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1.
Am J Surg ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) receive less colorectal cancer (CRC) screening than other populations. Using gastroenterologist (GI) locations as a measure of colonoscopy access, we correlate GI density and AI/AN CRC screening rates. METHODS: We identified GIs from the 2016 National Provider Identifier registry, and calculated GI density per 100,000 people. We identified screening, demographic, and socioeconomic variables from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. GI density and CRC screening rates were analyzed with Multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: In states with GI Density greater than 3.98/100,000, odds of AI/AN CRC screening are 1.27-1.37 times higher than in states below this threshold (p < 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: GI density has a limited association on CRC screening, with decrease impact beyond threshold of 3.98 GI/100,000. Minimal access to GIs is important in improving AI/AN CRC screening; however, further research is required to elucidate the most critical factors contributing to CRC screening.

2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(4): 691-700, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with worse outcomes after elective surgery, but the effect on emergency general surgery (EGS) remains unclear. We examined the association of socioeconomic disadvantage and outcomes after EGS procedures and investigated whether admission to hospitals with comprehensive clinical and social resources mitigated this effect. METHODS: Adults undergoing 1 of the 10 most burdensome high- and low-risk EGS procedures were identified in six 2014 State Inpatient Databases. Socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed using Area Deprivation Index (ADI) of patient residence. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for patient and hospital factors were used to evaluate the association between ADI quartile (high >75 percentile vs. low <25 percentile), and 30-day readmission, in-hospital mortality, and discharge disposition. Effect modification between ADI and (a) level 1 trauma center and (b) safety-net hospital status was tested. RESULTS: A total of 103,749 patients were analyzed: 72,711 low-risk (70.1%) and 31,038 high-risk procedures (29.9%). Patients from neighborhoods with high socioeconomic disadvantage had a higher proportion with ≥3 comorbidities (41.9% vs. 32.0%), minority race/ethnicity (66.3% vs. 42.4%), and Medicaid (28.8% vs. 14.7%) and were less likely to be treated at level 1 trauma centers (18.3% vs. 27.7%; p < 0.001 for all). Adjusting for competing factors, high socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increased in-hospital mortality after high-risk procedures (odd ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.66; p = 0.04) and higher odds of non-home discharge (odd ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.30; p = 0.03) for low-risk procedures. Socioeconomic disadvantage was not associated with 30-day readmission for either procedure group. Level 1 trauma status and safety-net hospital did not meaningfully mitigate effect of ADI for any outcome. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with increased mortality after high-risk procedures and higher odds of non-home discharge after low-risk procedures. This effect was not mitigated by either level 1 trauma or safety-net hospitals. Interventions that specifically address the needs of socially vulnerable communities will be required to significantly improve EGS outcomes for this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic, level III.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Adulto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J Urol ; 207(2): 400-406, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with high-grade renal trauma (HGRT) undergoing nephrectomy may be at higher risk for mortality compared to those treated conservatively. However, no study has controlled for degree of hemorrhage as a measure of shock. We hypothesized that after controlling for blood transfusions and other factors, nephrectomy after HGRT would be associated with increased mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified adult patients with HGRT (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade III-V) in TQIP (2013-2017). Propensity scoring was used to adjust for the probability of nephrectomy. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the association between nephrectomy and mortality and AKI. We adjusted for patient characteristics, injury specifics, and physiological factors including blood transfusions. RESULTS: There were 12,780 patients with HGRT, and 1,014 (7.9%) underwent nephrectomy. Mortality was 10.6% and 4.2% in the nephrectomy and nonnephrectomy groups, respectively (p <0.001). In nephrectomy patients, 8.6% experienced AKI vs 2.4% of nonnephrectomy patients (p <0.001). In the adjusted analysis, there was no association between nephrectomy and mortality (OR=0.367, 95% CI 0.09-1.497, p=0.162). There was also no association between nephrectomy and AKI. Increasing age, nonCaucasian race, increasing Injury Severity Score, decreasing Glasgow Coma Score and blood transfusions were associated with higher mortality. For AKI, independent predictors included increasing age, male sex, and blood transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for volume of blood transfused in the first 24 hours, nephrectomy after HGRT was not associated with increased mortality or AKI. As a clinical principle, trauma nephrectomy should be avoided when possible.