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1.
Endocr Rev ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803919

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that oxytocin (OXT), a hypothalamic hormone well recognized for its effects in inducing parturition and lactation, has important metabolic effects in both sexes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the physiologic effects of OXT on metabolism and to explore its therapeutic potential for metabolic disorders. In model systems, OXT promotes weight loss by decreasing energy intake. Pair-feeding studies suggest that OXT-induced weight loss may also be partly due to increased energy expenditure and/or lipolysis. In humans, OXT appears to modulate both homeostatic and reward-driven food intake, though the observed response depends on nutrient milieu (e.g., obese vs. non-obese), clinical characteristics (e.g., sex), and experimental paradigm. In animal models, OXT is anabolic to muscle and bone, which is consistent with OXT-induced weight loss occurring primarily via fat loss. In some human observational studies, circulating OXT concentrations are also positively associated with lean mass and bone mineral density. The impact of exogenous OXT on human obesity is the focus of ongoing investigation. Future randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials in humans should include rigorous, standardized, and detailed assessments of adherence, adverse effects, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and efficacy in the diverse populations that may benefit from OXT, in particular those in whom hypothalamic OXT signaling may be abnormal or impaired (e.g., individuals with Sim1 deficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome, or craniopharyngioma). Future studies will also have the opportunity to investigate the characteristics of new OXT mimetic peptides, and the obligation to consider long-term effects, especially when OXT is given to children and adolescents.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479473

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome integrity is essential for proper mitochondrial respiratory chain function to generate cellular energy. Nuclear genes encode several proteins that function at the mtDNA replication fork, including mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBP1), which is a tetrameric protein that binds and protects single-stranded mtDNA (ssDNA). Recently, two studies have reported pathogenic variants in SSBP1 associated with hearing loss, optic atrophy, and retinal degeneration. Here, we report a 14-year-old Chinese boy with severe and progressive mitochondrial disease manifestations across the full Pearson, Kearns-Sayre, and Leigh syndromes spectrum, including infantile anemia and bone marrow failure, growth failure, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, severe retinal dystrophy of the rod-cone type, sensorineural hearing loss, chronic kidney disease, multiple endocrine deficiencies, and metabolic strokes. mtDNA genome sequencing identified a single large-scale 5 kilobase mtDNA deletion (m.8629_14068del5440), present at 68% and 16% heteroplasmy in the proband's fibroblast cell line and blood, respectively, suggestive of a mtDNA maintenance defect. On trio whole exome blood sequencing, the proband was found to harbor a novel de novo heterozygous mutation c.79G>A (p.E27K) in SSBP1. Size exclusion chromatography of p.E27K SSBP1 revealed it remains a stable tetramer. However, differential scanning fluorimetry demonstrated p.E27K SSBP1 relative to wild type had modestly decreased thermostability. Functional assays also revealed p.E27K SSBP1 had altered DNA binding. Molecular modeling of SSBP1 tetramers with varying combinations of mutant subunits predicted general changes in surface accessible charges, strength of inter-subunit interactions, and protein dynamics. Overall, the observed changes in protein dynamics and DNA binding behavior suggest that p.E27K SSBP1 can interfere with DNA replication and precipitate the introduction of large-scale mtDNA deletions. Thus, a single large-scale mtDNA deletion (SLSMD) with manifestations across the clinical spectrum of Pearson, Kearns-Sayre, and Leigh syndromes may result from a nuclear gene disorder disrupting mitochondrial DNA replication.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(19): 3327-3338, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

