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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

2.
Clin Genet ; 96(6): 521-531, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448412

RESUMO

While genomic sequencing (ES/GS) has the potential to diagnose children with difficult to diagnose phenotypes, the goal should be not only a diagnosis, but also to empower parents to seek next steps for their children and to emotionally manage the outcome, whether or not a diagnosis is secured. To help achieve this goal, objective measures are needed to assess the process of parental empowerment related to genome sequencing. We present the validity and reliability of the Genome Empowerment Scale (GEmS), developed using a healthcare empowerment theoretical model. To evaluate its psychometric properties, 158 parents of 117 children with an undiagnosed condition undergoing genomic sequencing completed the GEmS, measures for criterion validity and for depression and anxiety. Factor analysis resulted in a four factor solution: (a) meaning of a diagnosis; (b) emotional management of the process; (c) seeking information and support and (d) implications and planning. Reliability and validity analyses show that the GEmS has good psychometric properties. The inter-relationships among the factors revealed a profile that may identify parents at risk for a poorer outcome who may benefit from targeted genetic counseling. The GEmS, an objective measure of parental genomic empowerment, can be utilized for future research and translational applications.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

5.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 194-201, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680851

RESUMO

The "diagnostic odyssey" is well known and described in genetic counseling literature. Studies addressing the psychological, emotional, and financial costs of not having a diagnosis have shown how it permeates the lives of patients and families. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network aims to end this odyssey by providing diagnoses to individuals with undiagnosed conditions through multidisciplinary evaluations, whole exome and genome sequencing, and basic science research. It also provides an opportunity to learn from patients and families and to better understand their journeys and the impact of receiving a diagnosis. Seven cases are presented that outline challenges that come from working with chronically undiagnosed and newly diagnosed patients in a time when sequencing for clinical diagnosis is rapidly increasing. They illuminate the emotional journey of patients and families searching for a diagnosis and the mental health problems, financial distress, and chaos that can accompany not having answers. They also illustrate the surprising reactions patients and families can have to receiving a diagnosis, including anger, grief, and disappointment. While the lessons learned from these families are not novel, new strategies are presented for handling these challenges in undiagnosed and ultra-rare populations, groups that will increase with the rise of clinical sequencing.

6.
J Hum Genet ; 63(12): 1211-1222, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250212

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction lies behind many neurodegenerative disorders, owing largely to the intense energy requirements of most neurons. Such mitochondrial dysfunction may work through a variety of mechanisms, from direct disruption of the electron transport chain to abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we have identified biallelic mutations in the mitochondrial flavoprotein "ferredoxin reductase" (FDXR) gene as a novel cause of mitochondriopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and optic atrophy. In this report, we expand upon those results by describing two new cases of disease-causing FDXR variants in patients with variable severity of phenotypes, including evidence of an inflammatory response in brain autopsy. To investigate the underlying pathogenesis, we examined neurodegeneration in a mouse model. We found that Fdxr mutant mouse brain tissues share pathological changes similar to those seen in patient autopsy material, including increased astrocytes. Furthermore, we show that these abnormalities are associated with increased levels of markers for both neurodegeneration and gliosis, with the latter implying inflammation as a major factor in the pathology of Fdxr mutations. These data provide further insight into the pathogenic mechanism of FDXR-mediated central neuropathy, and suggest an avenue for mechanistic studies that will ultimately inform treatment.