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Rim/lesões , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Rim/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Surg Res ; 267: 109-116, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insurance status of pediatric trauma patients is associated with access to post-discharge resources, including inpatient rehabilitation. Our goal was to understand the impact of changes in insurance coverage on access to post-acute care resources for pediatric trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized the National Trauma Data Bank from 2012 to 2016 for all pediatric trauma patients with a highest body region abbreviated injury score >2. Our primary outcome was hospital discharge disposition location. We used multivariable regression to adjust for salient patient and trauma center characteristics. Additionally, we performed a sensitivity analysis including only high-volume hospitals to examine the relationship between the magnitude of facility level expansion in coverage and changes in patient disposition. RESULTS: We identified 195,649 pediatric trauma patients meeting inclusion criteria. From 2012 to 2016 the proportion of patients with Medicaid (35% versus 39%, P < 0.001) and private insurance (39% versus 45%, P < 0.001) increased. Increased discharges with home health (HH) (+0.6% adjusted risk difference 2012 to 2016, P < 0.001) and decreased discharges to inpatient rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities (-0.6% adjusted risk difference 2012 to 2016, P = 0.01) were associated with changes in insurance coverage. After stratifying high volume facilities by magnitude of increase in Medicaid and private insurance, we found that, for all groups, discharge to inpatient rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities decreased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Expanded insurance coverage for children was paradoxically associated with decreased discharge to inpatient rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities after severe traumatic injury. These findings suggest that additional barriers may drive limitations in access to pediatric post-discharge services.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Alta do Paciente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem , Estados Unidos
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(2): 265-271, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-center data demonstrates that regional analgesia (RA) techniques are associated with reduced risk of delirium in older patients with multiple rib fractures. We hypothesized that a similar effect between RA and delirium would be identified in a larger cohort of patients from multiple level I trauma centers. METHODS: Retrospective data from seven level I trauma centers were collected for intensive care unit (ICU) patients 65 years or older with ≥3 rib fractures from January 2012 to December 2016. Those with a head and/or spine injury Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of ≥ 3 or a history of dementia were excluded. Delirium was defined as one positive Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit score in the first 7 days of ICU care. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to determine the association of RA (thoracic epidural or paravertebral catheter) with delirium incidence. RESULTS: Data of 574 patients with a median age of 75 years (interquartile range [IQR], 69-83), Injury Severity Score of 14 (IQR, 11-18), and ICU length of stay of 3 days (IQR, 2-6 days) were analyzed. Among the patients, 38.9% were women, 15.3% were non-White, and 31.4% required a chest tube. Regional analgesia was used in 19.3% patients. Patient characteristics did not differ by RA use; however, patients with RA had more severe chest injury (chest AIS, flail segment, hemopneumothorax, thoracostomy tube). In univariate analysis, there was no difference in the likelihood of delirium between the RA and no RA groups (18.9% vs. 23.8% p = 0.28). After adjusting for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, maximum chest AIS, thoracostomy tube, ICU length of stay, and trauma center, RA was associated with reduced risk of delirium (incident rate ratio [IRR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.94) but not with in-hospital mortality (IRR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.14-1.26) or respiratory complications (IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.42-1.16). CONCLUSION: In this multicenter cohort of injured older adults with multiple rib fractures, RA use was associated with a 35% lower risk of delirium. Further studies are needed to standardize protocols for optimal pain management and prevention of delirium in older adults with severe thoracic injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV; Epidemiologic, level III.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Idoso , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo , Análise Multivariada , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
7.
