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1.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality in patients with less severe (stage C) HF. The prevalence of diabetes and its complications in advanced (stage D) HF and their contributions to mortality risk, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of all adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota with advanced HF between 2007-2017. Patients with diabetes were identified using HEDIS criteria. Diabetes complications were captured using the Diabetes Complications Severity Index (DCSI). Of 936 patients with advanced HF, 338 (36.1%) had diabetes. Overall, median (IQR) survival after development of advanced HF was 13.1 (3.9-33.1) months; mortality did not vary by diabetes status (aHR 1.06, 95% CI 0.90-1.25, p=0.45) or by HbA1c in those with diabetes (aHR 1.01 per 1% increase, 95% CI 0.93-1.10, p=0.82). However, patients with diabetes and 4 (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 0.92-1.67) or 5-7 (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.03) diabetes complications were at increased mortality risk compared to those with ≤3 complications. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of patients with advanced HF have diabetes. In advanced HF, overall prognosis is poor, but we found no evidence that diabetes is associated with a significantly higher mortality risk.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541421

RESUMO

The vast majority of patients (>99%) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 survive immediate infection but remain at risk for persistent and/or delayed multisystem. This review of published reports through May 31, 2021, found that manifestations of postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (PASC) affect between 33% and 98% of coronavirus disease 2019 survivors and comprise a wide range of symptoms and complications in the pulmonary, cardiovascular, neurologic, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, renal, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems in both adult and pediatric populations. Additional complications are likely to emerge and be identified over time. Although data on PASC risk factors and vulnerable populations are scarce, evidence points to a disproportionate impact on racial/ethnic minorities, older patients, patients with preexisting conditions, and rural residents. Concerted efforts by researchers, health systems, public health agencies, payers, and governments are urgently needed to better understand and mitigate the long-term effects of PASC on individual and population health.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123471, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468753

