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1.
Circulation ; 143(8): 837-851, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617315

RESUMO

More than 40 years after the 1978 Bethesda Conference on the Declining Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease provided the scientific community with a blueprint for systematic analysis to understand declining rates of coronary heart disease, there are indications the decline has ended or even reversed despite advances in our knowledge about the condition and treatment. Recent data show a more complex situation, with mortality rates for overall cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke, decelerating, whereas those for heart failure are increasing. To mark the 40th anniversary of the Bethesda Conference, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association cosponsored the "Bending the Curve in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Bethesda + 40" symposium. The objective was to examine the immediate and long-term outcomes of the 1978 conference and understand the current environment. Symposium themes included trends and future projections in cardiovascular disease (in the United States and internationally), the evolving obesity and diabetes epidemics, and harnessing emerging and innovative opportunities to preserve and promote cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition, participant-led discussion explored the challenges and barriers in promoting cardiovascular health across the lifespan and established a potential framework for observational research and interventions that would begin in early childhood (or ideally in utero). This report summarizes the relevant research, policy, and practice opportunities discussed at the symposium.

3.
Circulation ; 141(9): e120-e138, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992057

RESUMO

Each decade, the American Heart Association (AHA) develops an Impact Goal to guide its overall strategic direction and investments in its research, quality improvement, advocacy, and public health programs. Guided by the AHA's new Mission Statement, to be a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives, the 2030 Impact Goal is anchored in an understanding that to achieve cardiovascular health for all, the AHA must include a broader vision of health and well-being and emphasize health equity. In the next decade, by 2030, the AHA will strive to equitably increase healthy life expectancy beyond current projections, with global and local collaborators, from 66 years of age to at least 68 years of age across the United States and from 64 years of age to at least 67 years of age worldwide. The AHA commits to developing additional targets for equity and well-being to accompany this overarching Impact Goal. To attain the 2030 Impact Goal, we recommend a thoughtful evaluation of interventions available to the public, patients, providers, healthcare delivery systems, communities, policy makers, and legislators. This presidential advisory summarizes the task force's main considerations in determining the 2030 Impact Goal and the metrics to monitor progress. It describes the aspiration that these goals will be achieved by working with a diverse community of volunteers, patients, scientists, healthcare professionals, and partner organizations needed to ensure success.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Formulação de Políticas , Vigilância da População , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 77, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnostic utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is limited during the early stages of myocarditis. This study examined whether ferumoxytol-enhanced CMR (FE-CMR) could detect an earlier stage of acute myocarditis compared to gadolinium-enhanced CMR. METHODS: Lewis rats were induced to develop autoimmune myocarditis. CMR (3 T, GE Signa) was performed at the early- (day 14, n = 7) and the peak-phase (day 21, n = 8) of myocardial inflammation. FE-CMR was evaluated as % myocardial dephasing signal loss on gradient echo images at 6 and 24 h (6 h- & 24 h-FE-CMR) following the administration of ferumoxytol (300µmolFe/kg). Pre- and post-contrast T2* mapping was also performed. Early (EGE) and late (LGE) gadolinium enhancement was obtained after the administration of gadolinium-DTPA (0.5 mmol/kg) on day 14 and 21. Healthy rats were used as control (n = 6). RESULTS: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was preserved at day 14 with inflammatory cells but no fibrosis seen on histology. EGE and LGE at day 14 both showed limited myocardial enhancement (EGE: 11.7 ± 15.5%; LGE: 8.7 ± 8.7%; both p = ns vs. controls). In contrast, 6 h-FE-CMR detected extensive myocardial signal loss (33.2 ± 15.0%, p = 0.02 vs. EGE and p < 0.01 vs. LGE). At day 21, LVEF became significantly decreased (47.4 ± 16.4% vs control: 66.2 ± 6.1%, p < 0.01) with now extensive myocardial involvement detected on EGE, LGE, and 6 h-FE-CMR (41.6 ± 18.2% of LV). T2* mapping also detected myocardial uptake of ferumoxytol both at day 14 (6 h R2* = 299 ± 112 s- 1vs control: 125 ± 26 s- 1, p < 0.01) and day 21 (564 ± 562 s- 1, p < 0.01 vs control). Notably, the myocardium at peak-phase myocarditis also showed significantly higher pre-contrast T2* (27 ± 5 ms vs control: 16 ± 1 ms, p < 0.001), and the extent of myocardial necrosis had a strong positive correlation with T2* (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: FE-CMR acquired at 6 h enhance detection of early stages of myocarditis before development of necrosis or fibrosis, which could potentially enable appropriate therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/administração & dosagem , Gadolínio DTPA/administração & dosagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Aguda , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fibrose , Masculino , Miocardite/patologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Necrose , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda
5.
NPJ Digit Med ; 2: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304378

