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1.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211067551, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current consensus and position statements recommend that concussed patients be asymptomatic upon the initiation of the graduated return to activity (RTA) protocol. However, a significant number of concussed patients are beginning their RTA protocols while endorsing symptoms. PURPOSE: To characterize symptom endorsement at the beginning of the RTA protocol and examine the association between symptom endorsement and RTA protocol duration in service academy cadets. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted with cadets at 3 US service academies. Postconcussion symptom inventories were recorded upon the initiation of an RTA protocol. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool Symptom Inventory was used to classify participants into 3 groups (0 symptoms, 1 symptom, and ≥2 symptoms) upon the initiation of the RTA protocol. The primary outcome of interest was RTA protocol duration. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated to estimate RTA protocol duration by symptom endorsement, sex, varsity status, academic break, and time to graduated RTA initiation. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between symptom endorsement at the initiation of the RTA protocol and RTA protocol duration (α < .05). RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 966 concussed cadets (36% women). Headache (42%) and faintness/dizziness (44%) were the most commonly endorsed symptoms on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, respectively. Univariate results revealed a significant association between endorsing ≥2 symptoms and RTA protocol duration. In the multivariable model, endorsing ≥2 symptoms maintained a statistically significant association with RTA protocol duration. Significant associations were observed between RTA protocol duration and nonvarsity status (27% longer), women (15% longer), academic breaks (70% longer), and time to the initiation of the RTA protocol (1.1% longer daily incremental increase) after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSION: Symptom endorsement at the initiation of an RTA protocol was associated with RTA protocol duration. Cadets who had returned to preinjury baseline symptom burden or improved from baseline symptom burden and endorsed ≥2 symptoms at the initiation of the RTA protocol took longer to RTA.

2.
J Neurotrauma ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018818

RESUMO

Evidence suggests neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) may be associated with an increased incidence of concussion, but no studies have cross-sectionally and longitudinally assessed the associations of NDs and sex with concussion in collegiate athletes. We sought to assess the odds and relative risk of concussion in athletes self-reporting a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability (LD), and ADHD+LD. Data from the CARE Consortium (2014 - 2017) were used to evaluate the likelihood of concussion for male and female athletes with ADHD, LD, and ADHD+LD, relative to controls. Odds ratios of concussion history prior to enrollment and relative risk ratios for incurring a concussion following enrollment, with and without concussion history were calculated. Athletes with self-reported diagnosis of ADHD, LD, and ADHD+LD were more likely to report a single concussion and multiple concussions prior to enrollment in the CARE Consortium, irrespective of sex compared to control athletes. While enrolled in CARE, male athletes with ADHD, LD and ADHD+LD had greater risk of incurring a concussion) than controls, irrespective of concussion history. Male athletes with ADHD+LD, with concussion history and without concussion history had greater risk of incurring a concussion than controls. These results suggest NDs may be associated with increased odds of single and multiple concussions, irrespective of sex. However, it appears only male athletes with ADHD+LD and concussion history had greater risk than respective controls. There were no significant differences between females and males with ADHD, LD, or ADHD+LD for either odds of concussion history or risk for incurring concussion.

3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 100: 83-87, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848337

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that sport-related concussion results in a robust inflammatory response that can be measured in serum or plasma and is predictive of symptom recovery. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from serum or plasma have emerged as a promising source of biomarkers for neurological disorders like concussion because they may better reflect central immunological activity. However, the association of acute concussion with EV-associated cytokines has not yet been systematically studied in humans. We tested the hypothesis that EV-associated cytokines are elevated acutely and predictive of symptom duration following concussion in a cohort of high-school and collegiate football players. Players were enrolled and provided serum samples at a preseason baseline visit (N = 857). An additional blood draw was obtained in players that subsequently suffered a concussion (N = 23) within 6-hours post-injury and in matched, uninjured players (N = 44). Concentrations of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor were measured in EV and EV-depleted serum samples. EV-associated IL-6 was significantly elevated post-injury relative to baseline levels and controls (ps < 0.01). In EV-depleted samples, IL-1RA was significantly elevated post-injury relative to baseline levels and controls (ps < 0.01). Time-to-event analyses showed that post-injury EV-associated IL-6 levels were positively associated with the number of days that injured athletes reported symptoms (p < 0.05). These results highlight the potential of EV-associated cytokines as biomarkers of concussion.