J Surg Res ; 266: 292-299, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moral distress is common among healthcare providers, leading to staff burnout and attrition. This study aimed to identify root causes of and potential solutions to moral distress experienced by surgical intensive care unit (SICU) providers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a mixed methods study of physicians and nurses from a single, academic SICU. We obtained quantitative data from the Measures of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP) survey and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews. The MMD-HP is a 27 question, validated survey on triggers of moral distress. Survey and interview data were analyzed to identify drivers of moral distress using a convergent design. RESULTS: 21 nurses and 25 physicians were surveyed and 17 providers interviewed. MMD-HP data demonstrated high levels of moral distress for nurses (mean total MMD-HP 132 ± 63.5) and physicians (121.7 ± 64.7), P = 0.68. The most frequent root cause of moral distress for all providers was participating in the delivery of aggressive care perceived to be futile. Nurses also reported caring for patients with unclear goals of care as a key driver of moral distress. Interview data supported these findings. Providers recommended improving access to palliative care to increase early communication on patient goals of care and end-of-life as a solution. Culture in the SICU often promotes supporting aggressive care however, acting as a potential barrier to increasing palliative resources. CONCLUSIONS: Providing aggressive care that is perceived as futile was the primary driver of moral distress in the SICU. Interventions to improve early communication and access to end-of-life care should be prioritized to decrease moral distress in staff.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(5): 853-860, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) encompasses a spectrum of time-sensitive and resource-intensive conditions, which require adequate and timely access to surgical care. Developing metrics to accurately quantify spatial access to care is critical for this field. We sought to evaluate the ability of the spatial access ratio (SPAR), which incorporates travel time, hospital capacity, and population demand in its ability to measure spatial access to EGS care and delineate disparities. METHODS: We constructed a geographic information science platform for EGS-capable hospitals in California and mapped population location, race, and socioeconomic characteristics. We compared the SPAR to the shortest travel time model in its ability to identify disparities in spatial access overall and for vulnerable populations. Reduced spatial access was defined as >60 minutes travel time or lowest three classes of SPAR. RESULTS: A total of 283 EGS-capable hospitals were identified, of which 142 (50%) had advanced resources. Using shortest travel time, only 166,950 persons (0.4% of total population) experienced prolonged (>60 minutes) travel time to any EGS-capable hospital, which increased to 1.05 million (2.7%) for advanced-resource centers. Using SPAR, 11.5 million (29.5%) had reduced spatial access to any EGS hospital, and 13.9 million (35.7%) for advanced-resource centers. Rural residents had significantly decreased access for both overall and advanced EGS services when assessed by SPAR despite travel times within the 60-minute threshold. CONCLUSION: While travel time and SPAR showed similar overall geographic patterns of spatial access to EGS hospitals, SPAR identified a greater a greater proportion of the population as having limited access to care. Nearly one third of California residents experience reduced spatial access to EGS hospitals when assessed by SPAR. Metrics that incorporate measures of population demand and hospital capacity in addition to travel time may be useful when assessing spatial access to surgical services. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Cross-sectional study, level VI.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , California , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
10.
J Urol ; 205(3): 841-847, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of high grade renal trauma can be managed conservatively. However, nephrectomy is still common for acute management. We hypothesized that when controlling for multiple injury severity measures, nephrectomy would be associated with increased mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified high grade renal trauma patients from the National Trauma Data Bank® from 2007-2016. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, severe head injury and death within 4 hours of admission. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to determine if nephrectomy was independently associated with mortality, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, mechanism of injury, shock, blood transfusion, Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score and Injury Severity Score. Interaction was measured for mechanism of injury and shock with mortality. RESULTS: We identified 42,898 patients with high grade renal trauma (grade III-V), of whom 3,204 (7.5%) underwent nephrectomy. Unadjusted mortality was 16.6% in nephrectomy vs 5.7% in nonnephrectomy patients. In multivariable logistic regression, nephrectomy was associated with 82% increased odds of death (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.63-2.03, p <0.001). Other significant associations with death included age, nonWhite race, penetrating mechanism, hypotension, blood transfusion, lower Glasgow Coma Scale, lower Revised Trauma Score and higher Injury Severity Score. The association between nephrectomy and death did not differ by mechanism of injury. However, it was slightly attenuated in patients presenting in shock. CONCLUSIONS: In the National Trauma Data Bank, nephrectomy is independently associated with increased risk of mortality after adjusting for patient demographics, injury characteristics and multiple measures of overall injury severity. Nephrectomy may impact overall survival and must be avoided when possible.