RESUMO

Hip fractures are a leading cause of death and disability among older adults. Hip fractures are also the most commonly missed diagnosis on pelvic radiographs, and delayed diagnosis leads to higher cost and worse outcomes. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithms have shown promise for helping radiologists detect fractures, but the image features underpinning their predictions are notoriously difficult to understand. In this study, we trained deep-learning models on 17,587 radiographs to classify fracture, 5 patient traits, and 14 hospital process variables. All 20 variables could be individually predicted from a radiograph, with the best performances on scanner model (AUC = 1.00), scanner brand (AUC = 0.98), and whether the order was marked "priority" (AUC = 0.79). Fracture was predicted moderately well from the image (AUC = 0.78) and better when combining image features with patient data (AUC = 0.86, DeLong paired AUC comparison, p = 2e-9) or patient data plus hospital process features (AUC = 0.91, p = 1e-21). Fracture prediction on a test set that balanced fracture risk across patient variables was significantly lower than a random test set (AUC = 0.67, DeLong unpaired AUC comparison, p = 0.003); and on a test set with fracture risk balanced across patient and hospital process variables, the model performed randomly (AUC = 0.52, 95% CI 0.46-0.58), indicating that these variables were the main source of the model's fracture predictions. A single model that directly combines image features, patient, and hospital process data outperforms a Naive Bayes ensemble of an image-only model prediction, patient, and hospital process data. If CAD algorithms are inexplicably leveraging patient and process variables in their predictions, it is unclear how radiologists should interpret their predictions in the context of other known patient data. Further research is needed to illuminate deep-learning decision processes so that computers and clinicians can effectively cooperate.

6.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 24, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975992

RESUMO

Studies have established the importance of physical activity and fitness for long-term cardiovascular health, yet limited data exist on the association between objective, real-world large-scale physical activity patterns, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health primarily due to difficulties in collecting such datasets. We present data from the MyHeart Counts Cardiovascular Health Study, wherein participants contributed data via an iPhone application built using Apple's ResearchKit framework and consented to make this data available freely for further research applications. In this smartphone-based study of cardiovascular health, participants recorded daily physical activity, completed health questionnaires, and performed a 6-minute walk fitness test. Data from English-speaking participants aged 18 years or older with a US-registered iPhone who agreed to share their data broadly and who enrolled between the study's launch and the time of the data freeze for this data release (March 10 2015-October 28 2015) are now available for further research. It is anticipated that releasing this large-scale collection of real-world physical activity, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health data will enable the research community to work collaboratively towards improving our understanding of the relationship between cardiovascular indicators, lifestyle, and overall health, as well as inform mobile health research best practices.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Exercício Físico , Sono , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
7.
J Nucl Med ; 60(9): 1308-1316, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737298

