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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044395, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite increasing focus on individualised diabetes management, current diabetes quality measures are based on meeting generic haemoglobin A1c thresholds and do not reflect considerations of clinical complexity, hypoglycaemic susceptibility or treatment burden. Our team observed a multidisciplinary stakeholder panel tasked with informing an appropriate diabetes therapy indicator (ADTI) and analysed their deliberations, seeking to understand what constitutes appropriate diabetes therapy and how it can be captured using an operational quality indicator. We focused specifically on factors the panel valued in an ideal indicator, how they defined appropriateness and how they thought an indicator of appropriateness could be operationalised. DESIGN: Qualitative study examining Delphi panel deliberations as it iteratively refined the ADTI. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The 12-member panel was comprised of clinicians (endocrinology, primary care, geriatrics), pharmacists, nurses, researchers, and representatives of public and private health plans. It met for four teleconference calls and deliberated asynchronously using semi-structured questionnaires following each call to develop the ADTI. These semistructured questionnaires, as well as the meeting minutes, were then analysed using an inductive thematic approach. RESULTS: We identified three themes in panellist discussions that represented the core value systems underpinning the indicator and its formation: (1) promoting individualised, evidence-based and equitable care; (2) balancing autonomy and prescriptiveness in clinical decision-making; and (3) ensuring an accurate, reliable and practical indicator. These three principles were operationalised into definitions of treatment intensity and clinical complexity, and yielded an indicator that participants judged both fair and effective. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of what multidisciplinary stakeholders perceive as appropriate diabetes management can help develop quality indicators that are patient-centred, evidence-based, equitable and pragmatic across a range of clinical settings.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current diabetes quality measures are agnostic to patient clinical complexity and type of treatment required to achieve it. Our objective was to introduce a patient-centered indicator of appropriate diabetes therapy indicator (ADTI), designed for patients with type 2 diabetes, which is based on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) but is also contextualized by patient complexity and treatment intensity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A draft indicator was iteratively refined by a multidisciplinary Delphi panel using existing quality measures, guidelines, and published literature. ADTI performance was then assessed using OptumLabs Data Warehouse data for 2015. Included adults (n=206 279) with type 2 diabetes were categorized as clinically complex based on comorbidities, then categorized as treated appropriately, overtreated, or undertreated based on a matrix of clinical complexity, HbA1c level, and medications used. Associations between ADTI and emergency department/hospital visits for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were assessed by calculating event rates for each treatment intensity subset. RESULTS: Overall, 7.4% of patients with type 2 diabetes were overtreated and 21.1% were undertreated. Patients with high complexity were more likely to be overtreated (OR 5.60, 95% CI 5.37 to 5.83) and less likely to be undertreated (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.68) than patients with low complexity. Overtreated patients had higher rates of hypoglycemia than appropriately treated patients (22.0 vs 6.2 per 1000 people/year), whereas undertreated patients had higher rates of hyperglycemia (8.4 vs 1.9 per 1000 people/year). CONCLUSIONS: The ADTI may facilitate timely, patient-centered treatment intensification/deintensification with the goal of achieving safer evidence-based care.

3.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Older patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for post-acute care are at high risk for hospital readmission. Yet, as in the community setting, some readmissions may be preventable with optimal transitional care. This study examined the proportion of 30-day hospital readmissions from SNFs that could be considered potentially preventable readmissions (PPRs) and evaluated the reasons for these readmissions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Post-acute practice of an integrated health care delivery system serving 11 SNFs in the US Midwest. Patients discharged from the hospital to an SNF and subsequently readmitted to the hospital within 30 days from January 1, 2009, through November 31, 2016. METHODS: A computerized algorithm evaluated the relationship between initial and repeat hospitalizations to determine whether the repeat hospitalization was a PPR. We assessed for changes in PPR rates across the system over the study period and evaluated the readmission categories to identify the most prevalent PPR categories. RESULTS: Of 11,976 discharges to SNFs for post-acute care among 8041 patients over the study period, 16.6% resulted in rehospitalization within 30 days, and 64.8% of these rehospitalizations were considered PPRs. Annual proportion of PPRs ranged from 58.2% to 66.4% [mean (standard deviation) 0.65 (0.03); 95% confidence interval CI 0.63-0.67; P = .36], with no discernable trend. Nearly one-half (46.2%) of all 30-day readmissions were classified as potentially preventable medical readmissions related to recurrence or continuation of the reason for initial admission or to complications from the initial hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: For this cohort of patients discharged to SNFs, a computerized algorithm categorized a large proportion of 30-day hospital readmissions as potentially preventable, with nearly one-half of those linked to the reason for the initial hospitalization. These findings indicate the importance of improvement in postdischarge transitional care for patients discharged to SNFs.

