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1.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170539

RESUMO

Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among intellectually-able adults often presents a clinical challenge, particularly when individuals present in crisis without diagnostic history. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale personality and psychopathology instrument utilized across clinical settings, but to date there are no published normative data for use of the PAI with adults with ASD. This study provides normative PAI data for adults diagnosed with ASD, with effect size comparisons to the PAI clinical standardization sample and an inpatient sample. Additionally, a discriminant function was developed and cross-validated for identification of ASD-like symptomatology in a clinical population, which demonstrates promise as a screening tool to aid in the identification of individuals in need of specialized ASD assessment.

2.
Psychol Assess ; 32(2): 205-210, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478720

RESUMO

Although the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997) has garnered substantial research interest, the measure's temporal stability and sensitivity to change have remained largely uninvestigated. The present study employs a dynamic approach to investigating the convergent and discriminant validity of the PAS by examining relationships between temporal changes on the PAS and changes on external criterion measures, thereby exploring the extent to which changes on the PAS offer meaningful information regarding changes in psychological functioning. Data were obtained from a public dataset funded by the United States Department of Justice in which male inmates were administered various psychological measures at 5 time points spanning the course of a year. The PAS demonstrated appreciable stability across all testing intervals and the full study period, and temporal changes on the PAS correlated as expected with changes on both conceptually similar and distinct external criterion measures. These findings offer evidence to suggest that temporal variations across testing intervals are not fully explained by error, as conceptualized in classical test-retest analyses, but rather may indicate meaningful changes in functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
J Clin Psychol ; 75(10): 1838-1849, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study extends upon the investigation of the influence of response format on the convergence between performance-based and self-report assessments of similar mental health constructs, to further examine the role of method variance in poor heteromethod convergence. METHODS: An online sample of 455 participants (57% male; mean age = 35.5 years) completed a multiple-choice adaptation of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)-the Iowa Picture Interpretation Test (IPIT)-and two self-report instruments: the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) representation of the domain traits of the five-factor model. RESULTS: Several significant and meaningful interrelationships emerged between the IPIT and the PAI and IPIP five-factor scales. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that TAT methodology can correlate meaningfully with similar constructs assessed using self-report when comparable response formats are utilized, offering further support for the role of method variance in precluding heteromethod relationships.

4.
Personal Disord ; 10(3): 286-290, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714799

RESUMO

The present study was intended to assess the reliability of clinician judgments, with a particular interest in how such judgments vary by the gender of the case vignette and clinician. A national sample of 123 mental health professionals (57.7% male) provided clinical judgments on 12 case vignettes primarily representing personality pathology; two identical versions of each vignette were prepared, with the only difference being the use of masculine or feminine pronouns identifying the client. Clinical judgments included evaluations of adaptive functioning, long-term prognostic assessments, short-term risk evaluations, and treatment recommendations. Analyses included intraclass correlations between clinicians to assess reliability, as well as an examination of the variance of clinical judgments as a function of the identified gender of the case and the gender of the participating clinician. No significant two-way interactions were found between case gender and clinician gender in predicting the clinical judgments. A significant main effect of case gender in predicting vocational functioning was observed, such that female cases were rated as having better estimated vocational functioning than male cases. In addition, a significant main effect of clinician gender in predicting aggression and violence risk was found, such that ratings by female clinicians were higher than ratings by male clinicians. Results offer little if any evidence to suggest the influence of client or clinician gender on the majority of clinical judgments made in the present study. However, these results bear replication, particularly in light of the two significant main effects that did emerge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Sexismo , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Assessment ; 26(5): 759-766, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490470

RESUMO

As online data collection services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) gain popularity, the quality and representativeness of such data sources have gained research attention. To date, the majority of existing studies have compared MTurk workers with undergraduate samples, localized community samples, or other Internet-based samples, and thus, there remains little known about the personality and mental health constructs of MTurk workers relative to a national representative sample. The present study addresses these limitations and broadens the scope of existing research through the use of the Personality Assessment Inventory, a multiscale, self-report questionnaire which provides information regarding data validity and personality and psychopathology features standardized against a national U.S. census-matched normative sample. Results indicate that MTurk workers generally provide high-quality data and are reasonably representative of the general population across most psychological dimensions assessed. However, several distinguishing features of MTurk workers emerged that were consistent with prior findings of such individuals, primarily involving somewhat higher negative affect and lower social engagement.

6.
J Clin Psychol ; 75(1): 202-220, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study presents an examination of the influence of response format on convergence between performance-based and self-report assessments of similar mental health constructs, to determine if such method variance might account for prior findings of lack of relationship. METHODS: An online sample of 455 participants (57% male; average age, 35.5) completed a multiple-choice version of the Rorschach and two self-report instruments, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) representation of the domain traits of the five-factor model (FFM). RESULTS: Several significant interrelationships emerged between the Rorschach Amplified Multiple Choice Test and the PAI and IPIP five-factor scales. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Rorschach can correlate meaningfully with similar constructs assessed using self-report methodology when comparable response formats are utilized.


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas Projetivas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Rorschach , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 269: 455-461, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195738

RESUMO

The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) contains scales that were designed to make predictions about how an individual might respond to treatment, thereby allowing clinicians to attune treatment plans to a client's specific needs. The present study utilized two features of the PAI as predictors of treatment process and outcome in a sample of 47 outpatient veterans: the Treatment Rejection (RXR) scale and the Treatment Process Index (TPI). Data were collected for three treatment process and outcome measures: treatment utilization (ratio of appointments attended to appointments scheduled), therapist-rated therapeutic alliance, and symptom change over time. Results indicated that RXR significantly predicted utilization over and above the TPI. The TPI significantly predicted the rate of distress symptom decline over time, but RXR did not. Lastly, neither RXR nor the TPI were significant predictors of therapist-rated alliance.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia
8.
Psychol Assess ; 30(10): 1292-1299, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781665

RESUMO

As the research literature on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) has expanded, several supplemental indicators have been introduced to aid in the interpretation of PAI results for the purpose of addressing particular assessment questions, such as protocol validity or treatment-related considerations. However, many of these indicators have remained largely unexamined beyond the initial validation studies in which they were derived. The purpose of the present study was to provide normative data for these new supplemental indicators, as well as to cross-validate these indicators in other existing PAI data sets and provide information about incremental validity beyond existing PAI scales and indices. Comparison effect sizes indicated that nearly all of the new supplemental indicators discriminated as intended, with the majority of indicators also contributing significantly beyond existing PAI indicators. These results suggest that some of these supplemental indicators may prove to be useful additions to the standard scoring of the PAI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Doença/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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