7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 652, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of undiagnosed diseases manifest with objective findings that warrant further investigation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) receives applications from patients whose symptoms and signs have been intractable to diagnosis; however, many UDN applicants are affected primarily by subjective symptoms such as pain and fatigue. We sought to characterize presenting symptoms, referral sources, and demographic factors of applicants to the UDN to identify factors that may determine application outcome and potentially differentiate between those with undiagnosed diseases (with more objective findings) and those who are less likely to have an undiagnosed disease (more subjective symptoms). METHODS: We used a systematic retrospective review of 151 consecutive Not Accepted and 50 randomly selected Accepted UDN applications. The primary outcome was whether an applicant was Accepted, or Not Accepted, and, if accepted, whether or not a diagnosis was made. Objective and subjective symptoms and information on prior specialty consultations were collected from provider referral letters. Demographic data and decision data on network acceptance were gathered from the UDN online portal. RESULTS: Fewer objective findings and more subjective symptoms were found in the Not Accepted applications. Not Accepted referrals also were from older individuals, reported a shorter period of illness, and were referred to the UDN by their primary care physicians. All of these differences reached statistical significance in comparison with Accepted applications. The frequency of subspecialty consults for diagnostic purposes prior to UDN application was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The preponderance of subjective and lack of objective findings in the Not Accepted applications distinguish these from applicants that are accepted for evaluation and diagnostic efforts through the UDN. Not Accepted applicants are referred primarily by their primary care providers after multiple specialist consultations fail to yield answers. Distinguishing between patients with undiagnosed diseases with objective findings and those with primarily subjective findings can delineate patients who would benefit from further diagnostic processes from those who may have functional disorders and need alternative pathways for management of their symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02450851 , posted May 21st 2015.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907797

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sixty to seventy-five percent of individuals with rare and undiagnosed phenotypes remain undiagnosed after exome sequencing (ES). With standard ES reanalysis resolving 10-15% of the ES negatives, further approaches are necessary to maximize diagnoses in these individuals. METHODS: In 38 ES negative patients an individualized genomic-phenotypic approach was employed utilizing (1) phenotyping; (2) reanalyses of FASTQ files, with innovative bioinformatics; (3) targeted molecular testing; (4) genome sequencing (GS); and (5) conferring of clinical diagnoses when pathognomonic clinical findings occurred. RESULTS: Certain and highly likely diagnoses were made in 18/38 (47%) individuals, including identifying two new developmental disorders. The majority of diagnoses (>70%) were due to our bioinformatics, phenotyping, and targeted testing identifying variants that were undetected or not prioritized on prior ES. GS diagnosed 3/18 individuals with structural variants not amenable to ES. Additionally, tentative diagnoses were made in 3 (8%), and in 5 individuals (13%) candidate genes were identified. Overall, diagnoses/potential leads were identified in 26/38 (68%). CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive approach to ES negatives maximizes the ES and clinical data for both diagnoses and candidate gene identification, without GS in the majority. This iterative approach is cost-effective and is pertinent to the current conundrum of ES negatives.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(14): 2454-2465, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726930

RESUMO

The 17 genes of the T-box family are transcriptional regulators that are involved in all stages of embryonic development, including craniofacial, brain, heart, skeleton and immune system. Malformation syndromes have been linked to many of the T-box genes. For example, haploinsufficiency of TBX1 is responsible for many structural malformations in DiGeorge syndrome caused by a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. We report four individuals with an overlapping spectrum of craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, skeletal malformations, immune deficiency, endocrine abnormalities and developmental impairments, reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome, who are heterozygotes for TBX2 variants. The p.R20Q variant is shared by three affected family members in an autosomal dominant manner; the fourth unrelated individual has a de novo p.R305H mutation. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that these variants are rare and predict them to be damaging. In vitro transcriptional assays in cultured cells show that both variants result in reduced transcriptional repressor activity of TBX2. We also show that the variants result in reduced protein levels of TBX2. Heterologous over-expression studies in Drosophila demonstrate that both p.R20Q and p.R305H function as partial loss-of-function alleles. Hence, these and other data suggest that TBX2 is a novel candidate gene for a new multisystem malformation disorder.

10.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(4): 426-433, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704315

RESUMO

Genetic mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in epigenetic machinery have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, and other disorders. H1 histone linker protein, the basic component in nucleosome packaging and chromatin organization, has not been implicated in human disease until recently. We report a de novo deleterious mutation of histone cluster 1 H1 family member e (HIST1H1E; c.435dupC; p.Thr146Hisfs*50), encoding H1 histone linker protein H1.4, in a 10-year-old boy with autism and intellectual disability diagnosed through clinical whole exome sequencing. The c.435dupC at the 3' end of the mRNA leads to a frameshift and truncation of the positive charge in the carboxy-terminus of the protein. An expression study demonstrates the mutation leads to reduced protein expression, supporting haploinsufficiency of HIST1H1E protein and loss of function as an underlying mechanism of dysfunction in the brain. Taken together with other recent cases with mutations of HIST1H1E in intellectual disability, the evidence supporting the link to causality in disease is strong. Our finding implicates the deficiency of H1 linker histone protein in autism. The systematic review of candidate genes implicated in ASD revealed that 42 of 215 (19.5%) genes are directly involved in epigenetic regulations and the majority of these genes belong to histone writers, readers, and erasers. While the mechanism of how haploinsufficiency of HIST1H1E causes autism is entirely unknown, our report underscores the importance of further study of the function of this protein and other histone linker proteins in brain development.