4.
JMIR Med Inform ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain affects more than 20% of adults in the United States and is associated with substantial physical, mental, and social burden. Clinical text contains rich information about chronic pain, but no systematic appraisal has been performed to assess the electronic health record (EHR) narratives for these patients. A formal content analysis of the unstructured EHR data can inform clinical practice and research in chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: We characterized individual episodes of chronic pain by annotating and analyzing EHR notes for a stratified cohort of adults with known chronic pain. METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) infrastructure to screen all residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota for evidence of chronic pain, between 1/1/2005 and 9/30/2015. Diagnosis codes were used to assemble a cohort of 6,586 chronic pain patients; people with cancer were excluded. The records of an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 62 patients from the cohort were annotated using an iteratively developed guideline. The annotated concepts included date, location, severity, causes, effects to life, diagnostic procedures, medications, and other treatment modalities. RESULTS: A total of 94 chronic pain episodes from 62 distinct patients were identified by reviewing 3,272 clinical notes. Documentation was written by clinicians across a wide spectrum of specialties. Most patients (65%; n=40) had one pain episode during the study period. Inter-annotator agreement ranged from 0.78 to 1.00 across the annotated concepts. Some pain-related concepts (e.g., body location) had 100% coverage among all the episodes, while others had moderate coverage (e.g., effects to life, 59%). Back pain and leg pain were the most common types of chronic pain in the annotated cohort. Musculoskeletal issues like arthritis were annotated as the most common causes. Opioids were the most commonly captured medication, while physical/occupational therapies were the most common non-pharmaceutical treatments. CONCLUSIONS: We have systematically annotated chronic pain episodes in clinical text. The rich content analysis results revealed complexity of the chronic pain episodes and of the management, as well as the challenges in extracting pertinent information even for humans. Despite the pilot nature of the work, the annotation guideline and corpus should be able to serve as informative references for other institutions with shared interest in chronic pain research using the EHR.

5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(Suppl 2): 849-869, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is widely prevalent, associated with morbidity and mortality, but may be lessened with timely implementation of evidence-based strategies including blood pressure (BP) control. Nonetheless, an evidence-practice gap persists. We synthesize the evidence for clinician-facing interventions to improve hypertension management in CKD patients in primary care. METHODS: Electronic databases and related publications were queried for relevant studies. We used a conceptual model to address heterogeneity of interventions. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of interventions on blood pressure (BP) outcomes and a narrative synthesis of other CKD relevant clinical outcomes. Planned subgroup analyses were performed by (1) study design (randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or nonrandomized studies (NRS)); (2) intervention type (guideline-concordant decision support, shared care, pharmacist-facing); and (3) use of behavioral/implementation theory. RESULTS: Of 2704 manuscripts screened, 73 underwent full-text review; 22 met inclusion criteria. BP target achievement was reported in 15 and systolic BP reduction in 6 studies. Among RCTs, all interventions had a significant effect on BP control, (pooled OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38). Subgroup analysis by intervention type showed significant effects for guideline-concordant decision support (pooled OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.27) but not shared care (pooled OR 1.71; 95% CI 0.96 to 3.03) or pharmacist-facing interventions (pooled OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.82 to 1.34). Subgroup analysis finding was replicated with pooling of RCTs and NRS. The five contributing studies showed large and significant reduction in systolic BP (pooled WMD - 3.86; 95% CI - 7.2 to - 0.55). Use of a behavioral/implementation theory had no impact, while RCTs showed smaller effect sizes than NRS. DISCUSSION: Process-oriented implementation strategies used with guideline-concordant decision support was a promising implementation approach. Better reporting guidelines on implementation would enable more useful synthesis of the efficacy of CKD clinical interventions integrated into primary care. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102441.

