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1.
J Immunol ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988181

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important for immune responses against microbial infections. Although known to undergo marked numerical changes with age in humans, our understanding of how MAIT cells are altered during different phases across the human life span is largely unknown. Although also abundant in the tissues, our study focuses on MAIT cell analyses in blood. Across the human life span, we show that naive-like MAIT cells in umbilical cord blood switch to a central/effector memory-like profile that is sustained into older age. Whereas low-grade levels of plasma cytokine/chemokine were apparent in older donors (>65 y old), surprisingly, they did not correlate with the ex vivo MAIT hyperinflammatory cytokine profile observed in older adults. Removal of MAIT cells from older individuals and an aged environment resulted in the reversal of the baseline effector molecule profile comparable with MAIT cells from younger adults. An upregulated basal inflammatory profile accounted for reduced Escherichia coli-specific responses in aged MAIT cells compared with their young adult counterparts when fold change in expression levels of GzmB, CD107a, IFN-γ, and TNF was examined. However, the magnitude of antimicrobial MR1-dependent activation remained as potent and polyfunctional as with younger adults. Paired TCRαß analyses of MAIT cells revealed large clonal expansions in older adults and tissues that rivalled, remarkably, the TCRαß repertoire diversity of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. These data suggest that MAIT cells in older individuals, although associated with large clonal TCRαß expansions and increased baseline inflammatory potential, demonstrate plasticity and provide potent antimicrobial immunity.

2.
Nat Immunol ; 21(2): 178-185, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959982

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent, T cell-mediated targeting of cancer cells would allow immune destruction of malignancies in all individuals. Here, we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to establish that a T cell receptor (TCR) recognized and killed most human cancer types via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein, MR1, while remaining inert to noncancerous cells. Unlike mucosal-associated invariant T cells, recognition of target cells by the TCR was independent of bacterial loading. Furthermore, concentration-dependent addition of vitamin B-related metabolite ligands of MR1 reduced TCR recognition of cancer cells, suggesting that recognition occurred via sensing of the cancer metabolome. An MR1-restricted T cell clone mediated in vivo regression of leukemia and conferred enhanced survival of NSG mice. TCR transfer to T cells of patients enabled killing of autologous and nonautologous melanoma. These findings offer opportunities for HLA-independent, pan-cancer, pan-population immunotherapies.

3.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(1): 49-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873306

RESUMO

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus is strongly associated with T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. HLA-DQ2.5-mediated celiac disease (CeD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, although the relative roles of genetic and environmental risk factors in CeD is unclear. Here we identify microbially derived mimics of gliadin epitopes and a parental bacterial protein that is naturally processed by antigen-presenting cells and activated gliadin reactive HLA-DQ2.5-restricted T cells derived from CeD patients. Crystal structures of T cell receptors in complex with HLA-DQ2.5 bound to two distinct bacterial peptides demonstrate that molecular mimicry underpins cross-reactivity toward the gliadin epitopes. Accordingly, gliadin reactive T cells involved in CeD pathogenesis cross-react with ubiquitous bacterial peptides, thereby suggesting microbial exposure as a potential environmental factor in CeD.

4.
Science ; 366(6472): 1522-1527, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857486

RESUMO

T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. We describe a diverse population of human γδ T cells isolated from peripheral blood and tissues that exhibit autoreactivity to the monomorphic MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). The crystal structure of a γδTCR-MR1-antigen complex starkly contrasts with all other TCR-MHC and TCR-MHC-I-like complex structures. Namely, the γδTCR binds underneath the MR1 antigen-binding cleft, where contacts are dominated by the MR1 α3 domain. A similar pattern of reactivity was observed for diverse MR1-restricted γδTCRs from multiple individuals. Accordingly, we simultaneously report MR1 as a ligand for human γδ T cells and redefine the parameters for TCR recognition.