11.
J Genet Couns ; 27(5): 1087-1101, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497923

RESUMO

The burden of living with an undiagnosed condition is high and includes physical and emotional suffering, frustrations, and uncertainty. For patients and families experiencing these stressors, higher levels of empowerment may be associated with better outcomes. Thus, it is important to understand the experiences of patients with undiagnosed conditions and their families affected by undiagnosed conditions in order to identify strategies for fostering empowerment. In this study, we used the Genetic Counseling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24) to assess levels of empowerment and support group participation in 35 adult participants and 67 parents of child participants in the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) prior to their UDN in-person evaluation. Our results revealed significantly lower empowerment scores on the GCOS-24 in adult participants compared to parents of child participants [t(100) = - 3.01, p = 0.003, average difference = - 11.12, 95% CI (- 3.78, - 18.46)] and no significant association between support group participation and empowerment scores. The majority of participants (84.3%, 86/102) are not currently participating in any support groups, and participation rates were not significantly different for adult participants and parents of child participants (11.4 vs. 19.7%, respectively, FE p = 0.40). Open-ended responses provided additional insight into support group participation, the challenges of living with undiagnosed conditions, and positive coping strategies. Future research will evaluate the extent to which empowerment scores change as participation in the UDN unfolds.

12.
J Genet Couns ; 27(4): 935-946, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297108

RESUMO

Little is known about the psychosocial profiles of parents who have a child with an undiagnosed chronic illness. The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) evaluates individuals with intractable medical findings, with the objective of discovering the underlying diagnosis. We report on the psychosocial profiles of 50 parents whose children were accepted to one of the network's clinical sites. Parents completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, coping self-efficacy, and health care empowerment at the beginning of their child's UDN clinical evaluation. Parents of undiagnosed children had high rates of anxiety and depression (~ 40%), which were significantly inversely correlated with coping self-efficacy, but not with health care empowerment. Coping self-efficacy, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were better in parents with older children and with longer duration of illness. Gender differences were identified, with mothers reporting greater health care engagement than fathers. Overall, our findings suggest that parents of children with undiagnosed diseases maintain positive coping self-efficacy and remain actively engaged in health care and to a lesser degree tolerance for uncertainty, but these come with a high emotional cost to the parents. As the parents' psychological needs may not be obvious, these should be ascertained and the requisite support provided.

13.
Genet Med ; 20(4): 464-469, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914269

RESUMO

PurposeTo describe examples of missed pathogenic variants on whole-exome sequencing (WES) and the importance of deep phenotyping for further diagnostic testing.MethodsGuided by phenotypic information, three children with negative WES underwent targeted single-gene testing.ResultsIndividual 1 had a clinical diagnosis consistent with infantile systemic hyalinosis, although WES and a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based ANTXR2 test were negative. Sanger sequencing of ANTXR2 revealed a homozygous single base pair insertion, previously missed by the WES variant caller software. Individual 2 had neurodevelopmental regression and cerebellar atrophy, with no diagnosis on WES. New clinical findings prompted Sanger sequencing and copy number testing of PLA2G6. A novel homozygous deletion of the noncoding exon 1 (not included in the WES capture kit) was detected, with extension into the promoter, confirming the clinical suspicion of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Individual 3 had progressive ataxia, spasticity, and magnetic resonance image changes of vanishing white matter leukoencephalopathy. An NGS leukodystrophy gene panel and WES showed a heterozygous pathogenic variant in EIF2B5; no deletions/duplications were detected. Sanger sequencing of EIF2B5 showed a frameshift indel, probably missed owing to failure of alignment.ConclusionThese cases illustrate potential pitfalls of WES/NGS testing and the importance of phenotype-guided molecular testing in yielding diagnoses.