RESUMO

Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) are the unstable lesions in coronary artery disease that are prone to rupture, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, their small size and complex morphologic and biologic features make early detection and risk assessment difficult. We tested our newly developed catheter-based Circumferential-Intravascular-Radioluminescence-Photoacoustic-Imaging (CIRPI) system in vivo to enable detection and characterization of vulnerable plaque structure and biology in rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods: The CIRPI system includes a novel optical probe combining circumferential radioluminescence imaging and photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The probe's CaF2:Eu-based scintillating imaging window captures radioluminescence images (360° view) of plaques by detecting ß-particles during 18F-FDG decay. A tunable laser-based PAT characterizes tissue constituents of plaque at 7 different wavelengths-540 and 560 nm (calcification), 920 nm (cholesteryl ester), 1040 nm (phospholipids), 1180 nm (elastin/collagen), 1210 nm (cholesterol), and 1235 nm (triglyceride). A single B-scan is concatenated from 330 A-lines captured during a 360° rotation. The abdominal aorta was imaged in vivo in both atherosclerotic rabbits (Watanabe Heritable Hyper Lipidemic [WHHL], 13-mo-old male, n = 5) and controls (New Zealand White, n = 2). Rabbits were fasted for 6 h before 5.55 × 107 Bq (1.5 mCi) of 18F-FDG were injected 1 h before the imaging procedure. Rabbits were anesthetized, and the right or left common carotid artery was surgically exposed. An 8 French catheter sheath was inserted into the common carotid artery, and a 0.035-cm (0.014-in) guidewire was advanced to the iliac artery, guided by x-ray fluoroscopy. A bare metal stent was implanted in the dorsal abdominal aorta as a landmark, followed by the 7 French imaging catheters that were advanced up to the proximal stent edge. Our CIRPI and clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed using pullback and nonocclusive flushing techniques. After imaging with the CIRPI system, the descending aorta was flushed with contrast agent, and OCT images were obtained with a pullback speed of 20 mm/s, providing images at 100 frames/s. Results were verified with histochemical analysis. Results: Our CIRPI system successfully detected the locations and characterized both stable and vulnerable aortic plaques in vivo among all WHHL rabbits. Calcification was detected from the stable plaque (540 and 560 nm), whereas TCFA exhibited phospholipids/cholesterol (1040 nm, 1210 nm). These findings were further verified with the clinical OCT system showing an area of low attenuation filled with lipids within TCFA. PAT images illustrated broken elastic fiber/collagen that could be verified with the histochemical analysis. All WHHL rabbits exhibited sparse to severe macrophages. Only 4 rabbits showed both moderate-to-severe level of calcifications and cholesterol clefts. However, all rabbits exhibited broken elastic fibers and collagen deposition. Control rabbits showed normal wall thickness with no presence of plaque tissue compositions. These findings were verified with OCT and histochemical analysis. Conclusion: Our novel multimodality hybrid system has been successfully translated to in vivo evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque structure and biology in a preclinical rabbit model. This system proposed a paradigm shift that unites molecular and pathologic imaging technologies. Therefore, the system may enhance the clinical evaluation of TCFA, as well as expand our understanding of coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoscopia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Animais , Calcinose/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cateteres , Colesterol/química , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Luminescência , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Patologia Molecular , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Coelhos , Refratometria , Tomografia
8.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 1(1): e180007, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076665

RESUMO

Purpose: To demonstrate the association between coronary vessel wall thickness (VWT) measured at MRI and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in asymptomatic groups at low and intermediate risk on the basis of Framingham score. Materials and Methods: A total of 131 asymptomatic adults were prospectively enrolled. All participants underwent CT angiography for scoring CAD, and coronary VWT was measured at 3.0-T MRI. Nonlinear single and multivariable regression analyses with consideration for interaction with sex were performed to investigate the association of traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and VWT with CT angiography-based CAD scores. Results: The analysis included 62 women and 62 men with low or intermediate Framingham score of less than 20%. Age (mean age, 45.0 years ± 14.5 [standard deviation]) and body mass index were not different between the groups. Age, sex, and VWT were individually significantly associated with all CT angiography-based CAD scores (P < .05). Additionally, sex was a significant effect modifier of the associations with all CAD scores. In men, age was the only statistically significant independent risk factor of CAD; in women, VWT was the only statistically significant independent surrogate associated with increased CAD scores (P < .05). Conclusion: In asymptomatic women, VWT MRI was the primary independent surrogate of CAD, whereas age was the strongest risk factor in men. This study suggests that VWT may be used as a CAD surrogate in women at low or intermediate risk of CAD. Further longitudinal studies are required to determine the potential implication and use of this MRI technique for the preventative management of CAD in women.© RSNA, 2019.