RESUMO

Importance: Hyperglycemic crises (ie, diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA] and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state [HHS]) are life-threatening acute complications of diabetes. Efforts to prevent these events at the population level have been hindered by scarce granular data and difficulty in identifying individuals at highest risk. Objective: To assess sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment-related factors associated with hyperglycemic crises in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the US from 2014 to 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed administrative claims and laboratory results for adults (aged ≥18 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of emergency department or hospital visits with a primary diagnosis of DKA or HHS (adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and region, and for year when calculating annualized rates) were calculated separately for patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The associations of sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity, region, and income), clinical factors (comorbidities), and treatment factors (glucose-lowering medications, hemoglobin A1c) with DKA or HHS in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were assessed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among 20 156 adults with type 1 diabetes (mean [SD] age, 46.6 [16.5] years; 51.2% male; 72.6% White race/ethnicity) and 796 382 with type 2 diabetes (mean [SD] age, 65.6 [11.8] years; 50.3% female; 54.4% White race/ethnicity), adjusted rates of hyperglycemic crises were 52.69 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 48.26-57.12 per 1000 person-years) for type 1 diabetes and 4.04 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 3.88-4.21 per 1000 person-years) for type 2 diabetes. In both groups, factors associated with the greatest hyperglycemic crisis risk were low income (≥$200 000 vs <$40 000: type 1 diabetes incidence risk ratio [IRR], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.46-0.81]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.56-0.86]), Black race/ethnicity (vs White race/ethnicity: type 1 diabetes IRR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.01-1.74]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.09-1.27]), high hemoglobin A1c level (≥10% vs 6.5%-6.9%: type 1 diabetes IRR, 7.81 [95% CI, 5.78-10.54]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 7.06 [95% CI, 6.26-7.96]), history of hyperglycemic crises (type 1 diabetes IRR, 7.88 [95% CI, 6.06-9.99]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 17.51 [95% CI, 15.07-20.34]), severe hypoglycemia (type 1 diabetes IRR, 2.77 [95% CI, 2.15-3.56]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 4.18 [95% CI, 3.58-4.87]), depression (type 1 diabetes IRR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.37-1.92]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.34-1.59]), neuropathy (type 1 diabetes IRR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.39-1.93]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.17-1.34]), and nephropathy (type 1 diabetes IRR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.01-1.48]; type 2 diabetes IRR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.14-1.33]). Age had a U-shaped association with hyperglycemic crisis risk in patients with type 1 diabetes (compared with patients aged 18-44 years: 45-64 years IRR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.59-0.87]; 65-74 years IRR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.47-0.80]; ≥75 years IRR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.66-1.38]). In type 2 diabetes, risk of hyperglycemic crises decreased progressively with age (45-64 years IRR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.51-0.63]; 65-74 years IRR, 0.44 [95% CI, .39-0.49]; ≥75 years IRR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.36-0.47]). In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher risk was associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor therapy (IRR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.49) and insulin dependency (compared with regimens with bolus insulin: regimens with basal insulin only, IRR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.63-0.75]; and without any insulin, IRR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.33-0.40]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, younger age, Black race/ethnicity, low income, and poor glycemic control were associated with an increased risk of hyperglycemic crises. The findings suggest that multidisciplinary interventions focusing on groups at high risk for hyperglycemic crises are needed to prevent these dangerous events.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are preferentially initiated among patients with cardiovascular disease, heart failure (HF), or nephropathy, where these drug classes have established benefit, compared with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), for which corresponding benefits have not been demonstrated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed claims of adults with type 2 diabetes included in OptumLabs Data Warehouse, a deidentified database of commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries, who first started GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, or DPP-4i therapy between 2016 and 2019. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the relative risk ratios (RRR) of starting GLP-1RA and SGLT2i compared with DPP-4i for those with a history of myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular disease, HF, and nephropathy after adjusting for demographic and other clinical factors. RESULTS: We identified 75,395 patients who started GLP-1RA, 58,234 who started SGLT2i, and 91,884 who started DPP-4i. Patients with prior MI, cerebrovascular disease, or nephropathy were less likely to start GLP-1RA rather than DPP-4i compared with patients without these conditions (RRR 0.83 [95% CI 0.78-0.88] for MI, RRR 0.77 [0.74-0.81] for cerebrovascular disease, and RRR 0.87 [0.84-0.91] for nephropathy). Patients with HF or nephropathy were less likely to start SGLT2i (RRR 0.83 [0.80-0.87] for HF and RRR 0.57 [0.55-0.60] for nephropathy). Both medication classes were less likely to be started by non-White and older patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cardiovascular disease, HF, and nephropathy, for whom evidence suggests a greater likelihood of benefiting from GLP-1RA and/or SGLT2i therapy, were less likely to start these drugs. Addressing this treatment/benefit paradox, which was most pronounced in non-White and older patients, may help reduce the morbidity associated with these conditions.

6.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of the impact of high deductible health plans (HDHPs) on the utilizations of services required for optimal management of diabetes and subsequent health outcomes. METHODS: Systematic literature review of studies published between January 1, 2000, and May 7, 2021, was conducted that examined the impact of HDHP on diabetes monitoring (eg, recommended laboratory and surveillance testing), routine care (eg, ambulatory appointments), medication management (eg, medication initiation, adherence), and acute health care utilization (eg, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, incident complications). RESULTS: Of the 303 reviewed articles, 8 were relevant. These studies demonstrated that HDHPs lower spending at the expense of reduced high-value diabetes monitoring, routine care, and medication adherence, potentially contributing to the observed increases in acute health care utilization. Additionally, patient out-of-pocket costs for recommended screenings doubled, and total health care expenditures increased by 49.4% for HDHP enrollees compared with enrollees in traditional health plans. Reductions in disease monitoring and routine care and increases in acute health care utilization were greatest in lower-income patients. None of the studies examined the impact of HDHPs on access to diabetes self-management education, technology use, or glycemic control. CONCLUSION: Although HDHPs reduce some health care utilization and costs, they appear to do so at the expense of limiting high-value care and medication adherence. Policymakers, providers, and payers should be more cognizant of the potential for negative consequences of HDHPs on patients' health.