4.
Neurotrauma Rep ; 2(1): 363-369, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901936

RESUMO

Peripheral injuries are common in patients who experience mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, the additive or interactive effects of polytrauma on psychosocial adjustment, functional limitations, and clinical outcomes after head injury remain relatively unexamined. Using a recently developed structured injury symptom interview, we assessed the perception and relative importance of peripheral injuries at 3 months post-injury in patients with mTBI as defined by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Our sample of Level 1 trauma patients (n = 74) included individuals who were treated and released from the emergency department (n = 43) and those admitted to an inpatient unit (n = 31). Across the sample, 91% of patients with mTBI experienced additional non-head injuries known to commonly impact recovery following mTBI, a majority of whom ranked pain as their worst peripheral injury symptom. Forty-nine percent of the mTBI sample (54% of the subsample with concurrent mTBI and peripheral injuries) reported being more bothered by peripheral injury symptoms than mTBI. Differences between patients with mTBI with worse mTBI symptoms versus those with worse peripheral injury symptoms are described. Conventional measures of injury severity do not capture patients' perceptions of the totality of their injuries, which limits the development of patient-centered treatments. Future research should enroll patients with mTBI diverse in peripheral injury severity and develop standardized assessments to characterize peripheral symptoms, enabling better characterization of the relevance of concurrent injuries in recovery and outcomes of patients with mTBI.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140191, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964854

RESUMO

Importance: Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a recognized sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the long-term outcomes associated with PTE independent of injury severity are not precisely known. Objective: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and association with functional outcomes and self-reported somatic, cognitive, and psychological concerns of self-reported PTE in a large, prospectively collected TBI cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted as part of the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study and identified patients presenting with TBI to 1 of 18 participating level 1 US trauma centers from February 2014 to July 2018. Patients with TBI, extracranial orthopedic injuries (orthopedic controls), and individuals without reported injuries (eg, friends and family of participants; hereafter friend controls) were prospectively followed for 12 months. Data were analyzed from January 2020 to April 2021. Exposure: Demographic, imaging, and clinical information was collected according to TBI Common Data Elements. Incidence of self-reported PTE was assessed using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Epilepsy Screening Questionnaire (NINDS-ESQ). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended, Rivermead Cognitive Metric (RCM; derived from the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire), and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI). Results: Of 3296 participants identified as part of the study, 3044 met inclusion criteria, and 1885 participants (mean [SD] age, 41.3 [17.1] years; 1241 [65.8%] men and 644 [34.2%] women) had follow-up information at 12 months, including 1493 patients with TBI; 182 orthopedic controls, 210 uninjured friend controls; 41 patients with TBI (2.8%) and no controls had positive screening results for PTE. Compared with a negative screening result for PTE, having a positive screening result for PTE was associated with presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score (8.1 [4.8] vs.13.5 [3.3]; P < .001) as well as with anomalous acute head imaging findings (risk ratio, 6.42 [95% CI, 2.71-15.22]). After controlling for age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and imaging findings, compared with patients with TBI and without PTE, patients with TBI and with positive PTE screening results had significantly lower Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended scores (mean [SD], 6.1 [1.7] vs 4.7 [1.5]; P < .001), higher BSI scores (mean [SD], 50.2 [10.7] vs 58.6 [10.8]; P = .02), and higher RCM scores (mean [SD], 3.1 [2.6] vs 5.3 [1.9]; P = .002) at 12 months. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the incidence of self-reported PTE after TBI was found to be 2.8% and was independently associated with unfavorable outcomes. These findings highlight the need for effective antiepileptogenic therapies after TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/etiologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121035607, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postmortem and experimental studies indicate a potential association between repeated concussions and stroke risk in older contact sport athletes. We examined the relationship between concussion and stroke history in former National Football League players aged ≥50 years. METHODS: Former professional football players aged ≥50 years who played ≥1 year in the National Football League were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Indirect standardization was used to calculate overall and decade-specific standardized prevalence ratios. Logistic regression using Firth's bias reduction method examined the association between lifetime concussion history 0 (n=119; 12.2%), 1 to 2 (n=152; 15.5%), 3 to 5 (n=242; 24.7%), 6 to 9 (201; 20.5%), and 10+(n=265; 27.1%) and stroke. Adjusted odds ratios for stroke were calculated for concussion history groups, age, and coronary artery disease and/or myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The 979 participants who met inclusion criteria had a mean age of 65.0±9.0 years (range, 50-99). The prevalence of stroke was 3.4% (n=33), significantly lower than expected based on rates of stroke in US men aged 50 and over (standardized prevalence ratio=0.56, Z= -4.56, P<0.001). Greater odds of stroke history were associated with concussion history (10+ versus 0, adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]=5.51 [1.61-28.95]), cardiovascular disease (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]=2.24 [1.01-4.77]), and age (1-year-increase adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]=1.07 [1.02-1.11]). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stroke among former National Football League players aged ≥50 years was lower than the general population, with significantly increased risk among those with 10 or more prior concussions. Findings add to the evidence suggesting that traumatic brain injuries are associated with increased risk of stroke. Clinically, management of cardio- and cerebrovascular health may be pertinent to those with a history of multiple prior concussions.