Assuntos
Rim/lesões , Rim/cirurgia , Nefrectomia/mortalidade , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1119, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To increase bed capacity and resources, hospitals have postponed elective surgeries, although the financial impact of this decision is unknown. We sought to report elective surgical case distribution, associated gross hospital revenue and regional hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity as elective surgical cases are cancelled and then resumed under simulated trends of COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: A retrospective, cohort analysis was performed using insurance claims from 161 million enrollees from the MarketScan database from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2017. COVID-19 cases were calculated using Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation models. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports on the number of hospitalized and intensive care patients by age estimated the number of cases seen in the ICU, the reduction in elective surgeries and the financial impact of this from historic claims data, using a denominator of all inpatient revenue and outpatient surgeries. RESULTS: Assuming 5% infection prevalence, cancelling all elective procedures decreases ICU overcapacity from 160 to 130%, but these elective surgical cases contribute 78% (IQR 74, 80) (1.1 trillion (T) US dollars) to inpatient hospital plus outpatient surgical gross revenue per year. Musculoskeletal, circulatory and digestive category elective surgical cases compose 33% ($447B) of total revenue. CONCLUSIONS: Procedures involving the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and digestive system account for the largest loss of hospital gross revenue when elective surgery is postponed. As hospital bed capacity increases following the COVID-19 pandemic, restoring volume of these elective cases will help maintain revenue. In these estimates, adopting universal masking would help to avoid overcapacity in all states.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Economia Hospitalar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(4): 658-664, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current evaluation of rib fractures focuses almost exclusively on flail chest with little attention on bicortically displaced fractures. Chest trauma that is severe enough to cause fractures leads to worse outcomes. An association between bicortically displaced rib fractures and pulmonary outcomes would potentially change patient care in the setting of trauma. We tested the hypothesis that bicortically displaced fractures were an important clinical marker for pulmonary outcomes in patients with nonflail rib fractures. METHODS: This nine-center American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional study analyzed adults with two or more rib fractures. Admission computerized tomography scans were independently reviewed. The location, degree of rib fractures, and pulmonary contusions were categorized. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and tracheostomy. Analyses were performed in nonflail patients and also while controlling for flail chest to determine if bicortically displaced fractures were independently associated with outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 1,110 patients, 103 (9.3%) developed pneumonia, 78 (7.0%) required tracheostomy, and 30 (2.7%) developed ARDS. Bicortically displaced fractures were present in 277 (25%) of patients and in 206 (20.3%) of patients without flail chest. After adjusting for patient demographics, injury, and admission physiology, negative pulmonary outcomes occurred over twice as frequently in those with bicortically displaced fractures without flail chest (n = 206) when compared with those without bicortically displaced fractures-pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.6), ARDS (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-6.8), and tracheostomy (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2). When adjusting for the presence of flail chest, bicortically displaced fractures remained an independent predictor of pneumonia, tracheostomy, and ARDS. CONCLUSION: Patients with bicortically displaced rib fractures are more likely to develop pneumonia, ARDS, and need for tracheostomy even when controlling for flail chest. Future studies should investigate the utility of flail chest management algorithms in patients with bicortically displaced fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological study, level III.


Assuntos
Tórax Fundido/cirurgia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Tórax Fundido/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/fisiopatologia , Sociedades Médicas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos
15.