8.
Nat Med ; 27(5): 815-819, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958795

RESUMO

We have conducted a pragmatic clinical trial aimed to assess whether an electrocardiogram (ECG)-based, artificial intelligence (AI)-powered clinical decision support tool enables early diagnosis of low ejection fraction (EF), a condition that is underdiagnosed but treatable. In this trial ( NCT04000087 ), 120 primary care teams from 45 clinics or hospitals were cluster-randomized to either the intervention arm (access to AI results; 181 clinicians) or the control arm (usual care; 177 clinicians). ECGs were obtained as part of routine care from a total of 22,641 adults (N = 11,573 intervention; N = 11,068 control) without prior heart failure. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of low EF (≤50%) within 90 days of the ECG. The trial met the prespecified primary endpoint, demonstrating that the intervention increased the diagnosis of low EF in the overall cohort (1.6% in the control arm versus 2.1% in the intervention arm, odds ratio (OR) 1.32 (1.01-1.61), P = 0.007) and among those who were identified as having a high likelihood of low EF (that is, positive AI-ECG, 6% of the overall cohort) (14.5% in the control arm versus 19.5% in the intervention arm, OR 1.43 (1.08-1.91), P = 0.01). In the overall cohort, echocardiogram utilization was similar between the two arms (18.2% control versus 19.2% intervention, P = 0.17); for patients with positive AI-ECGs, more echocardiograms were obtained in the intervention compared to the control arm (38.1% control versus 49.6% intervention, P < 0.001). These results indicate that use of an AI algorithm based on ECGs can enable the early diagnosis of low EF in patients in the setting of routine primary care.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas/instrumentação , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most transitional care initiatives to reduce rehospitalization have focused on the transition that occurs between a patient's hospital discharge and return home. However, many patients are discharged from a skilled nursing facility (SNF) to their homes. The goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mayo Clinic Care Transitions (MCCT) program (hereafter called program) among patients discharged from SNFs to their homes. DESIGN: Propensity-matched control-intervention trial. INTERVENTION: Patients in the intervention group received care management following nursing stay (a home visit and nursing phone calls). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients enrolled after discharge from an SNF to home were matched to patients who did not receive intervention because of refusal, program capacity, or distance. Patients were aged ≥60 years, at high risk for hospitalization, and discharged from an SNF. METHODS: Program enrollees were matched through propensity score to nonenrollees on the basis of age, sex, comorbid health burden, and mortality risk score. Conditional logistic regression analysis examined 30-day hospitalization and emergency department (ED) use; Cox proportional hazards analyses examined 180-day hospital stay and ED use. RESULTS: Each group comprised 160 patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 85.4 (7.4) years]. Thirty-day hospitalization and ED rates were 4.4% and 10.0% in the program group and 3.8% and 10.0% in the group with usual care (P = .76 for hospitalization; P > .99 for ED). At 180 days, hospitalization and ED rates were 30.6% and 46.3% for program patients compared with 11.3% and 25.0% in the comparison group (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We found no evidence of reduced hospitalization or ED visits by program patients vs the comparison group. Such findings are crucial because they illustrate how aggressive stabilization care within the SNF may mitigate the program role. Furthermore, we found higher ED and hospitalization rates at 180 days in program patients than the comparison group.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e041817, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic error is a key healthcare concern and can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Yet no study has investigated the relationship between adverse outcomes resulting from diagnostic errors and one potentially large contributor to these errors: deficiencies in diagnostic knowledge. Our objective was to measure that associations between diagnostic knowledge and adverse outcomes after visits to primary care physicians that were at risk for diagnostic errors. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: 1410 US general internists who recently took their American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (ABIM-IM-MOC) exam treating 42 407 Medicare beneficiaries who experienced 48 632 'index' outpatient visits for new problems at risk for diagnostic error because the presenting problem (eg, dizziness) was related to prespecified diagnostic error sensitive conditions (eg, stroke). OUTCOME MEASURES: 90-day risk of all-cause death, and, for outcome conditions related to the index visits diagnosis, emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations. DESIGN: Using retrospective cohort study design, we related physician performance on ABIM-IM-MOC diagnostic exam questions to patient outcomes during the 90-day period following an index visit at risk for diagnostic error after controlling for practice characteristics, patient sociodemographic and baseline clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Rates of 90-day adverse outcomes per 1000 index visits were 7 for death, 11 for hospitalisations and 14 for ED visits. Being seen by a physician in the top versus bottom third of diagnostic knowledge during an index visit for a new problem at risk for diagnostic error was associated with 2.9 fewer all-cause deaths (95% CI -5.0 to -0.7, p=0.008), 4.1 fewer hospitalisations (95% CI -6.9 to -1.2, p=0.006) and 4.9 fewer ED visits (95% CI -8.1% to -1.6%, p=0.003) per 1000 visits. CONCLUSION: Higher diagnostic knowledge was associated with lower risk of adverse outcomes after visits for problems at heightened risk for diagnostic error.