7.
Sports Med ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potential links between a history of sport-related concussions and later-life neurobiological and psychological brain health have been studied in former collision-sport athletes. However, empirical studies of how former athletes perceive the future of their brain health as a result of these injuries are missing. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) identify the extent to which former National Football League players currently have concerns about their long-term psychological and cognitive functioning as a result of concussions sustained while playing football; (2) examine whether current concerns are different than concerns they had while playing football; (3) examine the relationship between current brain health concerns and self-reported concussion history (SR-CHx); and (4) explore other important factors associated with these concerns. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, former National Football League players with a SR-CHx of one or more concussions (n = 1514; aged mean [standard deviation] = 52.3 [15.7] years) completed a general health questionnaire. Participants reported their lifetime concussion history, as well as both their current concerns and concerns while playing football (i.e., retrospective concerns) regarding the long-term effects of concussions on their memory, thinking skills, and risk of developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Current and retrospective concerns were self-reported on a five-point Likert scale. Four concussion history categories were created based on SR-CHx: 1-2 (n = 309); 3-5 (n = 413); 6-9 (n = 356); and 10 + (n = 436) lifetime concussions. Proportions of participants reporting each level of current and retrospective concerns were examined to identify whether concerns presently exist in these former players, and whether their current concerns are different than retrospective concerns. Next, we explored associations between current concerns and SR-CHx. RESULTS: More than one-third of participants reported being currently "extremely concerned" about memory problems (36.9%), thinking skills (37.8%), and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (39.5%). In contrast, when asked about concerns while playing, most reported being "not at all concerned" regarding memory = 61.2%, thinking skills = 56.1%, and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy = 71.2%. Of those who retrospectively endorsed being "not at all" or "slightly" concerned regarding memory (n = 1159/1514), thinking skills (n = 1080/1514), and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (n = 1219/1514), approximately half reported being currently "moderately" or "extremely" concerned about those same issues (n = 586/1159; n = 534/1080; n = 619/1219, respectively). Current concerns regarding memory (χ216 = 316.61; p < 0.001; V = 0.264), thinking skills (χ216 = 333.17; p < 0.001; V = 0.271), and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (χ216 = 280.85; p < 0.001; V = 0.249) were significantly related to SR-CHx, with more concussions being associated with greater current concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Former National Football League players reported significant concerns regarding the potential effects of their prior concussions on long-term brain health, and these concerns are more prevalent now than when they were playing football. Cognitive and mental health concerns are readily identifiable targets for clinical intervention. Clinicians working with former players may wish to explore the extent to which individual players experience these concerns, the nature and depth of these concerns, and the impact of these concerns on the player's functioning and well-being.

8.
Clin Neuropsychol ; : 1-18, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Somatic complaints are known to complicate recovery after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but the construct is poorly understood due to evolving definitions of associated disorders and uncertainty related to its position within the broader construct network of psychopathology. Methods: To better understand measures of somatic symptom reporting widely used with mTBI patients, we examined relationships between the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Somatization (SOM) scale, the Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale, other measures of psychological and personality functioning, and mTBI in both athlete concussion (n = 100) and civilian trauma (n = 75 mTBI, n = 79 orthopedic injury) samples. Results: The association between post-injury SOM and RC1 was moderate (r=.37-.46) and similar to associations between these inventories and depression and anxiety symptoms. In civilians with mTBI, RC1 was more strongly associated with diverse personality dimensions than SOM. mTBI athletes reported increases in somatic symptoms from pre- to post-injury, with larger group effect sizes on SOM (ηp2 = 0.34, p < .001) than RC1 (ηp2 = 0.09, p = .003). Civilian mTBI patients showed a trend for somewhat higher post-injury RC1 scores than orthopedic trauma controls (ηp2 = 0.02, p = .068). Conclusions: Findings add to the current knowledge of the influence of somatic complaints in mTBI. BSI-18 SOM and MMPI-2-RF RC1 are not interchangeable, as they are only modestly correlated and demonstrate differing associations with other clinical outcomes and mTBI.