5.
Curr Protoc Immunol ; 127(1): e89, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763782

RESUMO

This unit describes the utility of various mouse models of infection and immunization for studying mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell immunity: MAIT cells can be isolated from the lungs (or from other tissues/organs) and then identified and characterized by flow cytometry using MR1 tetramers in combination with a range of antibodies. The response kinetics, cytokine profiles, and functional differentiation of lung MAIT cells are studied following infection with the bacterial pathogen Legionella longbeachae or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium or immunization with synthetic MAIT cell antigen plus Toll-like receptor agonist. MAIT cells enriched or expanded during the process can be used for further studies. A step-by-step protocol is provided for MAIT cell sorting and adoptive transfer. Mice can then be challenged and MAIT cells tracked and further examined. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6.
Curr Protoc Immunol ; 127(1): e90, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763790

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of unconventional T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). MAIT cells are found throughout the body, especially in human blood and liver. Unlike conventional T cells, which are stimulated by peptide antigens presented by MHC molecules, MAIT cells recognize metabolite antigens derived from an intermediate in the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin. MAIT cells mediate protective immunity to infections by riboflavin-producing microbes via the production of cytokines and cytotoxicity. The discovery of stimulating MAIT cell antigens allowed for the development of an analytical tool, the MR1 tetramer, that binds specifically to the MAIT T cell receptor (TCR) and is becoming the gold standard for identification of MAIT cells by flow cytometry. This article describes protocols to characterize the phenotype of human MAIT cells in blood and tissues by flow cytometry using fluorescently labeled human MR1 tetramers alongside antibodies specific for MAIT cell markers. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The main protocols include: Basic Protocol 1: Determining the frequency and steady-state surface phenotype of human MAIT cells Basic Protocol 2: Determining the activation phenotype of human MAIT cells in blood Basic Protocol 3: Characterizing MAIT cell TCRs using TCR-positive reporter cell lines Alternate protocols are provided for determining the absolute number, transcription factor phenotype, and TCR usage of human MAIT cells; and determining activation phenotype by staining for intracellular markers, measuring secreted cytokines, and measuring fluorescent dye dilution due to proliferation. Additional methods are provided for determining the capacity of MAIT cells to produce cytokine independently of antigen using plate-bound or bead-immobilized CD3/CD28 stimulation; and determining the MR1-Ag dependence of MAIT cell activation using MR1-blocking antibody or competitive inhibition. For TCR-positive reporter cell lines, methods are also provided for evaluating the MAIT TCR-mediated MR1-Ag response, determining the capacity of the reporter lines to produce cytokine independently of antigen, determining the MR1-Ag dependence of the reporter lines, and evaluating the MR1-Ag response of the reporter lines using IL-2 secretion. Support Protocols describe the preparation of PBMCs from human blood, the preparation of single-cell suspensions from tissue, the isolation of MAIT cells by FACS and MACS, cloning MAIT TCRα and ß chain genes and MR1 genes for transduction, generating stably and transiently transfected cells lines, generating a stable MR1 knockout antigen-presenting cell line, and generating monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

7.
Sci Immunol ; 4(41)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732518

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in a TCR-dependent manner by antigens derived from the riboflavin synthesis pathway, including 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), bound to MHC-related protein-1 (MR1). However, MAIT cell activation in vivo has not been studied in detail. Here, we have found and characterized additional molecular signals required for optimal activation and expansion of MAIT cells after pulmonary Legionella or Salmonella infection in mice. We show that either bone marrow-derived APCs or non-bone marrow-derived cells can activate MAIT cells in vivo, depending on the pathogen. Optimal MAIT cell activation in vivo requires signaling through the inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS), which is highly expressed on MAIT cells. Subsequent expansion and maintenance of MAIT-17/1-type responses are dependent on IL-23. Vaccination with IL-23 plus 5-OP-RU augments MAIT cell-mediated control of pulmonary Legionella infection. These findings reveal cellular and molecular targets for manipulating MAIT cell function under physiological conditions.