9.
Bioinformatics ; 35(9): 1610-1612, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304439

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Radiologists have used algorithms for Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) for decades. These algorithms use machine learning with engineered features, and there have been mixed findings on whether they improve radiologists' interpretations. Deep learning offers superior performance but requires more training data and has not been evaluated in joint algorithm-radiologist decision systems. RESULTS: We developed the Computer-Aided Note and Diagnosis Interface (CANDI) for collaboratively annotating radiographs and evaluating how algorithms alter human interpretation. The annotation app collects classification, segmentation, and image captioning training data, and the evaluation app randomizes the availability of CAD tools to facilitate clinical trials on radiologist enhancement. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Demonstrations and source code are hosted at (https://candi.nextgenhealthcare.org), and (https://github.com/mbadge/candi), respectively, under GPL-3 license. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Software , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação
10.
Lancet Digit Health ; 1(7): e344-e352, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone apps might enable interventions to increase physical activity, but few randomised trials testing this hypothesis have been done. The MyHeart Counts Cardiovascular Health Study is a longitudinal smartphone-based study with the aim of elucidating the determinants of cardiovascular health. We aimed to investigate the effect of four different physical activity coaching interventions on daily step count in a substudy of the MyHeart Counts Study. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled crossover trial, we recruited adults (aged ≥18 years) in the USA with access to an iPhone smartphone (Apple, Cupertino, CA, USA; version 5S or newer) who had downloaded the MyHeart Counts app (version 2.0). After completion of a 1 week baseline period of interaction with the MyHeart Counts app, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of 24 permutations (four combinations of four 7 day interventions) in a crossover design using a random number generator built into the app. Interventions consisted of either daily prompts to complete 10 000 steps, hourly prompts to stand following 1 h of sitting, instructions to read the guidelines from the American Heart Association website, or e-coaching based upon the individual's personal activity patterns from the baseline week of data collection. Participants completed the trial in a free-living setting. Due to the nature of the interventions, participants could not be masked from the intervention. Investigators were not masked to intervention allocation. The primary outcome was change in mean daily step count from baseline for each of the four interventions, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat analysis set, which included all participants who had completed 7 days of baseline monitoring and at least 1 day of one of the four interventions. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03090321. FINDINGS: Between Dec 12, 2016, and June 6, 2018, 2783 participants consented to enrol in the coaching study, of whom 1075 completed 7 days of baseline monitoring and at least 1 day of one of the four interventions and thus were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis set. 493 individuals completed the full set of assigned interventions. All four interventions significantly increased mean daily step count from baseline (mean daily step count 2914 [SE 74]): mean step count increased by 319 steps (75) for participants in the American Heart Association website prompt group (p<0·0001), 267 steps (74) for participants in the hourly stand prompt group (p=0·0003), 254 steps (74) for participants in the cluster-specific prompts group (p=0·0006), and by 226 steps (75) for participants in the 10 000 daily step prompt group (p=0·0026 vs baseline). INTERPRETATION: Four smartphone-based physical activity coaching interventions significantly increased daily physical activity. These findings suggests that digital interventions delivered via a mobile app have the ability to increase short-term physical activity levels in a free-living cohort. FUNDING: Stanford Data Science Initiative.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone , Estados Unidos
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 3792-3795, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441192

RESUMO

Convenient and painless blood pressure measurement can enable increased user adoption of regular monitoring and early intervention for hypertension, which is a significant cause of mortality worldwide. This paper introduces a fingerwearable blood pressure measurement device to enable frequent daytime and nocturnal monitoring. The blood pressure measurement is achieved using a two-dimensional capacitive tactile sensor array that is located next to a digital artery. A pumpdriven pneumatic bladder presses the tactile array and the finger towards each other to obtain a pressure sweep versus time. The digital artery pressure waveform data collected during this sweep are used to estimate arterial blood pressure. A clinical study (N =97) was conducted to obtain training (N =49) and validation (N =19) data for blood pressure algorithm development and test (N =29) data to determine the estimation accuracy compared to brachial dual-observer auscultation. On the test set, the mean and standard deviation of the error in the systolic blood pressure estimate are 0.9 mmHg and 6.9 mmHg, respectively, while the corresponding quantities for diastolic blood pressure are -3.2 mmHg and 7.0 mmHg, respectively. These results compare favorably to blood pressure accuracy requirements specified by international standards.