8.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(10): 3036-3039, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700223

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold, payers across the USA have stepped up to alleviate patients' financial burden by waiving cost-sharing for COVID-19 testing and treatment. However, there has been no substantive discussion of potential long-term effects of COVID-19 on patient health or their financial and policy implications. After recovery, patients remain at risk for lung disease, heart disease, frailty, and mental health disorders. There may also be long-term sequelae of adverse events that develop in the course of COVID-19 and its treatment. These complications are likely to place additional medical, psychological, and economic burdens on all patients, with lower-income individuals, the uninsured and underinsured, and individuals experiencing homelessness being most vulnerable. Thus, there needs to be a comprehensive plan for preventing and managing post-COVID-19 complications to quell their clinical, economic, and public health consequences and to support patients experiencing delayed morbidity and disability as a result.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sobreviventes , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e200618, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150271

RESUMO

Importance: Despite advances in cancer treatment and cancer-related outcomes, disparities in cancer mortality remain. Lower rates of cancer prevention screening and consequent delays in diagnosis may exacerbate these disparities. Better understanding of the association between area-level social determinants of health and cancer screening may be helpful to increase screening rates. Objective: To examine the association between area deprivation, rurality, and screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in patients from an integrated health care delivery system in 3 US Midwest states (Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study of adults receiving primary care at 75 primary care practices in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin, rates of recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening completion were ascertained using electronic health records between July 1, 2016, and June 30, 2017. The area deprivation index (ADI) is a composite measure of social determinants of health composed of 17 US Census indicators and was calculated for all census block groups in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin (11 230 census block groups). Rurality was defined at the zip code level. Using multivariable logistic regression, this study examined the association between the ADI, rurality, and completion of cancer screening after adjusting for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, race, and sex (for colorectal cancer only). Main Outcomes and Measures: Completion of recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Results: The study cohorts were composed of 78 302 patients eligible for breast cancer screening (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [7.1] years), 126 731 patients eligible for cervical cancer screening (mean [SD] age, 42.6 [13.2] years), and 145 550 patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening (mean [SD] age, 62.4 [7.0] years; 52.9% [77 048 of 145 550] female). The odds of completing recommended screening were decreased for individuals living in the most deprived (highest ADI) census block group quintile compared with the least deprived (lowest ADI) quintile: the odds ratios were 0.51 (95% CI, 0.46-0.57) for breast cancer, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.54-0.62) for cervical cancer, and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.53-0.61) for colorectal cancer. Individuals living in rural areas compared with urban areas also had lower rates of cancer screening: the odds ratios were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.79) for breast cancer, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.79-0.83) for cervical cancer, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.96) for colorectal cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: Individuals living in areas of greater deprivation and rurality had lower rates of recommended cancer screening, signaling the need for effective intervention strategies that may include improved community partnerships and patient engagement to enhance access to screening in highest-risk populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glycemic targets and glucose-lowering regimens should be individualized based on multiple factors, including the presence of comorbidities. We examined contemporary patterns of glycemic control and use of medications known to cause hypoglycemia among adults with diabetes across age and multimorbidity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and rates of insulin/sulfonylurea use as a function of age and multimorbidity using administrative claims and laboratory data for adults with type 2 diabetes included in OptumLabs Data Warehouse, 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016. Comorbidity burden was assessed by counts of any of 16 comorbidities specified by guidelines as warranting relaxation of HbA1c targets, classified as being diabetes concordant (diabetes complications or risk factors), discordant (unrelated to diabetes), or advanced (life limiting). RESULTS: Among 194 157 patients with type 2 diabetes included in the study, 45.2% had only concordant comorbidities, 30.6% concordant and discordant, 2.7% only discordant, and 13.0% had ≥1 advanced comorbidity. Mean HbA1c was 7.7% among 18-44 year-olds versus 6.9% among ≥75 year-olds, and was higher among patients with comorbidities: 7.3% with concordant only, 7.1% with discordant only, 7.1% with concordant and discordant, and 7.0% with advanced comorbidities compared with 7.4% among patients without comorbidities. The odds of insulin use decreased with age (OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.54) for age ≥75 vs 18-44 years) but increased with accumulation of concordant (OR 5.50 (95% CI 5.22 to 5.79) for ≥3 vs none), discordant (OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.60 to 1.86) for ≥3 vs none), and advanced (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.68) for ≥2 vs none) comorbidities. Conversely, sulfonylurea use increased with age (OR 1.36 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.44) for age ≥75 vs 18-44 years) but decreased with accumulation of concordant (OR 0.76 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.79) for ≥3 vs none), discordant (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.76) for ≥3 vs none), but not advanced (OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.01) for ≥2 vs none) comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of patients achieving low HbA1c levels was highest among older and multimorbid patients. Older patients and patients with higher comorbidity burden were more likely to be treated with insulin to achieve these HbA1c levels despite potential for hypoglycemia and uncertain long-term benefit.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Multimorbidade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919099, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922562

