers in flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions was studied. PP-TA complex formation was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry and turbidity analysis, which suggested hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were important in their assembly. PP-TA-stabilized emulsions containing small droplets could be formed at relatively high TA levels. Moreover, PP-TA complexes had strong antioxidant activity, which extended the shelf life of flaxseed oil emulsions. The composition of the PP-TA complexes impacted the aggregation state of the lipid droplets under simulated gastric conditions, which affected the rate and extent of lipid digestion. This study shows PP-TA complexes can be used for fabricating flaxseed oil delivery systems with enhanced oxidative stability and good digestibility.

14.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 174-186, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833512

RESUMO

Recently, the standardized in vitro digestion model ("INFOGEST method") used to evaluate the gastrointestinal fate of foods has been revised and updated (Brodkorb et al., 2019, Nat. Protoc., 2019, 14, 991-1014). Under fed state conditions, the calcium level used in this model is fixed and relatively low: 0.525 mM. In practice, the calcium concentration in the human gut depends on the nature of the food consumed and may vary from person-to-person. For this reason, we examined the impact of calcium concentration on the gastrointestinal fate of a model nutraceutical delivery system. The effect of calcium level (0.525-10 mM) on lipid digestion and ß-carotene bioaccessibility in corn oil-in-water nanoemulsion was investigated using the INFOGEST method. At all calcium levels, the lipids were fully digested, but this could only be established by carrying out a back titration (to pH 9) at the end of the small intestine phase. Conversely, the bioaccessibility of ß-carotene decreased with increasing calcium levels: from 65.5% at 0.525 mM Ca2+ to 23.7% at 10 mM Ca2+. This effect was attributed to the ability of the calcium ions to precipitate the ß-carotene-loaded mixed micelles by forming insoluble calcium soaps. The ability of calcium ions to reduce carotenoid bioaccessibility may have important nutritional implications. Our results show that the bioaccessibility of hydrophobic carotenoids measured using the INFOGEST method is highly dependent on the calcium levels employed, which may have important consequences for certain calcium-rich foods. Moreover, we have shown the importance of carrying out a back titration to accurately measure free fatty acid levels in the presence of low calcium levels.

15.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 187-199, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833516

RESUMO

Consumption of sufficiently high quantities of dietary fibers has been linked to a range of health benefits. Recent research, however, has shown that some dietary fibers interfere with lipid digestion, which may reduce the bioavailability of oil-soluble vitamins and nutraceuticals. For this reason, we examined the impact of a cationic polysaccharide (chitosan) on the bioaccessibility of vitamin D using the standardized INFOGEST in vitro digestion model. The vitamin D was encapsulated within an emulsion-based delivery system that contained whey protein-coated corn oil droplets. Our results showed that chitosan promoted severe droplet flocculation in the small intestine and reduced the amount of free fatty acids detected using a pH-stat method. However, a back-titration of the digested sample showed that the lipids were fully digested at all chitosan levels used (0.1-0.5%), suggesting that chitosan may have bound some of the free fatty acids released during lipid digestion. The presence of the chitosan decreased the bioaccessibility of vitamin D by about 37%, but this effect did not depend strongly on chitosan concentration (0.1-0.5%). It was hypothesized that chitosan bound to the vitamin-loaded mixed micelles and promoted their precipitation. The knowledge gained in this study might provide useful insights in designing emulsion-based delivery systems with high vitamin bioaccessibility.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086329

RESUMO

Application of bioactive phytochemicals in foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals is often limited because of their poor solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Phytochemical oral delivery systems (PODS), consisting of phytochemical-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles, can overcome these challenges. PODS can be produced in liquid, gel, paste, or solid forms. They must be carefully formulated to be compatible with the product matrix, economical, robust, and maintain phytochemical bioactivity. This review evaluates recent advances in the development of PODS, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, and biopolymer microgels. Properly designed PODS will increase phytochemical applications in commercial products.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Compostos Fitoquímicos
17.
Food Chem ; 309: 125768, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727512