Assuntos
Médicos de Atenção Primária , Erros de Diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Humanos , Medicare , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Observational studies constitute an important evidence base for hypoglycemia in diabetes management. This requires consistent and reliable ascertainment and reporting methodology, particularly in studies of type 2 diabetes where hypoglycemia risk is heterogeneous. Therefore, we aimed to examine the definitions of hypoglycemia used by observational studies of patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a meta-epidemiological review of observational studies reporting on hypoglycemia or evaluating glucose-lowering medications in adults with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched from January 1970 to May 2018. The definitions of non-severe, severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia were examined. RESULTS: We reviewed 243 studies: 47.7% reported on non-severe hypoglycemia, 77.8% on severe hypoglycemia and 16.9% on nocturnal hypoglycemia; 5.8% did not specify. Among 116 studies reporting non-severe hypoglycemia, 18.1% provided no definition, 23.3% used glucose values, 38.8% relied on patient-reported symptoms, 17.2% accepted either glucose values or patient-reported symptoms and 2.6% relied on International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes. Among 189 studies reporting severe hypoglycemia, 11.1% provided no definition, 53.4% required symptoms needing assistance, 3.7% relied on glucose values, 14.8% relied on ICD codes, 2.6% relied on ICD codes or glucose values and 15.9% required both symptoms needing assistance and glucose values. Overall, 38.2% of non-severe and 67.7% of severe hypoglycemia definitions were consistent with the International Hypoglycemia Study Group. CONCLUSIONS: The marked heterogeneity in how hypoglycemia is defined in observational studies may contribute to the inadequate understanding and correction of hypoglycemia risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2035792, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523188