4.
Pediatr Neurol ; 99: 31-39, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Revised diagnostic criteria for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome require three of four neuroimaging findings in the absence of papilledema. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of three or more of four of these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in children. METHODS: As part of clinical care, patients in whom there was suspicion for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome underwent neurological and fundoscopic examinations, lumbar puncture, MRI, or magnetic resonance venogram. For this retrospective study, we used this information to classify 119 subjects into definite (n = 66) or probable pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (n = 12), elevated opening pressure without papilledema (n = 23), or controls who had normal opening pressure without papilledema (n = 24). A neuroradiologist, unaware of the clinical findings or original MRI report, reviewed MRIs for pituitary gland flattening, flattening of the posterior sclera, optic nerve sheath distention, and transverse venous sinus stenosis. RESULTS: The presence of three or more MRI findings has a sensitivity of 62% (95% confidence interval: 47% to 75%) and a specificity of 95% (95% confidence interval: 77% to 100%), compared with controls. Two of three (transverse venous sinus stenosis, pituitary gland flattening, flattening of the posterior sclera) had a similar sensitivity and specificity. Transverse venous sinus stenosis alone had a slightly higher sensitivity (74%, 95% confidence interval: 60% to 85%) and specificity (100%, 95% confidence interval: 80% to 100%). CONCLUSIONS: In children, three of four of the proposed neuroimaging criteria and transverse venous sinus stenosis alone have a moderate sensitivity and robust specificity for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. MRIs should be reviewed for these criteria, and their presence should raise suspicion for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in children, particularly if the presence of papilledema is uncertain.

5.
Bone ; 121: 221-226, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711642

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, a low frequency variant (rs1800012) within the first intron of the type I collagen alpha 1 (COLIA1) gene has been implicated in lower areal BMD (aBMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. This association is particularly strong in postmenopausal women, in whom net bone loss arises in the context of high bone turnover. High bone turnover also accompanies childhood linear growth; however, the role of rs1800012 in this stage of net bone accretion is less well understood. Thus, we assessed the association between rs1800012 and aBMD and bone mineral content (BMC) Z-scores for the 1/3 distal radius, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck total body less head in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study, a mixed-longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents (total n = 804 girls and 771 boys; n = 19 girls and 22 boys with the TT genotype). Mixed effects modeling, stratified by sex, was used to test for associations between rs1800012 and aBMD or BMC Z-scores and for pubertal stage interactions. Separately, SITAR growth modeling of aBMD and BMC in subjects with longitudinal data reduced the complex longitudinal bone accrual curves into three parameters representing a-size, b-timing, and c-velocity. We tested for differences in these three parameters by rs1800012 genotype using t-tests. Girls with the TT genotype had significantly lower aBMD and BMC Z-scores prior to puberty completion (e.g. spine aBMD-Z P-interaction = 1.0 × 10-6), but this association was attenuated post-puberty. SITAR models revealed that TT girls began pubertal bone accrual later (b-timing; e.g. total hip BMC, P = 0.03). BMC and aBMD Z-scores also increased across puberty in TT homozygous boys. Our data, along with previous findings in post-menopausal women, suggest that rs1800012 principally affects female bone density during periods of high turnover. Insights into the genetics of bone gain and loss may be masked during the relatively quiescent state in mid-adulthood, and discovery efforts should focus on early and late life.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372552

RESUMO

Annual gains in BMC and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children vary with age, pubertal status, height-velocity, and lean body mass accrual (LBM velocity). Evaluating bone accrual in children with bone health-threatening conditions requires consideration of these determinants. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for calculating BMC/aBMD velocity SD scores (velocity-Z) and to evaluate bone accrual in youth with health conditions. Bone and body compositions via DXA were obtained for up to six annual intervals in healthy youth (n = 2014) enrolled in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS) . Longitudinal statistical methods were used to develop sex- and pubertal-status-specific reference equations for calculating velocity-Z for total body less head-BMC and lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TotHip), femoral neck, and 1/3-radius aBMD. Equations accounted for (1) height velocity, (2) height velocity and weight velocity, or (3) height velocity and LBM velocity. These equations were then applied to observational, single-center, 12-month longitudinal data from youth with cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 65), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors (n = 45), or Crohn disease (CD) initiating infliximab (n = 72). Associations between BMC/aBMD-Z change (conventional pediatric bone health monitoring method) and BMC/aBMD velocity-Z were assessed. The BMC/aBMD velocity-Z for CF, ALL, and CD was compared with BMDCS. Annual changes in the BMC/aBMD-Z and the BMC/aBMD velocity-Z were strongly correlated, but not equivalent; LS aBMD-Z = 1 equated with LS aBMD velocity-Z = -3. In CF, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was normal. In posttherapy ALL, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was increased, particularly at TotHip (1.01 [-.047; 1.7], p < 0.0001). In CD, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was increased at all skeletal sites. LBM-velocity adjustment attenuated these increases (eg, TotHip aBMD velocity-Z: 1.13 [0.004; 2.34] versus 1.52 [0.3; 2.85], p < 0.0001). Methods for quantifying the BMC/aBMD velocity that account for maturation and body composition changes provide a framework for evaluating childhood bone accretion and may provide insight into mechanisms contributing to altered accrual in chronic childhood conditions. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