RESUMO

There is interest in extending the functionality of natural polymers using simple chemical derivatization methods. In this study, the ability of pectin to react with various amino acids (40 °C) in aqueous solution without a catalyst was investigated, including glutamic acid, glycine, cysteine, lysine, and arginine. Only glycine, lysine, and arginine could form conjugates with pectin under these conditions. Amino acid-amidated pectin (AAAP) conjugates with a degree of amidation of 6.50% were prepared and characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H NMR. Size exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle light scattering and refractive index detection indicated pectin degradation occurred during the reaction. These results were supported by measurements of apparent viscosities. Scanning electron microscopy showed appreciable differences among the surface topographies of samples. Cell culture experiments showed the AAAP conjugates exhibited no cytotoxic effects. Our results suggested the AAAP conjugates may be suitable for use as new functional ingredients in food industry.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Aminoácidos/química , Pectinas/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/farmacologia , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Food Chem ; 303: 125401, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466031

RESUMO

Salt addition and thermal pretreatment were used to improve the freeze-thaw stability of Pickering emulsion gels (PEGs) stabilized by compound proteins. Thermal pretreatment with the presence of salt could promote the formation of gel-like structure and alter the interactions between the emulsion droplets of PEGs, sequentially increase the resistance of the PEGs to water separation, creaming, and oiling-off during freeze-thaw cycles (freeze at -20 °C for 22 h and thawing at 37 °C for 2 h), especially at higher salt levels (200 and 500 mM). Microstructures indicated that the presence of high salt concentration and heat pretreatment could help to maintain the gel-like structures of PEGs during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, our results showed that novel viscoelastic food materials with good freeze-thaw stability can be produced by controlling the electrostatic interactions between the emulsion droplets and the gelation of emulsion gels. These materials may be useful for application in frozen food products.


Assuntos
Fixadores/química , Géis/química , Emulsões/química , Congelamento , Temperatura Alta , Óleos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Água/química
19.
Food Chem ; 309: 125681, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670120

RESUMO

The oil-absorption behavior of native maize starch (NMS) during frying was investigated in the presence or absence of pullulan (PUL) using a LF-NMR method. The morphology, long-range order, short-range order, and thermal properties of fried NMS-PUL mixtures were further evaluated using SEM, XRD, ATR-FTIR, and DSC, respectively. Pullulan addition significantly reduced the oil content of the fried starch samples: 0.395, 0.310, 0.274, and 0.257 g/g in NMS with addition of 0, 1, 3, and 5% PUL, respectively (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed that the intact granular morphology of the starch granules was preserved upon addition of pullulan. The XRD, FTIR, and DSC results showed that pullulan protected both the short-range double helices and long-range crystalline structure of the granules during frying. As a result, fried NMS-PUL mixtures were denser than fried NMS, thus inhibiting oil absorption during frying. These results may have important implications for creating healthier reduced-fat fried food products.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucanos , Óleos/química , Amido/química , Zea mays/química , Temperatura Alta , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 603-611, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860287

RESUMO

Mixed Pickering emulsions were prepared by blending anionic nanocellulose-stabilized lipid droplets with cationic nanochitin-stabilized lipid droplets. Changes in the surface potential, particle size, shear viscosity, and morphology of the mixed emulsions were characterized when the droplet mixing ratio was varied. Emulsion properties could be tailored by altering the pH and mixing ratio. Surface potential measurements suggested that the nanochitin-coated lipid droplets adsorbed to the surfaces of the nanocellulose-coated lipid droplets, thereby dominating the overall electrical characteristics of the mixed emulsions. As a result, the mixed emulsions had better stability to coalescence than the single emulsions containing only nanocellulose-coated lipid droplets. Our results suggest that the physicochemical properties, shelf life, and functional performance of Pickering emulsions may be modulated by blending different kinds of particle-stabilized lipid droplets together.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Quitina/química , Emulsões/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Viscosidade
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