RESUMO

Importance: Glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are associated with low rates of hypoglycemia, and postmarketing trials of GLP-1RA and SGLT2i demonstrated that these medications improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Objective: To compare trends in initiation of treatment with GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, and DPP-4i by older adults with type 2 diabetes insured by Medicare Advantage vs commercial health plans. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used administrative claims data from a deidentified database of commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries. Adults aged 58 to 66 years with type 2 diabetes who filled any medication prescription to lower glucose levels from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2019, were compared between groups. Exposure: Enrollment in a Medicare Advantage or commercial health insurance plan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The odds of initiating GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, and DPP-4i treatment were examined for Medicare Advantage vs commercial insurance beneficiaries using 3 separate logistic regression models adjusted for year and demographic and clinical factors. These models were used to calculate adjusted annual rates of medication initiation by health plan. Results: A total of 382 574 adults with pharmacologically treated type 2 diabetes (52.9% men; mean [SD] age, 62.4 [2.7] years) were identified, including 172 180 Medicare Advantage and 210 394 commercial beneficiaries. From 2016 to 2019, adjusted rates of initiation of GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, and DPP-4i treatment increased among all beneficiaries, from 2.14% to 20.02% for GLP-1RA among commercial insurance beneficiaries and from 1.50% to 11.44% among Medicare Advantage beneficiaries; from 2.74% to 18.15% for SGLT2i among commercial insurance beneficiaries and from 1.57% to 8.51% among Medicare Advantage beneficiaries; and from 3.30% to 11.71% for DPP-4i among commercial insurance beneficiaries and from 2.44% to 7.68% among Medicare Advantage beneficiaries. Initiation rates for all 3 drug classes were consistently lower among Medicare Advantage than among commercial insurance beneficiaries. Within each calendar year, the odds of initiating GLP-1RA treatment ranged from 0.28 (95% CI, 0.26-0.29) to 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.75) for Medicare Advantage and commercial insurance beneficiaries, respectively; SGLT2i, from 0.21 (95% CI, 0.20-0.22) to 0.57 (95% CI, 0.53-0.61), respectively; and DPP-4i, from 0.37 (95% CI, 0.34-0.39) to 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.78), respectively (P < .001 for all). The odds of starting GLP-1RA and SGLT2i increased with income; for an income of $200 000 and higher vs less than $40 000, the odds ratio for GLP-1RA was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.15-1.32) and for SGLT2i was 1.16 (95% CI, 1.09-1.24). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that Medicare Advantage beneficiaries may be less likely than commercially insured beneficiaries to be treated with newer medications to lower glucose levels, with greater disparities among lower-income patients. Better understanding of nonclinical factors contributing to treatment decisions and efforts to promote greater equity in diabetes management appear to be needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Seguro Saúde , Medicare Part C , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471808

RESUMO

RATIONAL AND OBJECTIVE: Prognosis provides critical knowledge for shared decision making between patients and clinicians. While several prognostic indices for mortality in dialysis patients have been developed, their performance among elderly patients initiating dialysis is unknown, despite great need for reliable prognostication in that context. To assess the performance of 6 previously validated prognostic indices to predict 3 and/or 6 months mortality in a cohort of elderly incident dialysis patients. STUDY DESIGN: Validation study of prognostic indices using retrospective cohort data. Indices were compared using the concordance ("c")-statistic, i.e. area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Calibration, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were also calculated. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Incident elderly (age ≥75 years; n = 349) dialysis patients at a tertiary referral center. ESTABLISHED PREDICTORS: Variables for six validated prognostic indices for short term (3 and 6 month) mortality prediction (Foley, NCI, REIN, updated REIN, Thamer, and Wick) were extracted from the electronic medical record. The indices were individually applied as per each index specifications to predict 3- and/or 6-month mortality. RESULTS: In our cohort of 349 patients, mean age was 81.5±4.4 years, 66% were male, and median survival was 351 days. The c-statistic for the risk prediction indices ranged from 0.57 to 0.73. Wick ROC 0.73 (0.68, 0.78) and Foley 0.67 (0.61, 0.73) indices performed best. The Foley index was weakly calibrated with poor overall model fit (p <0.01) and overestimated mortality risk, while the Wick index was relatively well-calibrated but underestimated mortality risk. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size, use of secondary data, need for imputation, homogeneous population. CONCLUSION: Most predictive indices for mortality performed moderately in our incident dialysis population. The Wick and Foley indices were the best performing, but had issues with under and over calibration. More accurate indices for predicting survival in older patients with kidney failure are needed.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(5): 1060-1066, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Older patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for post-acute care are at high risk for hospital readmission. Yet, as in the community setting, some readmissions may be preventable with optimal transitional care. This study examined the proportion of 30-day hospital readmissions from SNFs that could be considered potentially preventable readmissions (PPRs) and evaluated the reasons for these readmissions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Post-acute practice of an integrated health care delivery system serving 11 SNFs in the US Midwest. Patients discharged from the hospital to an SNF and subsequently readmitted to the hospital within 30 days from January 1, 2009, through November 31, 2016. METHODS: A computerized algorithm evaluated the relationship between initial and repeat hospitalizations to determine whether the repeat hospitalization was a PPR. We assessed for changes in PPR rates across the system over the study period and evaluated the readmission categories to identify the most prevalent PPR categories. RESULTS: Of 11,976 discharges to SNFs for post-acute care among 8041 patients over the study period, 16.6% resulted in rehospitalization within 30 days, and 64.8% of these rehospitalizations were considered PPRs. Annual proportion of PPRs ranged from 58.2% to 66.4% [mean (standard deviation) 0.65 (0.03); 95% confidence interval CI 0.63-0.67; P = .36], with no discernable trend. Nearly one-half (46.2%) of all 30-day readmissions were classified as potentially preventable medical readmissions related to recurrence or continuation of the reason for initial admission or to complications from the initial hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: For this cohort of patients discharged to SNFs, a computerized algorithm categorized a large proportion of 30-day hospital readmissions as potentially preventable, with nearly one-half of those linked to the reason for the initial hospitalization. These findings indicate the importance of improvement in postdischarge transitional care for patients discharged to SNFs.

