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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(18): 4767-4772, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669919

RESUMO

To evaluate whether germline variants in genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes contribute to pancreatic cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the coding regions of CPB1 and other genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes and known pancreatitis susceptibility genes (PRSS1, CPA1, CTRC, and SPINK1) in a hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Variants in CPB1, CPA1 (encoding carboxypeptidase B1 and A1), and CTRC were evaluated in a second set of cases with familial pancreatic cancer and controls. More deleterious CPB1 variants, defined as having impaired protein secretion and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in transfected HEK 293T cells, were found in the hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases (5/986, 0.5%) than in controls (0/1,045, P = 0.027). Among familial pancreatic cancer cases, ER stress-inducing CPB1 variants were found in 4 of 593 (0.67%) vs. 0 of 967 additional controls (P = 0.020), with a combined prevalence in pancreatic cancer cases of 9/1,579 vs. 0/2,012 controls (P < 0.01). More ER stress-inducing CPA1 variants were also found in the combined set of hospital and familial cases with pancreatic cancer than in controls [7/1,546 vs. 1/2,012; P = 0.025; odds ratio, 9.36 (95% CI, 1.15-76.02)]. Overall, 16 (1%) of 1,579 pancreatic cancer cases had an ER stress-inducing CPA1 or CPB1 variant, compared with 1 of 2,068 controls (P < 0.00001). No other candidate genes had statistically significant differences in variant prevalence between cases and controls. Our study indicates ER stress-inducing variants in CPB1 and CPA1 are associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility and implicate ER stress in pancreatic acinar cells in pancreatic cancer development.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidase B , Carboxipeptidases A , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboxipeptidase B/genética , Carboxipeptidase B/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases A/genética , Carboxipeptidases A/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
2.
Cancer Discov ; 6(2): 166-75, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26658419

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Pancreatic cancer is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States by 2020. A familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer has been established, but the cause of this aggregation in most families is unknown. To determine the genetic basis of susceptibility in these families, we sequenced the germline genomes of 638 patients with familial pancreatic cancer and the tumor exomes of 39 familial pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Our analyses support the role of previously identified familial pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA2, CDKN2A, and ATM, and identify novel candidate genes harboring rare, deleterious germline variants for further characterization. We also show how somatic point mutations that occur during hematopoiesis can affect the interpretation of genome-wide studies of hereditary traits. Our observations have important implications for the etiology of pancreatic cancer and for the identification of susceptibility genes in other common cancer types. SIGNIFICANCE: The genetic basis of disease susceptibility in the majority of patients with familial pancreatic cancer is unknown. We whole genome sequenced 638 patients with familial pancreatic cancer and demonstrate that the genetic underpinning of inherited pancreatic cancer is highly heterogeneous. This has significant implications for the management of patients with familial pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Humanos , Mutação Puntual
3.
Cancer Cell ; 16(4): 324-35, 2009 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19800577

RESUMO

Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) capable of stably suppressing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) can mimic tumor-suppressor-gene loss in mice. By selecting for shRNAs capable of accelerating lymphomagenesis in a well-characterized mouse lymphoma model, we identified over ten candidate tumor suppressors, including Sfrp1, Numb, Mek1, and Angiopoietin 2. Several components of the DNA damage response machinery were also identified, including Rad17, which acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that responds to oncogenic stress and whose loss is associated with poor prognosis in human patients. Our results emphasize the utility of in vivo RNAi screens, identify and validate a diverse set of tumor suppressors, and have therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Linfoma/genética , Interferência de RNA , Angiopoietina-2/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Dano ao DNA , Genes myc , Genes p53 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Linfoma/metabolismo , Linfoma/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Transdução Genética
4.
Plant J ; 55(3): 514-25, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18410481