Assuntos
Monitores de Pressão Arterial , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Dedos , Humanos , Esfigmomanômetros
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8992, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895966

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory condition caused by an unstable lesion, called thin-cap fibro atheromata (TCFA) that underlies coronary artery disease (CAD)-one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, early clinical diagnosis and effective risk stratification is important for CAD management as well as preventing progression to catastrophic events. However, early detection could be difficult due to their small size, motion, obscuring 18F-FDG uptake by adjacent myocardium, and complex morphological/biological features. To overcome these limitations, we developed a catheter-based Circumferential-Intravascular-Radioluminescence-Photoacoustic-Imaging (CIRPI) system that can detect vulnerable plaques in coronary arteries and characterizes them with respect to pathology and biology. Our CIRPI system combined two imaging modalities: Circumferential Radioluminescence Imaging (CRI) and PhotoAcoustic Tomography (PAT) within a novel optical probe. The probe's CaF2:Eu based scintillating imaging window provides a 360° view of human (n = 7) and murine carotid (n = 10) arterial plaques by converting ß-particles into visible photons during 18F-FDG decay. A 60× and 63× higher radioluminescent signals were detected from the human and murine plaque inflammations, respectively, compared to the control. The system's photoacoustic imaging provided a comprehensive analysis of the plaque compositions and its morphologic information. These results were further verified with IVIS-200, immunohistochemical analysis, and autoradiography.


Assuntos
Autorradiografia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Medições Luminescentes , Imagem Multimodal , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(23): 2691-2701, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880130

RESUMO

The growing recognition that "health" takes place outside of the hospital and clinic, plus recent advances in mobile and wearable devices, have propelled the field of mobile health (mHealth). Cardiovascular disease and prevention are major opportunities for mHealth, as mobile devices can monitor key physiological signals (e.g., physical activity, heart rate and rhythm) for promoting healthy behaviors, detecting disease, and aid in ongoing care. In this review, the authors provide an update on cardiovascular mHealth by highlighting recent progress and challenges with mobile and wearable devices for assessing and promoting physical activity and fitness, and for monitoring heart rate and rhythm for the detection and management of atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Telemedicina/tendências , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Telemedicina/métodos
14.
Circulation ; 137(18): e495-e522, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618598

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent major health risk factors, with 8 in 10 US adults not meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines, and is associated with a high burden of cardiovascular disease. Improving and maintaining recommended levels of physical activity leads to reductions in metabolic, hemodynamic, functional, body composition, and epigenetic risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Physical activity also has a significant role, in many cases comparable or superior to drug interventions, in the prevention and management of >40 conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, depression, Alzheimer disease, and arthritis. Whereas most of the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors included in the American Heart Association's My Life Check - Life's Simple 7 are evaluated routinely in clinical practice (glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure, obesity, and smoking), physical activity is typically not assessed. The purpose of this statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the evidence on the feasibility, validity, and effectiveness of assessing and promoting physical activity in healthcare settings for adult patients. It also adds concrete recommendations for healthcare systems, clinical and community care providers, fitness professionals, the technology industry, and other stakeholders in order to catalyze increased adoption of physical activity assessment and promotion in healthcare settings and to contribute to meeting the American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , American Heart Association , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192662, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes, myocardial tissue damage, and impairment of myocardial function. The inability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate prevents the heart from self-regeneration. The treatment for advanced heart failure following an MI is heart transplantation despite the limited availability of the organs. Thus, stem-cell-based cardiac therapies could ultimately prevent heart failure by repairing injured myocardium that reverses cardiomyocyte loss. However, stem-cell-based therapies lack understanding of the mechanisms behind a successful therapy, including difficulty tracking stem cells to provide information on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between different types of stem and inflammatory cells and cell-targeted imaging molecules, 18F-FDG and 6-NBDG, to identify uptake patterns and pharmacokinetics in vitro. METHODS: Macrophages (both M1 and M2), human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were incubated with either 18F-FDG or 6-NBDG. Excess radiotracer and fluorescence were removed and a 100 µm-thin CdWO4 scintillator plate was placed on top of the cells for radioluminescence microscopy imaging of 18F-FDG uptake, while no scintillator was needed for fluorescence imaging of 6-NBDG uptake. Light produced following beta decay was imaged with a highly sensitive inverted microscope (LV200, Olympus) and an Electron Multiplying Charge-Couple Device (EM-CCD) camera. Custom-written software was developed in MATLAB for image processing. RESULTS: The average cellular activity of 18F-FDG in a single cell of hAMSCs (0.670±0.028 fCi/µm2, P = 0.001) was 20% and 36% higher compared to uptake in hiPSCs (0.540±0.026 fCi/µm2, P = 0.003) and macrophages (0.430±0.023 fCi/µm2, P = 0.002), respectively. hAMSCs exhibited the slowest influx (0.210 min-1) but the fastest efflux (0.327 min-1) rate compared to the other tested cell lines for 18F-FDG. This cell line also has the highest phosphorylation but exhibited the lowest rate of de-phosphorylation. The uptake pattern for 6-NBDG was very different in these three cell lines. The average cellular activity of 6-NBDG in a single cell of macrophages (0.570±0.230 fM/µm2, P = 0.004) was 38% and 14% higher compared to hiPSCs (0.350±0.160 fM/µm2, P = 0.001) and hAMSCs (0.490±0.028 fM/µm2, P = 0.006), respectively. The influx (0.276 min-1), efflux (0.612 min-1), phosphorylation (0.269 min-1), and de-phosphorylation (0.049 min-1) rates were also highest for macrophages compared to the other two tested cell lines. CONCLUSION: hAMSCs were found to be 2-3× more sensitive to 18F-FDG molecule compared to hiPSCs/macrophages. However, macrophages exhibited the most sensitivity towards 6-NBDG. Based on this result, hAMSCs targeted with 18F-FDG could be more suitable for understanding the mechanisms behind successful therapy for treating MI patients by gathering information on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation.