7.
J Pediatr ; 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) provides a better assessment of measured adiposity at age 1 month compared with weight-for-length (WFL). STUDY DESIGN: Participants were healthy term-born infants in the Infant Growth and Microbiome (n = 146) and the Baby Peas (n = 147) studies. Length, weight, and body composition by air displacement plethysmography were measured at 1 month. World Health Organization-based WFL and BMI z-scores were calculated. Within-cohort z-scores of percent fat-Z, fat mass-Z, fat mass/length2-Z, fat mass/length3-Z, fat-free mass-Z, and fat-free mass/length2-Z were calculated. Correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for birth weight) analyses tested the associations between body composition outcomes and BMI-Z vs WFL-Z. Quantile regression was used to test the stability of these associations across the distribution of body compositions. RESULTS: The sample was 52% female and 56% African American. Accounting for birth weight, both BMI-Z and WFL-Z were strongly associated with fat mass-Z (coefficients 0.56 and 0.35, respectively), FM/L2-Z (0.73 and 0.51), and FM/L3-Z (0.79 and 0.58), with stronger associations for BMI-Z compared with WFL-Z (P < .05). Even after accounting statistically for birth weight, BMI-Z was persistently more strongly associated than WFL-Z with body composition outcomes across the distribution of body composition outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate in 2 distinct cohorts that BMI is a better indicator of adiposity in early infancy compared with WFL. Our findings support the preferred use of BMI for growth and nutritional status assessment in infancy.

8.
Headache ; 58(9): 1339-1346, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain headache characteristics and associated symptoms are commonly attributed to increased intracranial pressure, but they have not been systematically studied among children in the context of revised diagnostic criteria for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients treated for suspected or confirmed PTCS. Charts were reviewed for PTCS and headache diagnostic criteria and associated characteristics. Chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency of headache characteristics between groups. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-seven individuals were identified: 61 had definite PTCS, 10 had probable PTCS, 31 had elevated opening pressure (OP) without papilledema, and 25 had normal OP without papilledema. Eleven children had no headache (6 with definite PTCS, 5 with probable PTCS). Headache pattern was episodic in 49% (95% CI: 34-64%) of those with definite PTCS, 18% (95% CI 6-37%) of those with elevated OP without papilledema, and 16% (5-36%) of those with normal OP without papilledema. Headache location was more likely to involve the head along with neck or shoulders in those with definite PTCS compared with elevated OP without papilledema (OR = 7.2, 95% CI: 1.9-27.6) and normal OP (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-15.6) groups. DISCUSSION: While missing data and small cohort size are limitations, this study suggests that headache in PTCS is more likely to involve the head along with neck/shoulders, and that headache in PTCS may be episodic or constant. Headache is occasionally absent in PTCS.

9.
Pediatr Neurol ; 83: 50-55, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic utility of closing pressure and volume of cerebrospinal fluid removed with respect to papilledema resolution and headache improvement in pediatric pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of 93 children with definite pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. The primary outcome measure was time to resolution of papilledema, and the secondary outcome measure was time to resolution of headache. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in gender, age, or body mass index z score observed between subjects with (N = 35) and without (N = 58) documented closing pressure. The median time to resolution of papilledema was not statistically different between children above or equal to and those below the median closing pressure (170 mm of cerebrospinal fluid, n = 31, P = 0.391) or the volume of median cerebrospinal fluid removed (16 mL, n = 19, P = 0.155). There was no statistically significant difference detected in days of headache between the children with opening pressure above and equal to the median (400 mm of cerebrospinal fluid) and the children with opening pressure below the median (n = 44, P = 0.634). CONCLUSIONS: No significant association between closing pressure, amount of cerebrospinal fluid removed, and time to resolution of papilledema due to pseudotumor cerebri syndrome was detected. The diagnostic and therapeutic purposes of either measuring the closing pressure or maximizing the volume of cerebrospinal fluid removed were not evident in these analyses.