RESUMO

Importance: Severe hypoglycemia is a serious and potentially preventable complication of diabetes, with some of the most severe episodes requiring emergency department (ED) care or hospitalization. A variety of health conditions increase the risk of hypoglycemia. People with diabetes often have multiple comorbidities, and the association of such multimorbidity with hypoglycemia risk in the context of other risk factors is uncertain. Objective: To examine the associations of age, cumulative multimorbidity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and use of glucose level-lowering medication with hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of claims and laboratory data from OptumLabs Data Warehouse, an administrative claims database of commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries in the United States. Participants were adults (aged ≥18 years) with diabetes who had an available HbA1c level result in 2015. Data from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016, were analyzed. Final analyses were conducted from December 2017 to September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: This study calculated rates of hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations during the year after the index HbA1c level was obtained, stratified by patient demographic characteristics, diabetes type, comorbidities (from 16 guideline-specified high-risk conditions), index HbA1c level, and glucose level-lowering medication use. The association of each variable with hypoglycemia-related ED and hospital care was examined using multivariable Poisson regression analysis overall and by diabetes type. Results: The study cohort was composed of 201 705 adults with diabetes (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [12.1] years; 102 668 [50.9%] women; 118 804 [58.9%] white; mean [SD] index HbA1c level, 7.2% [1.5%]). Overall, there were 9.06 (95% CI, 8.64-9.47) hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations per 1000 persons per year. The risk of hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations was increased by age 75 years or older (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.56 [95% CI, 1.23-2.02] vs 18-44 years), black race/ethnicity (IRR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.16-1.46] vs white race/ethnicity), lower annual household income (IRR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.53-0.74] for ≥$100 000 vs <$40 000), number of comorbidities (increasing from IRR of 1.66 [95% CI, 1.42-1.95] in the presence of 2 comorbidities to IRR of 4.12 [95% CI, 3.07-5.51] with ≥8 comorbidities compared with ≤1), prior hypoglycemia-related ED visit or hospitalization (IRR, 6.60 [95% CI, 5.77-7.56]), and glucose level-lowering treatment regimen (IRR, 6.73 [95% CI, 4.93-9.22] for sulfonylurea; 12.53 [95% CI, 8.90-17.64] for basal insulin; and 27.65 [95% CI, 20.32-37.63] for basal plus bolus insulin compared with other medications). Independent of these factors, having type 1 diabetes was associated with a 34% increase in the risk of hypoglycemia-related ED visits or hospitalizations (IRR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.15-1.55]). The index HbA1c level was associated with hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations when both low (IRR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.12-1.87] for HbA1c level ≤5.6% vs 6.5%-6.9%) and high (IRR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.02-1.50] for HbA1c level ≥10%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of adults with diabetes, the risk of an ED visit or hospitalization for hypoglycemia appeared to be highest among patients with type 1 diabetes, multiple comorbidities, prior severe hypoglycemia, and sulfonylurea and/or insulin use. At-risk patients may benefit from individualized treatment regimens to decrease their risk of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Multimorbidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Hosp Med ; 14(6): 329-335, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although posthospitalization care transitions programs (CTP) are highly diverse, their overall program thoroughness is most predictive of their success. OBJECTIVE: To identify components of a successful homebased CTP and patient characteristics that are most predictive of reduced 30-day readmissions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. PATIENTS: A total of 315 community-dwelling, hospitalized, older adults (≥60 years) at high risk for readmission (Elder Risk Assessment score ≥16), discharged home over the period of January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013. SETTING: Midwest primary care practice in an integrated health system. INTERVENTION: Enrollment in a CTP during acute hospitalization. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was all-cause readmission within 30 days of the first CTP evaluation. Logistic regression was used to examine independent variables, including patient demographics, comorbidities, number of medications, completion, and timing of program fidelity measures, and prior utilization of healthcare. RESULTS: The overall 30-day readmission rate was 17.1%. The intensity of follow-up varied among patients, with 17.1% and 50.8% of the patients requiring one and ≥3 home visits, respectively, within 30 days. More than half (54.6%) required visits beyond 30 days. Compared with patients who were not readmitted, readmitted patients were less likely to exhibit cognitive impairment (29.6% vs 46.0%; P = .03) and were more likely to have high medication use (59.3% vs 44.4%; P = .047), more emergency department (ED; 0.8 vs 0.4; P = .03) and primary care visits (4.0 vs 3.0; P = .018), and longer cumulative time in the hospital (4.6 vs 2.5 days; P = .03) within 180 days of the index hospitalization. Multivariable analysis indicated that only cognitive impairment and previous ED visits were important predictors of readmission. CONCLUSIONS: No single CTP component reliably predicted reduced readmission risk. Patients with cognitive impairment and polypharmacy derived the most benefit from the program.