Assuntos
4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/análogos & derivados , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Glucosamina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , 4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/farmacocinética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Glucosamina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos
16.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(2): 195-205, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study investigated whether a dose response exists between myocardial salvage and the depth of therapeutic hypothermia. BACKGROUND: Cardiac protection from mild hypothermia during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has yielded equivocal clinical trial results. Rapid, deeper hypothermia may improve myocardial salvage. METHODS: Swine (n = 24) undergoing AMI were assigned to 3 reperfusion groups: normothermia (38°C) and mild (35°C) and moderate (32°C) hypothermia. One-hour anterior myocardial ischemia was followed by rapid endovascular cooling to target reperfusion temperature. Cooling began 30 min before reperfusion. Target temperature was reached before reperfusion and was maintained for 60 min. Infarct size (IS) was assessed on day 6 using cardiac magnetic resonance, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, and histopathology. RESULTS: Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride area at risk (AAR) was equivalent in all groups (p = 0.2), but 32°C exhibited 77% and 91% reductions in IS size per AAR compared with 35°C and 38°C, respectively (AAR: 38°C, 45 ± 12%; 35°C, 17 ± 10%; 32°C, 4 ± 4%; p < 0.001) and comparable reductions per LV mass (LV mass: 38°C, 14 ± 5%; 35°C, 5 ± 3%; 32°C 1 ± 1%; p < 0.001). Importantly, 32°C showed a lower IS AAR (p = 0.013) and increased immunohistochemical granulation tissue versus 35°C, indicating higher tissue salvage. Delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance IS LV also showed marked reduction at 32°C (38°C: 10 ± 4%, p < 0.001; 35°C: 8 ± 3%; 32°C: 3 ± 2%, p < 0.001). Cardiac output on day 6 was only preserved at 32°C (reduction in cardiac output: 38°C, -29 ± 19%, p = 0.041; 35°C: -17 ± 33%; 32°C: -1 ± 28%, p = 0.041). Using linear regression, the predicted IS reduction was 6.7% (AAR) and 2.1% (LV) per every 1°C reperfusion temperature decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate (32°C) therapeutic hypothermia demonstrated superior and near-complete cardioprotection compared with 35°C and control, warranting further investigation into clinical applications.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miocárdio/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema Cardíaco/patologia , Edema Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Edema Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Sobrevivência de Tecidos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
17.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2(3): 158-164, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015713

RESUMO

Traditionally, medical discoveries are made by observing associations, making hypotheses from them and then designing and running experiments to test the hypotheses. However, with medical images, observing and quantifying associations can often be difficult because of the wide variety of features, patterns, colours, values and shapes that are present in real data. Here, we show that deep learning can extract new knowledge from retinal fundus images. Using deep-learning models trained on data from 284,335 patients and validated on two independent datasets of 12,026 and 999 patients, we predicted cardiovascular risk factors not previously thought to be present or quantifiable in retinal images, such as age (mean absolute error within 3.26 years), gender (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.97), smoking status (AUC = 0.71), systolic blood pressure (mean absolute error within 11.23 mmHg) and major adverse cardiac events (AUC = 0.70). We also show that the trained deep-learning models used anatomical features, such as the optic disc or blood vessels, to generate each prediction.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aprendizado Profundo , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 4: 53, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856136