10.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure of unknown cause. IIH has been shown to be associated with female sex as well as obesity. This genome-wide association study was performed to determine whether genetic variants are associated with this condition. METHODS: We analyzed the chromosomal DNA of 95 patients with IIH enrolled in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial and 95 controls matched on sex, body mass index, and self-reported ethnicity. The samples were genotyped using Illumina Infinium HumanCoreExome v1-0 array and analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model that accounted for population stratification using multidimensional scaling. RESULTS: A total of 301,908 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated. The strongest associations observed were for rs2234671 on chromosome 2 (P = 4.93 × 10), rs79642714 on chromosome 6 (P = 2.12 × 10), and rs200288366 on chromosome 12 (P = 6.23 × 10). In addition, 3 candidate regions marked by multiple associated SNPs were identified on chromosome 5, 13, and 14. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the genetics of IIH in a rigorously characterized cohort. The study was limited by its modest size and thus would have only been able to demonstrate highly significant association on a genome-wide scale for relatively common alleles exerting large effects. However, several variants and loci were identified that might be strong candidates for follow-up studies in other well-phenotyped cohorts.

11.
J Endocr Soc ; 2(4): 361-373, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594260

RESUMO

Context: Endocrine disorders are common in individuals with mitochondrial disease. To develop evidence-based screening practices in this high-risk population, updated age-stratified estimates of the prevalence of endocrine conditions are needed. Objective: To measure the point prevalence of selected endocrine disorders in individuals with mitochondrial disease. Design Setting and Patients: The North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium Patient Registry is a large, prospective, physician-curated cohort study of individuals with mitochondrial disease. Participants (n = 404) are of any age, with a diagnosis of primary mitochondrial disease confirmed by molecular genetic testing. Main Outcome Measures: Age-specific prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), abnormal growth and sexual maturation (AGSM), hypoparathyroidism, and hypothyroidism. Results: The majority of our sample was pediatric (<18 years; 60.1%), female (56.9%), and white (85.9%). DM affected 2% of participants aged <18 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4% to 5.7%] and 24.4% of adult participants (95% CI: 18.6% to 30.9%). DM prevalence was highest in individuals with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes syndrome (MELAS; 31.9%, of whom 86.2% had the m.3243A>G mutation). DM occurred more often with mitochondrial DNA defects (point mutations and/or deletions) than with nuclear DNA mutations (23.3% vs 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Other prevalence estimates were 44.1% (95% CI: 38.8% to 49.6%) for AGSM; 0.3% (95% CI: 0% to 1.6%) for hypoparathyroidism; and 6.3% (95% CI: 4% to 9.3%) for hypothyroidism. Conclusion: DM and AGSM are highly prevalent in primary mitochondrial disease. Certain clinical mitochondrial syndromes (MELAS and Kearns-Sayre/Pearson syndrome spectrum disorders) demonstrated a higher burden of endocrinopathies. Clinical screening practices should reflect the substantial prevalence of endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease.

12.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(4): 449-462, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526616