8.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax3013, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517054

RESUMO

Invasive streptococcal disease (ISD) and toxic shock syndrome (STSS) result in over 160,000 deaths each year. We modelled these in HLA-transgenic mice infected with a clinically lethal isolate expressing Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (Spe) C and demonstrate that both SpeC and streptococcal M protein, acting cooperatively, are required for disease. Vaccination with a conserved M protein peptide, J8, protects against STSS by causing a dramatic reduction in bacterial burden associated with the absence of SpeC and inflammatory cytokines in the blood. Furthermore, passive immunotherapy with antibodies to J8 quickly resolves established disease by clearing the infection and ablating the inflammatory activity of the M protein, which is further enhanced by addition of SpeC antibodies. Analysis of 77 recent isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes causing ISD, demonstrated that anti-J8 antibodies theoretically recognize at least 73, providing strong support for using antibodies to J8, with or without antibodies to SpeC, as a therapeutic approach.

9.
Cell Rep ; 28(12): 3249-3262.e5, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533045

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are MR1-restricted innate-like T cells conserved across mammalian species, including mice and humans. By sequencing RNA from sorted MR1-5-OP-RU tetramer+ cells derived from either human blood or murine lungs, we define the basic transcriptome of an activated MAIT cell in both species and demonstrate how this profile changes during the resolution of infection and during reinfection. We observe strong similarities between MAIT cells in humans and mice. In both species, activation leads to strong expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as a strong tissue repair signature, recently described in murine commensal-specific H2-M3-restricted T cells. Transcriptomes of MAIT cells and H2-M3-specific CD8+ T cells displayed the most similarities to invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells when activated, but to γδ T cells after the resolution of infection. These data define the requirements for and consequences of MAIT cell activation, revealing a tissue repair phenotype expressed upon MAIT cell activation in both species.

10.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1110-1128, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406380

RESUMO

In recent years, a population of unconventional T cells called 'mucosal-associated invariant T cells' (MAIT cells) has captured the attention of immunologists and clinicians due to their abundance in humans, their involvement in a broad range of infectious and non-infectious diseases and their unusual specificity for microbial riboflavin-derivative antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like protein MR1. MAIT cells use a limited T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire with public antigen specificities that are conserved across species. They can be activated by TCR-dependent and TCR-independent mechanisms and exhibit rapid, innate-like effector responses. Here we review evidence showing that MAIT cells are a key component of the immune system and discuss their basic biology, development, role in disease and immunotherapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416185

RESUMO

Pre-treatment screening of individuals for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) HLA-B*57:01 is recommended for the prevention of life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir, a drug widely prescribed for HIV treatment. However, the implementation of screening in clinical practice is hindered by the slow turnaround time and high cost of conventional HLA genotyping methods. We have developed a biosensor platform using interdigitated electrode (IDE) functionalized with a monoclonal antibody to detect cells expressing HLA-B*57:01. This platform was evaluated using cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing different HLA-B alleles. The functionalized IDE sensor was able to specifically capture HLA-B*57:01 cells, resulting in a significant change in the impedance magnitude in 20 min. This IDE platform has the potential to be further developed to enable point-of-care HLA-B*57:01 screening.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Antígenos HLA-B/análise , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Alelos , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Humanos
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2243, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113973

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express an invariant TRAV1/TRAJ33 TCR-α chain and are restricted to the MHC-I-like molecule, MR1. Whether MAIT cell development depends on this invariant TCR-α chain is unclear. Here we generate Traj33-deficient mice and show that they are highly depleted of MAIT cells; however, a residual population remains and can respond to exogenous antigen in vitro or pulmonary Legionella challenge in vivo. These residual cells include some that express Trav1+ TCRs with conservative Traj-gene substitutions, and others that express Trav1- TCRs with a broad range of Traj genes. We further report that human TRAV1-2- MR1-restricted T cells contain both MAIT-like and non-MAIT-like cells, as judged by their TCR repertoire, antigen reactivity and phenotypic features. These include a MAIT-like population that expresses a public, canonical TRAV36+ TRBV28+ TCR. Our findings highlight the TCR diversity and the resulting potential impact on antigen recognition by MR1-restricted T cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Legionelose/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Legionella/imunologia , Legionelose/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia
13.
Sci Immunol ; 4(32)2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770409