17.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044395, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite increasing focus on individualised diabetes management, current diabetes quality measures are based on meeting generic haemoglobin A1c thresholds and do not reflect considerations of clinical complexity, hypoglycaemic susceptibility or treatment burden. Our team observed a multidisciplinary stakeholder panel tasked with informing an appropriate diabetes therapy indicator (ADTI) and analysed their deliberations, seeking to understand what constitutes appropriate diabetes therapy and how it can be captured using an operational quality indicator. We focused specifically on factors the panel valued in an ideal indicator, how they defined appropriateness and how they thought an indicator of appropriateness could be operationalised. DESIGN: Qualitative study examining Delphi panel deliberations as it iteratively refined the ADTI. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The 12-member panel was comprised of clinicians (endocrinology, primary care, geriatrics), pharmacists, nurses, researchers, and representatives of public and private health plans. It met for four teleconference calls and deliberated asynchronously using semi-structured questionnaires following each call to develop the ADTI. These semistructured questionnaires, as well as the meeting minutes, were then analysed using an inductive thematic approach. RESULTS: We identified three themes in panellist discussions that represented the core value systems underpinning the indicator and its formation: (1) promoting individualised, evidence-based and equitable care; (2) balancing autonomy and prescriptiveness in clinical decision-making; and (3) ensuring an accurate, reliable and practical indicator. These three principles were operationalised into definitions of treatment intensity and clinical complexity, and yielded an indicator that participants judged both fair and effective. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of what multidisciplinary stakeholders perceive as appropriate diabetes management can help develop quality indicators that are patient-centred, evidence-based, equitable and pragmatic across a range of clinical settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current diabetes quality measures are agnostic to patient clinical complexity and type of treatment required to achieve it. Our objective was to introduce a patient-centered indicator of appropriate diabetes therapy indicator (ADTI), designed for patients with type 2 diabetes, which is based on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) but is also contextualized by patient complexity and treatment intensity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A draft indicator was iteratively refined by a multidisciplinary Delphi panel using existing quality measures, guidelines, and published literature. ADTI performance was then assessed using OptumLabs Data Warehouse data for 2015. Included adults (n=206 279) with type 2 diabetes were categorized as clinically complex based on comorbidities, then categorized as treated appropriately, overtreated, or undertreated based on a matrix of clinical complexity, HbA1c level, and medications used. Associations between ADTI and emergency department/hospital visits for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were assessed by calculating event rates for each treatment intensity subset. RESULTS: Overall, 7.4% of patients with type 2 diabetes were overtreated and 21.1% were undertreated. Patients with high complexity were more likely to be overtreated (OR 5.60, 95% CI 5.37 to 5.83) and less likely to be undertreated (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.68) than patients with low complexity. Overtreated patients had higher rates of hypoglycemia than appropriately treated patients (22.0 vs 6.2 per 1000 people/year), whereas undertreated patients had higher rates of hyperglycemia (8.4 vs 1.9 per 1000 people/year). CONCLUSIONS: The ADTI may facilitate timely, patient-centered treatment intensification/deintensification with the goal of achieving safer evidence-based care.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