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a known contributing factor in mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease pathogenesis. Yet, no efficient means exists to objectively evaluate the comparative therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of different antioxidant compounds empirically used in human RC disease. We postulated that pre-clinical comparative analysis of diverse antioxidant drugs having suggested utility in primary RC disease using animal and cellular models of RC dysfunction may improve understanding of their integrated effects and physiologic mechanisms, and enable prioritization of lead antioxidant molecules to pursue in human clinical trials. Here, lifespan effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin E, vitamin C, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), mitochondrial-targeted CoQ10 (MS010), lipoate, and orotate were evaluated as the primary outcome in a well-established, short-lived C. elegans gas-1(fc21) animal model of RC complex I disease. Healthspan effects were interrogated to assess potential reversal of their globally disrupted in vivo mitochondrial physiology, transcriptome profiles, and intermediary metabolic flux. NAC or vitamin E fully rescued, and coenzyme Q, lipoic acid, orotic acid, and vitamin C partially rescued gas-1(fc21) lifespan toward that of wild-type N2 Bristol worms. MS010 and CoQ10 largely reversed biochemical pathway expression changes in gas-1(fc21) worms. While nearly all drugs normalized the upregulated expression of the "cellular antioxidant pathway", they failed to rescue the mutant worms' increased in vivo mitochondrial oxidant burden. NAC and vitamin E therapeutic efficacy were validated in human fibroblast and/or zebrafish complex I disease models. Remarkably, rotenone-induced zebrafish brain death was preventable partially with NAC and fully with vitamin E. Overall, these pre-clinical model animal data demonstrate that several classical antioxidant drugs do yield significant benefit on viability and survival in primary mitochondrial disease, where their major therapeutic benefit appears to result from targeting global cellular, rather than intramitochondria-specific, oxidative stress. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether the two antioxidants, NAC and vitamin E, that show greatest efficacy in translational model animals significantly improve the survival, function, and feeling of human subjects with primary mitochondrial RC disease.

13.
Aging Dis ; 9(1): 17-30, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392078

RESUMO

TCF7L2 is located at one of the most strongly associated type 2 diabetes loci reported to date. We previously reported that the most abundant member of a specific protein complex to bind across the presumed causal variant at this locus, rs7903146, was poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase type 1 (PARP-1). We analyzed the impact of PARP-1 inhibition on C. elegans health in the setting of hyperglycemia and on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion in human intestinal cells. Given that high glucose concentrations progressively shorten the lifespan of C. elegans, in part by impacting key well-conserved insulin-modulated signaling pathways, we investigated the effect of PARP-1 inhibition with Olaparib on the lifespan of C. elegans nematodes under varying hyperglycemic conditions. Subsequently, we investigated whether Olaparib treatment had any effect on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion in the human NCI-H716 intestinal cell line, a model system for the investigation of enteroendocrine function. Treatment with 100uM Olaparib in nematodes exposed to high concentrations of glucose led to significant lifespan rescue. The beneficial lifespan effect of Olaparib appeared to require both PARP-1 and TCF7L2, since treatment had no effect in hyperglycemic conditions in knock-out worm strains for either of these homologs. Further investigation using the NCI-H716 cells revealed that Olaparib significantly enhanced secretion of the incretin, GLP-1, plus the gene expression of TCF7L2, GCG and PC1. These data from studies in both C. elegans and a human cell line suggest that PARP-1 inhibition offers a novel therapeutic avenue to treat type 2 diabetes.

14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(5): 977-986, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine if replacing time spent in high- and low-impact physical activity (PA) predicts changes in pediatric bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC). METHODS: We analyzed data from the longitudinal Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (N = 2337 with up to seven visits). The participants were age 5-19 yr at baseline, 51.2% were female, and 80.6% were nonblack. Spine, total hip, and femoral neck areal BMD and total body less head (TBLH) BMC Z-scores were calculated. Hours per day spent in high- and low-impact PA were self-reported. Standard covariate-adjusted (partition model) and time allocation-sensitive isotemporal substitution modeling frameworks were applied to linear mixed models. Statistical interactions with sex, self-reported ancestry, age, and bone fragility genetic scores (percentage of areal BMD-lowering alleles carried) were tested. RESULTS: In standard models, high-impact PA was positively associated with bone Z-score at all four skeletal sites (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = 0.05, P = 2.0 × 10), whereas low-impact PA was not associated with any of the bone Z-scores. In isotemporal substitution models, replacing 1 h·d of low- for high-impact PA was associated with higher bone Z-scores (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = 0.06, P = 2.9 × 10). Conversely, replacing 1 h·d of high- for low-impact PA was associated with lower bone Z-scores (e.g., TBLH-BMC Z-score: beta = -0.06, P = 2.9 × 10). The substitution associations were similar for each sex and ancestry group, and for those with higher and lower genetic scores for bone fragility (P-interactions > 0.05), but increased in strength among the older adolescents (P-age interactions < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Time-sensitive models suggest that replacing low-impact PA for high-impact PA would be beneficial for the growing skeleton in the majority of children.