Assuntos
Exoma , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Alelos , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729373

RESUMO

GLE1 encodes a protein important for mRNA export and appears to play roles in translation initiation and termination as well. Pathogenic variants in GLE1 mutations have been associated with lethal contracture syndrome and lethal arthrogryposis with anterior horn cell disease; phenotypes reported in individuals include fetal akinesia and a severe form of motor neuron disease, typically presenting with prenatal symptoms and perinatal lethality. In this article, we identified biallelic missense mutations in GLE1 by trio whole-exome sequencing in an individual affected with congenital motor weakness and contractures as well as feeding and respiratory difficulties. Muscle biopsy was consistent with anterior horn cell disease and supported the pathogenicity of the sequence variants. Importantly, this individual survived past the perinatal period with respiratory support and currently demonstrates age-appropriate cognition and slow but steady motor developmental progress. We propose that pathogenic variants in GLE1 can be associated with a nonperinatal lethal motor phenotype, and affected individuals can demonstrate motor skill progression, unlike prototypical anterior horn cell diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Contratura/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Atrofia Muscular Espinal , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transporte de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 71, 2017 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients' stories of their illnesses help bridge the divide between patients and providers, facilitating more humane medical care. Illness narratives have been classified into three types: restitution (expectation of recovery), chaos (suffering and loss), and quest (unexpected positive effect from illness). Undiagnosed patients have unique illness experiences and obtaining their narratives would provide insights into the medical and emotional impact of living with an undiagnosed illness. Adults and children with undiagnosed diseases apply to be evaluated by the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN). Written illness narratives from 40 UDN applicants, including 20 adult probands who applied for themselves and 20 parents who applied for their children, were analyzed for: 1) narrative content and 2) narrative type. RESULTS: Narrative content: could be grouped into three themes: 1) Expectations of the UDN: the majority felt they had no further healthcare options and hoped the UDN would provide them with a diagnosis, with the adults expecting to return to their previously healthy life and the parents wanting information to manage their child's healthcare. 2) Personal medical information: the narratives reported worsening of symptoms and some offered opinions regarding the cause of their illness. The proband narratives had few objective findings, while parental narratives had detailed objective information. 3) Experiences related to living with their undiagnosed illness: frustration at being undiagnosed was expressed. The adults felt they had to provide validation of their symptoms to providers, given the lack of objective findings. The parents worried that something relevant to their child's management was being overlooked. Narrative type: All the narratives were of the chaos type, but for different reasons, with the probands describing loss and suffering and the parents expressing fear for their child's future. The parental narratives also had elements of restitution and quest, with acceptance of "a new normal", and an emphasis on the positive aspects of their child's illness which was absent from the probands. CONCLUSIONS: These narratives illustrate the chaos that coexists with being undiagnosed. The differences between the proband and parental narratives suggest that these two groups have different needs that need to be considered during their evaluation and management.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doenças Raras/patologia
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 343-351, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132692

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has increasingly enabled new pathogenic gene variant identification for undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders and provided insights into both gene function and disease biology. Here, we describe seven children with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by microcephaly, profound developmental delays and/or intellectual disability, cataracts, severe epilepsy including infantile spasms, irritability, failure to thrive, and stereotypic hand movements. Brain imaging in these individuals reveals delay in myelination and cerebral atrophy. We observe an identical recurrent de novo heterozygous c.892C>T (p.Arg298Trp) variant in the nucleus accumbens associated 1 (NACC1) gene in seven affected individuals. One of the seven individuals is mosaic for this variant. NACC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor implicated in gene expression and has not previously been associated with germline disorders. The probability of finding the same missense NACC1 variant by chance in 7 out of 17,228 individuals who underwent WES for diagnoses of neurodevelopmental phenotypes is extremely small and achieves genome-wide significance (p = 1.25 × 10-14). Selective constraint against missense variants in NACC1 makes this excess of an identical missense variant in all seven individuals more remarkable. Our findings are consistent with a germline recurrent mutational hotspot associated with an allele-specific neurodevelopmental phenotype in NACC1.