15.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 7(1): e000720, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908790

RESUMO

Objective: Activin A, an inflammatory mediator implicated in cellular senescence-induced adipose tissue dysfunction and profibrotic kidney injury, may become a new target for the treatment of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and chronic kidney diseases. We tested the hypothesis that human DKD-related injury leads to upregulation of activin A in blood and urine and in a human kidney cell model. We further hypothesized that circulating activin A parallels kidney injury markers in DKD. Research design and methods: In two adult diabetes cohorts and controls (Minnesota, USA; Galway, Ireland), the relationships between plasma (or urine) activin A, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and DKD injury biomarkers were tested with logistic regression and correlation coefficients. Activin A, inflammatory, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and senescence markers were assayed in human kidney (HK-2) cells incubated in high glucose plus transforming growth factor-ß1 or albumin. Results: Plasma activin A levels were elevated in diabetes (n=206) compared with controls (n=76; 418.1 vs 259.3 pg/mL; p<0.001) and correlated inversely with eGFR (rs=-0.61; p<0.001; diabetes). After eGFR adjustment, only albuminuria (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.09) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (OR 6.40, 95% CI 1.08 to 38.00) associated with the highest activin tertile. Albuminuria also related to urinary activin (rs=0.65; p<0.001). Following in vitro HK-2 injury, activin, inflammatory, EMT genes and supernatant activin levels were increased. Conclusions: Circulating activin A is increased in human DKD and correlates with reduced kidney function and kidney injury markers. DKD-injured human renal tubule cells develop a profibrotic and inflammatory phenotype with activin A upregulation. These findings underscore the role of inflammation and provide a basis for further exploration of activin A as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in DKD.


Assuntos
Ativinas/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Senescência Celular , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Rim/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia
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