9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate prevalences of MCI and dementia diagnoses in former National Football League (NFL) players ≥50 years old and examine the relationships among these diagnoses and an array of predictors of long-term brain health. METHODS: A cross-section of former NFL players (n = 922; aged [mean ± SD] 64.8 ± 8.9 years) completed a questionnaire. Prevalences of self-reported medical diagnoses of MCI and dementia were reported alongside U.S. population estimates across 5-year age intervals (e.g., 60-64 years). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated for multiple predictors of long-term brain health. RESULTS: Overall, MCI and dementia prevalences were n = 219(23.8%) and n = 82(8.9%), respectively. Each diagnosis was more prevalent in former NFL players across age groups than U.S. norms, with greater disparities at relatively younger ages (e.g., 65-69) compared with older ages. Greater prevalences of MCI and dementia were associated with: self-reported concussion history (10+ vs. 0; PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.66[1.02-2.71] and 2.61[1.01-6.71], respectively); recent pain intensity (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.13[1.07-1.20] and 1.15[1.03-1.28]); and diagnoses of depression (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 2.70[1.92-3.81] and 3.22[1.69-6.14]), anxiety (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.96[1.26-3.07] and 3.14[1.47-6.74]), or both (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 3.11[2.38-4.08] and 4.43[2.71-7.25]). Higher MCI prevalence was related to sleep apnea (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.30[1.06-1.60]); higher dementia prevalence was associated with age (5-year interval, PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.42[1.26-1.60]) and race (non-White vs. White, PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.64[1.07-2.53]). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported MCI and dementia prevalences were higher in former NFL players than national estimates and were associated with numerous personal factors, including mood-related disorders and a high number of self-reported concussions. Predictors of higher MCI and dementia prevalence may be modifiable and warrant consideration by clinicians and researchers as potential targets to mitigate the onset of these conditions.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the longitudinal course of depressive symptom severity over 19 years in former American football players and the influence of concussion history, contact sport participation and physical function on observed trajectories. METHODS: Former American football players completed a general health questionnaire involving demographic information, medical/psychiatric history, concussion/football history and validated measures of depression and physical function at three time points (2001, 2010 and 2019). Parallel process latent growth curve modelling tested associations between concussion history, years of football participation, and overall and change in physical function on the overall level and trajectory of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Among the 333 participants (mean(SD) age, 48.95 (9.37) at enrolment), there was a statistically significant, but small increase in depressive symptom severity from 2001 (48.34 (7.75)) to 2019 (49.77 (9.52)), slope=0.079 (SE=0.11), p=0.007. Those with greater concussion history endorsed greater overall depressive symptom severity, B=1.38 (SE=0.33), p<0.001. Concussion history, B<0.001 (SE=0.02), p=0.997 and years of participation, B<0.001 (SE=0.01), p=0.980, were not associated with rate of change (slope factor) over 19 years. Greater decline in physical function, B=-0.71 (SE=0.16), p<0.001, was predictive of a faster growth rate (ie, steeper increase) of depression symptom endorsement over time. CONCLUSIONS: Concussion history, not years of participation, was associated with greater depressive symptom severity. Neither factor was predictive of changes over a 19-year period. Decline in physical function was a significant predictor of a steeper trajectory of increased depressive symptoms, independent of concussion effects. This represents one viable target for preventative intervention to mitigate long-term neuropsychiatric difficulties associated with concussion across subsequent decades of life.