Assuntos
Catarata/genética , Variação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Catarata/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud ; 2(1): a000661, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27148580

RESUMO

We identified five unrelated individuals with significant global developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic facial features and frequent microcephaly, and de novo predicted loss-of-function variants in chromosome alignment maintaining phosphoprotein 1 (CHAMP1). Our findings are consistent with recently reported de novo mutations in CHAMP1 in five other individuals with similar features. CHAMP1 is a zinc finger protein involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and is required for regulating the proper alignment of chromosomes during metaphase in mitosis. Mutations in CHAMP1 may affect cell division and hence brain development and function, resulting in developmental delay and ID.

18.
Genet Med ; 16(2): 176-82, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23928913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of the traditional, comprehensive clinical evaluation and targeted genetic testing, within a general genetics clinic. These data are critically needed to develop clinically and economically grounded diagnostic algorithms that consider presenting phenotype, traditional genetics testing, and the emerging role of next-generation sequencing (whole-exome/genome sequencing). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 500 unselected consecutive patients who received traditional genetic diagnostic evaluations at a tertiary medical center. We calculated the diagnosis rate, number of visits to diagnosis, genetic tests, and the cost of testing. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were determined to not have a genetic disorder; 212 of the remaining 461 (46%) received a genetic diagnosis, and 72% of these were diagnosed on the first visit. The cost per subsequent successful genetic diagnosis was estimated at $25,000. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the patients were diagnosed using the traditional approach, most at the initial visit. For those remaining undiagnosed, next-generation sequencing may be clinically and economically beneficial. Estimating a 50% success rate for next-generation sequencing in undiagnosed genetic disorders, its application after the first clinical visit could result in a higher rate of genetic diagnosis at a considerable cost savings per successful diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Exoma , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Testes Genéticos/economia , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/economia
19.
Hum Mutat ; 34(6): 801-11, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23505205

RESUMO

Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare and lethal developmental disorder of the lung defined by a constellation of characteristic histopathological features. Nonpulmonary anomalies involving organs of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and genitourinary systems have been identified in approximately 80% of patients with ACD/MPV. We have collected DNA and pathological samples from more than 90 infants with ACD/MPV and their family members. Since the publication of our initial report of four point mutations and 10 deletions, we have identified an additional 38 novel nonsynonymous mutations of FOXF1 (nine nonsense, seven frameshift, one inframe deletion, 20 missense, and one no stop). This report represents an up to date list of all known FOXF1 mutations to the best of our knowledge. Majority of the cases are sporadic. We report four familial cases of which three show maternal inheritance, consistent with paternal imprinting of the gene. Twenty five mutations (60%) are located within the putative DNA-binding domain, indicating its plausible role in FOXF1 function. Five mutations map to the second exon. We identified two additional genic and eight genomic deletions upstream to FOXF1. These results corroborate and extend our previous observations and further establish involvement of FOXF1 in ACD/MPV and lung organogenesis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Mutação , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/genética , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Dosagem de Genes , Ordem dos Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/mortalidade , Síndrome da Persistência do Padrão de Circulação Fetal/patologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Pediatrics ; 130(6): 1126-35, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23129072

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome, diagnosed by Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) DNA testing, is the most common single-gene cause of inherited intellectual disability. The expanded CGG mutation in the FMR1 gene, once thought to have clinical significance limited to fragile X syndrome, is now well established as the cause for other fragile X-associated disorders including fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency and fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome in individuals with the premutation (carriers). The importance of early diagnostic and management issues, in conjunction with the identification of family members at risk for or affected by FMR1 mutations, has led to intense discussion about the appropriate timing for early identification of FMR1 mutations. This review includes an overview of the fragile X-associated disorders and screening efforts to date, and discussion of the advantages and barriers to FMR1 screening in newborns, during childhood, and in women of reproductive age. Comparison with screening programs for other common genetic conditions is discussed to arrive at action steps to increase the identification of families affected by FMR1 mutations.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Triagem Neonatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Ataxia/diagnóstico , Ataxia/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Cooperativo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Genéticos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores Sexuais , Tremor/diagnóstico , Tremor/genética , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética
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