RESUMO

During αß T cell development, T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement transduces biochemical signals through a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network that dictates dichotomous cell fate decisions. It remains unclear how signal specificity is communicated, instructing either positive selection to advance cell differentiation or death by negative selection. Early signal discrimination might occur by PPI signatures differing qualitatively (customized, unique PPI combinations for each signal), quantitatively (graded amounts of a single PPI series), or kinetically (speed of PPI pathway progression). Using a novel PPI network analysis, we found that early TCR-proximal signals distinguishing positive from negative selection appeared to be primarily quantitative in nature. Furthermore, the signal intensity of this PPI network was used to find an antigen dose that caused a classic negative selection ligand to induce positive selection of conventional αß T cells, suggesting that the quantity of TCR triggering was sufficient to program selection outcome. Because previous work had suggested that positive selection might involve a qualitatively unique signal through CD3δ, we reexamined the block in positive selection observed in CD3δ0 mice. We found that CD3δ0 thymocytes were inhibited but capable of signaling positive selection, generating low numbers of MHC-dependent αß T cells that expressed diverse TCR repertoires and participated in immune responses against infection. We conclude that the major role for CD3δ in positive selection is to quantitatively boost the signal for maximal generation of αß T cells. Together, these data indicate that a quantitative network signaling mechanism through the early proximal TCR signalosome determines thymic selection outcome.

14.
J Immunol ; 202(7): 2105-2120, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777923

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are nonconventional T lymphocytes that recognize bacterial metabolites presented by MR1. Whereas gut bacterial translocation and the loss/dysfunction of peripheral MAIT cells in HIV infection is well described, MAIT cells in nonhuman primate models are poorly characterized. We generated a pigtail macaque (PTM)-specific MR1 tetramer and characterized MAIT cells in serial samples from naive and SIV- or simian HIV-infected PTM. Although PTM MAIT cells generally resemble the phenotype and transcriptional profile of human MAIT cells, they exhibited uniquely low expression of the gut-homing marker α4ß7 and were not enriched at the gut mucosa. PTM MAIT cells responded to SIV/simian HIV infection by proliferating and upregulating α4ß7, coinciding with increased MAIT cell frequency in the rectum. By 36 wk of infection, PTM MAIT cells were activated and exhibited a loss of Tbet expression but were not depleted as in HIV infection. Our data suggest the following: 1) MAIT cell activation and exhaustion is uncoupled from the hallmark depletion of MAIT cells during HIV infection; and 2) the lack of PTM MAIT cell enrichment at the gut mucosa may prevent depletion during chronic infection, providing a model to assess potential immunotherapeutic approaches to modify MAIT cell trafficking during HIV infection.


Assuntos
Integrinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Animais , Integrinas/biossíntese , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Macaca nemestrina , Regulação para Cima
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4693, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410026

RESUMO

Immunophenotypic differences between closely related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been associated with divergent clinical outcomes in infection, autoimmunity, transplantation and drug hypersensitivity. Here we explore the impact of micropolymorphism on peptide antigen presentation by three closely related HLA molecules, HLA-B*57:01, HLA-B*57:03 and HLA-B*58:01, that are differentially associated with the HIV elite controller phenotype and adverse drug reactions. For each allotype, we mine HLA ligand data sets derived from the same parental cell proteome to define qualitative differences in peptide presentation using classical peptide binding motifs and an unbiased statistical approach. The peptide repertoires show marked qualitative overlap, with 982 peptides presented by all allomorphs. However, differences in peptide abundance, HLA-peptide stability, and HLA-bound conformation demonstrate that HLA micropolymorphism impacts more than simply the range of peptide ligands. These differences provide grounds for distinct immune reactivity and insights into the capacity of micropolymorphism to diversify immune outcomes.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteoma/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Antígenos HLA-B/química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteoma/química , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4706, 2018 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413689