15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 172(2): 196-197, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228153
16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(5): 812-821, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240982

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a complex disease with developmental origins. It is therefore important to understand the genetic contribution to pediatric areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Individual skeletal site phenotyping has been primarily used to identify pediatric aBMD loci. However, this approach is limited because there is a degree of aBMD discordance across skeletal sites. We therefore applied a novel multidimensional phenotyping approach to further understand the genetic regulation of pediatric aBMD. Our sample comprised a prospective, longitudinal cohort of 1293 children of European ancestry (52% female; up to seven annual measurements). Principal components analysis was applied to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived aBMD Z-scores for total hip, femoral neck, spine, and distal radius to generate multidimensional aBMD phenotypes (ie, principal component scores). We tested the association between a genetic score (percentage of bone lowering alleles at 63 loci) and each principal component. We also performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) using the multiethnic baseline data (n = 1885) to identify novel loci associated with these principal components. The first component (PC1) reflected a concordant phenotypic model of the skeleton (eg, higher loading score = higher BMD across all sites). In contrast, PC2 was discordant for distal radius versus spine and hip aBMD, and PC3 was discordant for spine versus distal radius and hip aBMD. The genetic score was associated with PC1 (beta = -0.05, p = 3.9 × 10-10 ), but was not associated with discordant PC2 or PC3. Our GWAS discovered variation near CPED1 that associated with PC2 (rs67991850, p = 2.5 × 10-11 ) and near RAB11FIP5 (rs58649746, p = 4.8 × 10-9 ) that associated with PC3. In conclusion, an established bone fragility genetic summary score was associated with a concordant skeletal phenotype, but not discordant skeletal phenotypes. Novel associations were observed for the discordant multidimensional skeletal phenotypes that provide new biological insights into the developing skeleton. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

17.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(3): 430-436, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068475

RESUMO

Later puberty associates with lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and both are risk factors for osteoporosis. However, the association between puberty timing-associated genetic variants and aBMD during development, and the causal relationship between puberty timing and aBMD, remain uncharacterized. We constructed sex-specific polygenic risk scores (GRS) consisting of 333 genetic variants associated with later puberty in European-descent children in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS), consisting of a longitudinal cohort with up to seven assessments (n = 933) and a cross-sectional cohort (n = 486). These GRS were tested for associations with age- and sex-specific aBMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), total hip, and distal radius, accounting for clinical covariates using sex-stratified linear mixed models. The causal relationship between puberty timing and aBMD was tested in the BMDCS and in publicly available adult data (GEFOS consortium) using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). The puberty-delaying GRS was associated with later puberty and lower LS-aBMD in the BMDCS in both sexes (combined beta ± SE = -0.078 ± 0.024; p = 0.0010). In the MR framework, the puberty-delaying genetic instrument also supported a causal association with lower LS-aBMD and FN-aBMD in adults of both sexes. Our results suggest that pubertal timing is causal for diminished aBMD in a skeletal site- and sex-specific manner that tracks throughout life, potentially impacting later risk for osteoporosis, which should be tested in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

18.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 24(2): 110-115, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941525

RESUMO

Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is defined by the presence of elevated intracranial pressure in the setting of normal brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. PTCS can occur in the pediatric and adult populations and, if untreated, may lead to permanent visual loss. In this review, discussion will focus on PTCS in the pediatric population and will outline its distinct epidemiology and key elements of diagnosis, evaluation and management. Finally, although the precise mechanisms are unclear, the underlying pathophysiology will be considered.