11.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709396

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The King-Devick (K-D) is used to identify oculomotor impairment following concussion. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the K-D over time has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: (a) Examine the sensitivity and specificity of the K-D test at 0-6 hours of injury, 24-48 hours, asymptomatic, return-to-play, and 6-months following concussion and (b) compare outcomes for differentiating athletes with a concussion from non-concussed across confounding factors (sex, age, contact level, school year, learning disorder, ADHD, concussion history, migraine history, administration mode). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional design. SETTING: Multisite institutions within the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: 1239 total collegiate athletes without a concussion (age=20.31±1.18, male=52.2%) were compared to 320 athletes with a concussion (age=19.80±1.41, male=51.3%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We calculated K-D time difference (sec) by subtracting baseline from the most recent time. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy across timepoints. We identified cutoff scores and corresponding specificity at 80% and 70% sensitivity levels. We repeated ROC with AUC outcomes by confounding factors. RESULTS: King-Devick predicted positive results at 0-6 hours (AUC=0.724, p<0.001), 24-48 hours (AUC=0.701, p<0.001), return-to-play (AUC=0.640, P<0.001), and 6-months (AUC=0.615, P<0.001), but not at asymptomatic (AUC=0.513, P=0.497). The 0-6 and 24-48-hour timepoints yielded an 80% sensitivity cutoff score of -2.6 and -3.2 seconds (faster) respectively, but 46% and 41% specificity. The K-D test had significantly better AUC when administered on an iPad (AUC=0.800, 95%CI:0.747,0.854) compared to the spiral card system (AUC=0.646, 95%CI:0.600,0.692; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The K-D test has the greatest diagnostic accuracy at 0-6 and 24-48 hours of concussion, but declines across subsequent post-injury timepoints. AUCs did not significantly differentiate between groups for confounding factors. Our negative cutoff scores indicate that practice effects contribute to improved performance, requiring athletes to outperform their baseline.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between hearing impairment and cognitive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: A total of 18 level I trauma centers throughout the United States in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) study. PARTICIPANTS: From February 2014 to June 2018, a total of 2697 participants with TBI were enrolled in TRACK-TBI. Key eligibility criteria included external force trauma to the head, presentation to a participating level I trauma center, and receipt of a clinically indicated head computed tomographic (CT) scan within 24 hours of injury. A total of 1267 participants were evaluated in the study, with 216 participants with hearing impairment and 1051 participants without hearing impairment. Those with missing or unknown hearing status or cognitive assessment were excluded from analysis. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. MAIN MEASURES: Hearing impairment at 2 weeks post-TBI was based on self-report. Participants who indicated worse hearing in one or both ears were defined as having hearing impairment, whereas those who denied worse hearing in either ear were defined as not having hearing impairment and served as the reference group. Cognitive outcomes at 6 months post-TBI included executive functioning and processing speed, as measured by the Trail Making Test (TMT) B/A and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition, Processing Speed Index subscale (WAIS-IV PSI), respectively. RESULTS: TBI-related hearing impairment had a small but significantly greater TMT B/A ratio than without TBI-related hearing impairment: mean difference (B) = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.43; P = .005. No significant mean differences on WAIS-IV PSI scores were found between participants with and without TBI-related hearing impairment: B = 0.36; 95% CI, -2.07 to 2.60; P = .825. CONCLUSION: We conclude that TBI-related hearing impairment at 6 months postinjury was significantly associated with worse executive functioning but not cognitive processing speed.

13.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(23): 3195-3203, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714147

RESUMO

Despite considerable efforts to advance the science surrounding traumatic brain injury (TBI), formal efforts supporting the current and future implementation of scientific findings within clinical practice and healthcare policy are limited. While many and varied guidelines inform the clinical management of TBI across the spectrum, clinicians and healthcare systems are not broadly adopting, implementing, and/or adhering to them. As part of the Brain Trauma Blueprint TBI State of the Science, an expert workgroup was assembled to guide this review article, which describes: (1) possible etiologies of inadequate adoption and implementation; (2) enablers to successful implementation strategies; and (3) strategies to mitigate the barriers to adoption and implementation of future research.

14.
Brain Inj ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To derive minimum detectable change (MDC) across individual Vestibular-Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) items and VOMS overall score in 17-25 years old collegiate athletes and to examine false positive rates. METHOD: Participants (n = 378) completed VOMS pre-season for two consecutive years. MDC was identified for individual VOMS symptom items and NPC distance (cm). Both total and change methods of VOMS scoring were included in analysis. RESULTS: Regarding total scoring, MDC for ocular VOMS symptom items was 1 and MDC for vestibular VOMS symptoms items was 2. MDC for NPC was 4 cm and for VOMS overall score was 10. Regarding change scoring, MDC for each VOMS symptom item was 1, and for VOMS overall score was 8. False positives ranged from 5.3% to 15.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents MDCs for each VOMS item and overall VOMS score, using total and change scoring. These values can be considered true change outside measurement error with 95% confidence in a 17-25 year old collegiate athlete population.