19.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(Suppl 2): 849-869, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is widely prevalent, associated with morbidity and mortality, but may be lessened with timely implementation of evidence-based strategies including blood pressure (BP) control. Nonetheless, an evidence-practice gap persists. We synthesize the evidence for clinician-facing interventions to improve hypertension management in CKD patients in primary care. METHODS: Electronic databases and related publications were queried for relevant studies. We used a conceptual model to address heterogeneity of interventions. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of interventions on blood pressure (BP) outcomes and a narrative synthesis of other CKD relevant clinical outcomes. Planned subgroup analyses were performed by (1) study design (randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or nonrandomized studies (NRS)); (2) intervention type (guideline-concordant decision support, shared care, pharmacist-facing); and (3) use of behavioral/implementation theory. RESULTS: Of 2704 manuscripts screened, 73 underwent full-text review; 22 met inclusion criteria. BP target achievement was reported in 15 and systolic BP reduction in 6 studies. Among RCTs, all interventions had a significant effect on BP control, (pooled OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38). Subgroup analysis by intervention type showed significant effects for guideline-concordant decision support (pooled OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.27) but not shared care (pooled OR 1.71; 95% CI 0.96 to 3.03) or pharmacist-facing interventions (pooled OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.82 to 1.34). Subgroup analysis finding was replicated with pooling of RCTs and NRS. The five contributing studies showed large and significant reduction in systolic BP (pooled WMD - 3.86; 95% CI - 7.2 to - 0.55). Use of a behavioral/implementation theory had no impact, while RCTs showed smaller effect sizes than NRS. DISCUSSION: Process-oriented implementation strategies used with guideline-concordant decision support was a promising implementation approach. Better reporting guidelines on implementation would enable more useful synthesis of the efficacy of CKD clinical interventions integrated into primary care. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102441.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(11): e18659, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain affects more than 20% of adults in the United States and is associated with substantial physical, mental, and social burden. Clinical text contains rich information about chronic pain, but no systematic appraisal has been performed to assess the electronic health record (EHR) narratives for these patients. A formal content analysis of the unstructured EHR data can inform clinical practice and research in chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: We characterized individual episodes of chronic pain by annotating and analyzing EHR notes for a stratified cohort of adults with known chronic pain. METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project infrastructure to screen all residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, for evidence of chronic pain, between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2015. Diagnosis codes were used to assemble a cohort of 6586 chronic pain patients; people with cancer were excluded. The records of an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 62 patients from the cohort were annotated using an iteratively developed guideline. The annotated concepts included date, location, severity, causes, effects on quality of life, diagnostic procedures, medications, and other treatment modalities. RESULTS: A total of 94 chronic pain episodes from 62 distinct patients were identified by reviewing 3272 clinical notes. Documentation was written by clinicians across a wide spectrum of specialties. Most patients (40/62, 65%) had 1 pain episode during the study period. Interannotator agreement ranged from 0.78 to 1.00 across the annotated concepts. Some pain-related concepts (eg, body location) had 100% (94/94) coverage among all the episodes, while others had moderate coverage (eg, effects on quality of life) (55/94, 59%). Back pain and leg pain were the most common types of chronic pain in the annotated cohort. Musculoskeletal issues like arthritis were annotated as the most common causes. Opioids were the most commonly captured medication, while physical and occupational therapies were the most common nonpharmacological treatments. CONCLUSIONS: We systematically annotated chronic pain episodes in clinical text. The rich content analysis results revealed complexity of the chronic pain episodes and of their management, as well as the challenges in extracting pertinent information, even for humans. Despite the pilot study nature of the work, the annotation guideline and corpus should be able to serve as informative references for other institutions with shared interest in chronic pain research using EHRs.

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