RESUMO

The interphase nucleus exists as a highly dynamic system, the physical properties of which have functional importance in gene regulation. Not only can gene expression be influenced by the local sequence context, but also by the architecture of the nucleus in three-dimensions (3D), and by the interactions between these levels via chromatin modifications. A challenging task is to resolve the complex interplay between sequence- and genome structure-based control mechanisms. Here, we created a collection of 277 Arabidopsis lines that allow the visual tracking of individual loci in living plants while comparing gene expression potential at these locations, via an identical reporter cassette. Our studies revealed regional gene silencing near a heterochromatin island, via DNA methylation, that is correlated with mobility constraint and nucleolar association. We also found an example of nucleolar association that does not correlate with gene suppression, suggesting that distinct mechanisms exist that can mediate interactions between chromatin and the nucleolus. These studies demonstrate the utility of this novel resource in unifying structural and functional studies towards a more comprehensive model of how global chromatin organization may coordinate gene expression over large scales.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Genoma de Planta , Transcrição Genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/química , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica
5.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 18(1): 68-72, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18339543

RESUMO

New technologies as well as concerted brute-force approaches have increased the content (number of genes) that can be characterized for genomic DNA alterations. Recent advances include the detection of activating point mutations in key kinase genes (BRAF, EGFR, and PIK3CA) in multiple cancer types: preliminary insight into the entire repertoire of genes that can be mutated in cancer; the discovery of new oncogenes by high-resolution profiling of DNA copy number alterations; and the bioinformatic-driven discovery of oncogenic gene fusions. High-content promoter methylation detection systems have been used to discover additional methylated genes and have provided evidence for a stem cell origin for certain tumors. Some of these advances have had significant impact on the development and clinical testing of new therapeutics.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos , Neoplasias/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/química , Epigênese Genética , Dosagem de Genes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Translocação Genética
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 36(Database issue): D1028-33, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18089549

RESUMO

The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB) was created to provide the genome sequence assembly of the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP), manually curated annotation of the sequence, and other genomics information that could be useful for comprehensive understanding of the rice biology. Since the last publication of the RAP-DB, the IRGSP genome has been revised and reassembled. In addition, a large number of rice-expressed sequence tags have been released, and functional genomics resources have been produced worldwide. Thus, we have thoroughly updated our genome annotation by manual curation of all the functional descriptions of rice genes. The latest version of the RAP-DB contains a variety of annotation data as follows: clone positions, structures and functions of 31 439 genes validated by cDNAs, RNA genes detected by massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) technology and sequence similarity, flanking sequences of mutant lines, transposable elements, etc. Other annotation data such as Gnomon can be displayed along with those of RAP for comparison. We have also developed a new keyword search system to allow the user to access useful information. The RAP-DB is available at: http://rapdb.dna.affrc.go.jp/ and http://rapdb.lab.nig.ac.jp/.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Genoma de Planta , Oryza/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genômica , Internet , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Interface Usuário-Computador
7.
Genome Biol ; 4(12): R78, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14659015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cycads are ancient seed plants (living fossils) with origins in the Paleozoic. Cycads are sometimes considered a 'missing link' as they exhibit characteristics intermediate between vascular non-seed plants and the more derived seed plants. Cycads have also been implicated as the source of 'Guam's dementia', possibly due to the production of S(+)-beta-methyl-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (BMAA), which is an agonist of animal glutamate receptors. RESULTS: A total of 4,200 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were created from Cycas rumphii and clustered into 2,458 contigs, of which 1,764 had low-stringency BLAST similarity to other plant genes. Among those cycad contigs with similarity to plant genes, 1,718 cycad 'hits' are to angiosperms, 1,310 match genes in gymnosperms and 734 match lower (non-seed) plants. Forty-six contigs were found that matched only genes in lower plants and gymnosperms. Upon obtaining the complete sequence from the clones of 37/46 contigs, 14 still matched only gymnosperms. Among those cycad contigs common to higher plants, ESTs were discovered that correspond to those involved in development and signaling in present-day flowering plants. We purified a cycad EST for a glutamate receptor (GLR)-like gene, as well as ESTs potentially involved in the synthesis of the GLR agonist BMAA. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of cycad ESTs has uncovered conserved and potentially novel genes. Furthermore, the presence of a glutamate receptor agonist, as well as a glutamate receptor-like gene in cycads, supports the hypothesis that such neuroactive plant products are not merely herbivore deterrents but may also serve a role in plant signaling.


Assuntos
Cycas/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Diamino Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Cycadopsida/genética , Cycas/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/química , DNA Complementar/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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