15.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 21(9): 1051-1058, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine minimally clinically important differences (MCIDs) for Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Subscale (FM-UE), Fugl-Meyer Lower Extremity Subscale (FM-LE), and Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale (FMMS) in patients with chronic motor deficits secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Retrospective analysis from the 1-year, double-blind, randomized, surgical sham-controlled, Phase 2 STEMTRA trial (NCT02416492), in which patients with chronic motor deficits secondary to TBI (N = 61) underwent intracerebral stereotactic implantation of modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal (SB623) cells. MCIDs for DRS, FM-UE, FM-LE, and FMMS were triangulated with distribution-based, anchor-based, and Delphi panel estimates. RESULTS: Triangulated MCIDs were: 1) -1.5 points for the Disability Rating Scale; 2) 6.2 points for the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Subscale; 3) 3.2 points for the Fugl-Meyer Lower Extremity Subscale; and 4) 8.4 points for the Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in the setting of patients with chronic motor deficits secondary to TBI, this study reports triangulated MCIDs for: 1) DRS, a measure of global outcome; and 2) Fugl-Meyer Scales, measures of motor impairment. These findings guide the use of DRS and Fugl-Meyer Scales in the assessment of global disability outcome and motor impairment in future TBI clinical trials.

16.
Res Sports Med ; : 1-13, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402703

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sports participation history, including estimated age of first exposure (eAFE) to high-risk sports, and concussion history in first year (i.e., freshmen) collegiate athletes. Athletes increased their odds of sustaining a pre-college concussion by 5% [odds ratio(OR) = 1.05 (95%CI:1.05-1.06)] for each additional year of contact sports participation - 24% of all student athletes reported one or more pre-college concussions. When eAFE was analysed dichotomously at age 12, a greater proportion of those who started playing football before age 12 reported a positive concussion history compared to those who started playing football at age 12 or later (Ð¥2 = 4.483, p = 0.034, Phi = 0.049). When eAFE was analysed continuously, later eAFE to women's high-risk sports was associated with a lower likelihood of sustaining a pre-college concussion [OR = 0.93 (95%CI:0.88-0.98)]. Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between eAFE to football and to women's high-risk sports and concussion history.

17.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(23): 3352-3363, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435894

RESUMO

It is important to measure quality of life (QoL) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet limited studies have compared QoL inventories. In 2579 TBI patients, orthopedic trauma controls, and healthy friend control participants, we compared the Quality of Life After Brain Injury-Overall Scale (QOLIBRI-OS), developed for TBI patients, to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), an index of generic life satisfaction. We tested the hypothesis that group differences (TBI and orthopedic trauma vs. healthy friend controls) would be larger for the QOLIBRI-OS than the SWLS and that the QOLIBRI-OS would manifest more substantial changes over time in the injured groups, demonstrating more relevance of the QOLIBRI-OS to traumatic injury recovery. (1) We compared the group differences (TBI vs. orthopedic trauma control vs. friend control) in QoL as indexed by the SWLS versus the QOLIBRI-OS and (2) characterized changes across time in these two inventories across 1 year in these three groups. Our secondary objective was to characterize the relationship between TBI severity and QoL. As compared with healthy friend controls, the QOLIBRI reflected greater reductions in QoL than the SWLS for both the TBI group (all time points) and the orthopedic trauma control group (2 weeks and 3 months). The QOLIBRI-OS better captured expected improvements in QoL during the injury recovery course in injured groups than the SWLS, which demonstrated smaller changes over time. TBI severity was not consistently or robustly associated with self-reported QoL. The findings imply that, as compared with the SWLS, the QOLIBRI-OS appears to identify QoL issues more specifically relevant to traumatically injured patients and may be a more appropriate primary QoL outcome measure for research focused on the sequelae of traumatic injuries.