RESUMO

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily-conserved, innate-like lymphocytes which are abundant in human lungs and can contribute to protection against pulmonary bacterial infection. MAIT cells are also activated during human viral infections, yet it remains unknown whether MAIT cells play a significant protective or even detrimental role during viral infections in vivo. Using murine experimental challenge with two strains of influenza A virus, we show that MAIT cells accumulate and are activated early in infection, with upregulation of CD25, CD69 and Granzyme B, peaking at 5 days post-infection. Activation is modulated via cytokines independently of MR1. MAIT cell-deficient MR1-/- mice show enhanced weight loss and mortality to severe (H1N1) influenza. This is ameliorated by prior adoptive transfer of pulmonary MAIT cells in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient RAG2-/-γC-/- mice. Thus, MAIT cells contribute to protection during respiratory viral infections, and constitute a potential target for therapeutic manipulation.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/patologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo
17.
J Immunol ; 201(10): 2862-2871, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397170

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are characterized by a semi-invariant TCR that recognizes vitamin B metabolite Ags presented by the MHC-related molecule MR1. Their Ag restriction determines a unique developmental lineage, imbuing a tissue-homing, preprimed phenotype with antimicrobial function. A growing body of literature indicates that MR1-restricted T cells are more diverse than the MAIT term implies. Namely, it is increasingly clear that TCR α- and TCR ß-chain diversity within the MR1-restricted repertoire provides a potential mechanism of Ag discrimination, and context-dependent functional variation suggests a role for MR1-restricted T cells in diverse physiological settings. In this paper, we summarize MR1-restricted T cell biology, with an emphasis on TCR diversity, Ag discrimination, and functional heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3350, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135490

RESUMO

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells recognise conserved microbial metabolites from riboflavin synthesis. Striking evolutionary conservation and pulmonary abundance implicate them in antibacterial host defence, yet their functions in protection against clinically important pathogens are unknown. Here we show that mouse Legionella longbeachae infection induces MR1-dependent MAIT cell activation and rapid pulmonary accumulation of MAIT cells associated with immune protection detectable in immunocompetent host animals. MAIT cell protection is more evident in mice lacking CD4+ cells, and adoptive transfer of MAIT cells rescues immunodeficient Rag2-/-γC-/- mice from lethal Legionella infection. Protection is dependent on MR1, IFN-γ and GM-CSF, but not IL-17A, TNF or perforin, and enhanced protection is detected earlier after infection of mice antigen-primed to boost MAIT cell numbers before infection. Our findings define a function for MAIT cells in protection against a major human pathogen and indicate a potential role for vaccination to enhance MAIT cell immunity.


Assuntos
Legionella longbeachae/patogenicidade , Pulmão/microbiologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Legionella longbeachae/imunologia , Legionelose/imunologia , Legionelose/microbiologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo
19.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 1035, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880894

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, the asterisks indicating statistical significance were missing from Supplementary Figure 6; the file with the correct figure is now available.

20.
J Clin Invest ; 128(5): 1919-1936, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629900

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique innate-like T cell subset that responds to a wide array of bacteria and yeast through recognition of riboflavin metabolites presented by the MHC class I-like molecule MR1. Here, we demonstrate using MR1 tetramers that recipient MAIT cells are present in small but definable numbers in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) target organs and protect from acute GVHD in the colon following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Consistent with their preferential juxtaposition to microbial signals in the colon, recipient MAIT cells generate large amounts of IL-17A, promote gastrointestinal tract integrity, and limit the donor alloantigen presentation that in turn drives donor Th1 and Th17 expansion specifically in the colon after BMT. Allogeneic BMT recipients deficient in IL-17A also develop accelerated GVHD, suggesting MAIT cells likely regulate GVHD, at least in part, by the generation of this cytokine. Indeed, analysis of stool microbiota and colon tissue from IL-17A-/- and MR1-/- mice identified analogous shifts in microbiome operational taxonomic units (OTU) and mediators of barrier integrity that appear to represent pathways controlled by similar, IL-17A-dependent mechanisms. Thus, MAIT cells act to control barrier function to attenuate pathogenic T cell responses in the colon and, given their very high frequency in humans, likely represent an important population in clinical BMT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Colo/imunologia , Doenças do Colo/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Aloenxertos , Animais , Colo/patologia , Doenças do Colo/genética , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/patologia , Células Th17/patologia
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