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We tested whether providing a genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) would serve as a motivator to improve adherence to risk-reducing strategies. METHODS: We randomized 94 participants with at least moderate risk of CAD to receive standard-of-care with (N = 49) or without (N = 45) their GRS at a subsequent 3-month follow-up visit. Our primary outcome was change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits (ΔLDL-C). Secondary outcomes included other CAD risk factors, weight loss, diet, physical activity, risk perceptions, and psychological outcomes. In pre-specified analyses, we examined whether there was a greater motivational effect in participants with a higher GRS. RESULTS: Sixty-five participants completed the protocol including 30 participants in the GRS arm. We found no change in the primary outcome between participants receiving their GRS and standard-of-care participants (ΔLDL-C: -13 vs. -9 mg/dl). Among participants with a higher GRS, we observed modest effects on weight loss and physical activity. All other secondary outcomes were not significantly different, including anxiety and worry. CONCLUSION: Adding GRS to standard-of-care did not change lipids, adherence, or psychological outcomes. Potential modest benefits in weight loss and physical activity for participants with high GRS need to be validated in larger trials.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(5): 874-882, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28705377

RESUMO

Right ventricular (RV) adaptation to pressure overload is a major prognostic factor in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The objectives were first to define the relation between RV adaptation and load using allometric modeling, then to compare the prognostic value of different indices of load adaptability in PAH. Both a derivation (n = 85) and a validation cohort (n = 200) were included. Load adaptability was assessed using 3 approaches: (1) surrogates of ventriculo-arterial coupling (e.g., RV area change/end-systolic area), (2) simple ratio of function and load (e.g., tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion/right ventricular systolic pressure), and (3) indices assessing the proportionality of adaptation using allometric pressure-function or size modeling. Proportional hazard modeling was used to compare the hazard ratio for the outcome of death or lung transplantation. The mean age of the derivation cohort was 44 ± 11 years, with 80% female and 74% in New York Heart Association class III or IV. Mean pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was 24 ± 11 with a wide distribution (1.6 to 57.5 WU/m2). Allometric relations were observed between PVRI and RV fractional area change (R2 = 0.53, p < 0.001) and RV end-systolic area indexed to body surface area right ventricular end-systolic area index (RVESAI) (R2 = 0.29, p < 0.001), allowing the derivation of simple ratiometric load-specific indices of RV adaptation. In right heart parameters, RVESAI was the strongest predictor of outcomes (hazard ratio per SD = 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.37 to 2.75, p < 0.001). Although RVESAI/PVRI0.35 provided small incremental discrimination on multivariate modeling, none of the load-adaptability indices provided stronger discrimination of outcome than simple RV adaptation metrics in either the derivation or the validation cohort. In conclusion, allometric modeling enables quantification of the proportionality of RV load adaptation but offers small incremental prognostic value to RV end-systolic dimension in PAH.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/fisiologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 10(6)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2005 to 2014, 228 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were prospectively enrolled. RV end-systolic remodeling index (RVESRI) was defined by lateral length divided by septal height. The incremental values of RV free wall longitudinal strain and RVESRI to risk scores were determined. Mean age was 49±14 years, 78% were female, 33% had connective tissue disease, 52% were in New York Heart Association class ≥III, and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 11.2±6.4 WU. RVESRI and right atrial area were strongly connected to the other right heart metrics. Three zones of adaptation (adapted, maladapted, and severely maladapted) were identified based on the RVESRI to RV systolic pressure relationship. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±2.4 years, the primary end point of death, transplant, or admission for heart failure was reached in 88 patients. RVESRI was incremental to risk prediction scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension, including the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management score, the Pulmonary Hypertension Connection equation, and the Mayo Clinic model. Using multivariable analysis, New York Heart Association class III/IV, RVESRI, and log NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) were retained (χ2, 62.2; P<0.0001). Changes in RVESRI at 1 year (n=203) were predictive of outcome; patients initiated on prostanoid therapy showed the greatest improvement in RVESRI. Among right heart metrics, RVESRI demonstrated the best test-retest characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: RVESRI is a simple reproducible prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto , California , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Transplante de Coração , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/terapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/terapia
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