18.
Sports Med ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussion is recognized as a significant injury with variable recovery rates. OBJECTIVE: This study defined the acute natural history of sport concussion in male and female collegiate athletes participating in a broad array of sports. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal investigation among collegiate student athletes (n = 34,709) from 30 academic institutions. Primary outcomes included the time (days) from injury until initiation of a return to participation (RTP) protocol and time from injury until medical clearance for unrestricted RTP. RESULTS: Concussed athletes (n = 1751, 19.2 years, 63.2% male) participating in 22 different sports began the RTP protocol in a median 6.4 (IQR 3.7-11.8) days. Time to initiate the RTP protocol was lengthened by less frequent post-injury assessments, greater initial post-injury symptom severity, limited contact sports participation, practice/training injuries, and three or more prior concussions. The median total RTP duration was 12.8 (IQR 8.7-20.1) days. Total RTP duration was shorter with ADHD medication usage, males, and greater assessment frequency; while greater initial post-injury symptom severity, practice-/training-related injuries, and three or more prior concussions had longer recoveries. CONCLUSION: Although median recovery times are consistent with previous guidelines, it was not until 1 month post-injury that a preponderance of collegiate athletes were cleared to begin the RTP protocol (92%) or cleared for unrestricted sport participation (85%). Intrinsic and extrinsic factors had a small effect, altering recovery trajectories by up to 2 days, suggesting a largely unified approach to post-injury monitoring and management across all athletes. These data represent a shift from previous classification parameters of normal clinical recovery.

19.
J Athl Train ; 56(8): 851-859, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375406

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Preseason testing can be time intensive and cost prohibitive. Therefore, using normative data for postconcussion interpretation in lieu of preseason testing is desirable. OBJECTIVE: To establish the recovery trajectory for clinical reaction time (RTclin) and assess the usefulness of changes from baseline (comparison of postconcussion scores with individual baseline scores) and norm-based cutoff scores (comparison of postconcussion scores with a normative mean) for identifying impairments postconcussion. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Multisite clinical setting. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: An overlapping sample of 99 participants (age = 19.0 ± 1.1 years) evaluated within 6 hours postconcussion, 176 participants (age = 18.9 ± 1.1 years) evaluated at 24 to 48 hours postconcussion, and 214 participants (age = 18.9 ± 1.1 years) evaluated once they were cleared to begin a return-to-play progression were included. Participants with concussion were compared with 942 control participants (age = 19.0 ± 1.0 years) who did not sustain a concussion during the study period but completed preseason baseline testing at 2 points separated by 1 year (years 1 and 2). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): At each time point, follow-up RTclin (ie, postconcussion or year 2) was compared with the individual year 1 preseason baseline RTclin and normative baseline data (ie, sex and sport specific). Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to compare the sensitivity and specificity of RTclin change from baseline and norm-based cutoff scores. RESULTS: Clinical reaction time performance declined within 6 hours (18 milliseconds, 9.2% slower than baseline). The decline persisted at 24 to 48 hours (15 milliseconds, 7.6% slower than baseline), but performance recovered by the time of return-to-play initiation. Within 6 hours, a change from baseline of 16 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (52%) and specificity (79%, area under the curve [AUC] = 0.702), whereas a norm-based cutoff score of 19 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (46%) and specificity (86%, AUC = 0.700). At 24 to 48 hours, a change from baseline of 2 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (64%) and specificity (61%, AUC = 0.666), whereas a norm-based cutoff score of 0 milliseconds maximized combined sensitivity (63%) and specificity (62%, AUC = 0.647). CONCLUSIONS: Norm-based cutoff scores can be used for interpreting RTclin scores postconcussion in collegiate athletes when individual baseline data are not available, although low sensitivity and specificity limit the use of RTclin as a stand-alone test.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Tempo de Reação , Adolescente , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Volta ao Esporte , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310331

RESUMO

Prognoses of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) outcomes are neither easily nor accurately determined from clinical indicators. This is due in part to the heterogeneity of damage inflicted to the brain, ultimately resulting in diverse and complex outcomes. Using a data-driven approach on many distinct data elements may be necessary to describe this large set of outcomes and thereby robustly depict the nuanced differences among TBI patients recovery. In this work, we develop a method for modeling large heterogeneous data types relevant to TBI. Our approach is geared toward the probabilistic representation of mixed continuous and discrete variables with missing values. The model is trained on a dataset encompassing a variety of data types, including demographics, blood-based biomarkers, and imaging findings. In addition, it includes a set of clinical outcome assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. The model is used to stratify patients into distinct groups in an unsupervised learning setting. We use the model to infer outcomes using input data, and show that the collection of input data reduces uncertainty of outcomes over a baseline approach. In addition, we quantify the performance of a likelihood scoring technique that can be used to self-evaluate the extrapolation risk of prognosis on unseen patients.

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