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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(3): 749-754, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152832


An extended π-system containing two [3]cumulene fragments separated by a p-carboquinoid and stabilized by two capping N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been prepared. Mono- and bis(imidazolidinium ethynyl) cations have also been synthesized from the reaction of an NHC with phenylethynyl bromide or 1,4-bis(bromoethynyl)benzene. Cyclic voltammetry coupled with synthetic and structural studies showed that the dication is readily reduced to a neutral, singlet bis-1,4-([3]cumulene)-p-carboquinoid as a result of the π-accepting properties of the capping NHCs.

J Am Chem Soc ; 138(44): 14668-14677, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27736083


Sterically accessible Lewis donors are shown to accelerate decomposition during catalysis, for a broad range of Grubbs-class metathesis catalysts. These include benzylidene derivatives RuCl2(NHC)(PCy3)(═CHPh) (Ru-2: NHC = H2IMes, a; IMes, b; H2IPr, c; IPr, d; H2ITol, e) and indenylidene complexes RuCl2(NHC)(PCy3)(═C15H10) (NHC = H2IMes, Ru-2f; IMes, Ru-2g). All of these precatalysts form methylidene complex RuCl2(NHC)(═CH2) Ru-3 as the active species in metathesis of terminal olefins, and generate RuCl2(NHC)(PCy3)(═CH2) Ru-4 as the catalyst resting state. On treatment with a 10-fold excess of pyridine, Ru-4a and Ru-4b decomposed within minutes in solution at RT, eliminating [MePCy3]Cl A by net loss of three ligands (PCy3, methylidene, and one chloride), and a mesityl proton. In comparison, loss of A from Ru-4a in the absence of a donor requires up to 3 days at 55 °C. The σ-alkyl intermediate RuCl2(13CH2PCy3)(NHC) (py)2 resulting from nucleophilic attack of free PCy3 on the methylidene ligand was undetectable for the H2IMes system, but was spectroscopically observable for the IMes system. The relevance of this pathway to decomposition of catalysts Ru-2a-g was demonstrated by assessing the impact of pyridine on the in situ-generated methylidene species. Slow initiation (as observed for the indenylidene catalysts) did not protect against methylidene abstraction. Importantly, studies with Ru-4a and Ru-4b indicated that weaker donors (THF, MeCN, DMSO, MeOH, and even H2O) likewise promote this pathway, at rates that increase with donor concentration, and severely degrade catalyst productivity in RCM, even for a readily cyclized substrate. In all cases, A was the sole or major 31P-containing decomposition product. For DMSO, a first-order dependence of decomposition rates on DMSO concentration was established. This behavior sends a warning about the use of phosphine-stabilized metathesis catalysts in donor solvents, or with substrates bearing readily accessible donor sites. Addition of pyridine to RuCl2(H2IMes)(PCy3)(═CHMe) did not result in ethylidene abstraction, indicating that this decomposition pathway can be inhibited by use of substrates in which the olefin bears a ß-methyl group.