Assuntos
Pseudotumor Cerebral/classificação , Pseudotumor Cerebral/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Pseudotumor Cerebral/epidemiologia , Pseudotumor Cerebral/fisiopatologia
19.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 4(9): 622-631, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by GAA triplet repeat expansions or point mutations in the FXN gene. FA is associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study assessed the age-specific prevalence of FA-associated DM and its impact on neurologic outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 811 individuals with FA from 12 international sites in a prospective natural history study (FA Clinical Outcome Measures Study, FACOMS). Physical function was assessed, using validated instruments. Multivariable regression analyses examined the independent association of DM with outcomes. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 30.1 years (SD 15.3, range: 7-82), 50% were female, and 94% were non-Hispanic white. 9% (42/459) of adults and 3% (10/352) of children had DM. Individuals with FA-associated DM were older (P < 0.001), had longer GAA repeat length on the least affected FXN allele (P = 0.037), and more severe FA (P = 0.0001). Of individuals with DM, 65% (34/52) were taking insulin. Even after accounting statistically for both age and GAA repeat length, DM was independently associated with greater FA symptom burden (P = 0.010), reduced capacity to perform activities of daily living (P = 0.021), and a decrease of 0.33 SDs on a composite performance measure (95% CI: -0.56-0.11, P = 0.004); the relative impact of DM was most apparent in younger individuals. CONCLUSIONS: DM-associated FA has an independent adverse impact on well-being in affected individuals, particularly at younger ages. In future, evidence-based approaches for identification and management of FA-related DM may improve both health and function.

20.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(9): e171769, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672287

RESUMO

Importance: Prevention of osteoporosis in adulthood begins with optimizing bone health in early life. The longitudinal association between growth and bone accretion during childhood is not fully understood. Objectives: To assess the acquisition of whole-body (WB) and skeletal site-specific bone mineral content (BMC) relative to linear growth in a healthy, diverse, longitudinal cohort of children, adolescents, and young adults and to test for differences related to sex and African American race. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a mixed longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years at 5 US clinical centers. Participants were healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. The study dates were July 2002 through March 2010. The dates of the analysis were June through December 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Anthropometrics, BMC, and body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The superimposition by translation and rotation (SITAR) analysis method was used to define the mean trajectories for height, WB lean soft tissue, appendicular lean soft tissue, and WB and skeletal site-specific BMC acquisition and to measure the age and magnitude of peak velocity for each parameter. The SITAR modeling was performed separately by sex and self-reported race. Results: Among 2014 healthy children, adolescents, and young adults (1022 [50.7%] female and 479 [23.8%] African American) aged 5 to 19 years at study entry, the mean age of peak height velocity was 13.1 years (95% CI, 13.0-13.2 years) in African American boys vs 13.4 years (95% CI, 13.3-13.4 years) in non-African American boys (difference, -0.3 years; 95% CI, -0.4 to -0.1 years) and 11.0 years (95% CI, 10.8-11.1 years) in African American girls vs 11.6 years (95% CI, 11.5-11.6 years) in non-African American girls (difference, -0.6 years; 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.5 years). Age of peak acquisition of WB BMC was 14.0 years (95% CI, 13.8-14.1 years) in African American boys vs 14.0 years (95% CI, 13.9-14.1 years) in non-African American boys (difference, -0.0 years; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.2 years) and 12.1 years (95% CI, 12.0-12.3 years) in African American girls vs 12.4 years (95% CI, 12.3-12.5 years) in non-African American girls (difference, -0.3 years; 95% CI, -0.4 to -0.1 years). At age 7 years, children had acquired 69.5% to 74.5% of maximal observed height but only 29.6% to 38.1% of maximal observed WB BMC. Adolescents gained 32.7% to 35.8% of maximal observed WB BMC during the 2 years before and 2 years after peak height velocity. Another 6.9% to 10.7% of maximal observed WB BMC occurred after linear growth had ceased. In the group at highest risk for fracture, non-African American boys, peak fracture incidence occurred approximately 1 year before peak height velocity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal study, height gains substantially outpaced gains in BMC during childhood, which could contribute to fracture risk. A significant proportion of bone is accrued after adult height is achieved. Therefore, late adolescence represents a potentially underrecognized window of opportunity to optimize bone mass.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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