JAMA Surg ; 155(9): 841-848, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697290

RESUMO

Importance: Care fragmentation at time of readmission after emergency general surgery (EGS) is associated with high mortality; however, the factors underlying this finding remain unclear. Objective: To identify patient and hospital factors associated with increased mortality among patients after EGS readmitted within 30 days of discharge to a nonindex hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study using the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Readmissions Database. Participants were all adult patients (18 years or older) who underwent 1 of the 15 most common EGS procedures in the United States from January 1 to November 30, 2014, and survived to discharge. The dates of analysis were October through December 2019. Exposures: Thirty-day readmission to a hospital other than that of the index surgical procedure. The study examined the association of interventions during readmission, change in hospital resource level, and severity of patient illness during readmission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Ninety-day inpatient mortality. Results: In total, 71 944 patients who underwent EGS (mean [SD] age, 59.0 [18.3] years; 53.5% [38 487 of 71 944] female) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge, of whom 10 495 (14.6%) were readmitted to a nonindex hospital. Compared with patients readmitted to index hospitals, patients readmitted to nonindex hospitals were more likely to be readmitted to hospitals with low annual EGS volume (33.5% vs 25.6%, P < .001) and be in the top half of illness severity profile (37.2% vs 31.2%, P < .001). Overall 90-day mortality was higher in the patients readmitted to nonindex hospitals (6.1% vs 4.3%, P < .001). When adjusted for baseline patient and hospital characteristics, care fragmentation was independently associated with increased mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.58; P < .001). After adjustment for interventions performed during readmission, change in EGS hospital volume level, and severity of patient illness, care fragmentation was no longer independently associated with mortality (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.88-1.26; P = .58). In this complete model, severity of illness was the strongest risk factor of mortality during readmission. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of adult patients who require rehospitalization after EGS, 14.6% are readmitted to a hospital other than where the index procedure was performed. Although the overall mortality rate is higher for this population, the excess mortality appears to be primarily associated with severity of patient illness at time of readmission. These data underscore the need to develop systems of care to rapidly triage patients to hospitals best equipped to manage their condition.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To increase bed capacity and resources, hospitals have postponed elective surgeries, although the financial impact of this decision is unknown. We sought to report elective surgical case distribution, associated gross hospital earnings and regional hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity as elective surgical cases are cancelled and then resumed under simulated trends of COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: A retrospective, cohort analysis was performed using insurance claims from 161 million enrollees from the MarketScan database from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2017. COVID-19 cases were calculated using a generalized Richards model. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports on the number of hospitalized and intensive care patients by age were used to estimate the number of cases seen in the ICU, the reduction in elective surgeries and the financial impact of this from historic claims data, using a denominator of all inpatient revenue and outpatient surgeries. RESULTS: Assuming 5% infection prevalence, cancelling all elective procedures decreases ICU overcapacity from 340% to 270%, but these elective surgical cases contribute 78% (IQR 74, 80) (1.1 trillion (T) US dollars) to inpatient hospital plus outpatient surgical gross earnings per year. Musculoskeletal, circulatory and digestive category elective surgical cases compose 33% ($447B) of total revenue. CONCLUSIONS: Procedures involving the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and digestive system account for the largest loss of hospital gross earnings when elective surgery is postponed. As hospital bed capacity increases following the COVID-19 pandemic, restoring volume of these elective cases will help maintain revenue.

18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
19.
Surg Open Sci ; 2(2): 75-80, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane block with liposomal bupivacaine has been studied as an effective method of reducing the need for postoperative opioids and increasing same-day discharge rates. However, less is known about the cost-effectiveness of this strategy relative to opioids alone for hernia repair. We performed an economic evaluation of these strategies using a computer simulation model. METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to determine cost-effectiveness as measured by incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per quality-adjusted life-year. Base-case costs, quality-adjusted life-year values, and probabilities were derived from published studies and Medicare fee schedules. For input parameters for which we could not find values in the published literature, we used expert opinion. A 1-month time horizon was selected to focus on the immediate postoperative period. Finally, we performed 1-way, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The liposomal bupivacaine transversus abdominis plane block was a dominant strategy yielding a $456.75 decrease in cost and an 0.1 increase in quality-adjusted life-years relative to opioids alone. In 1-way sensitivity analysis of cost incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, values were most sensitive to variations in the amount saved by same-day discharge and the cost of bupivacaine. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, transversus abdominis plane strategy was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/quality-adjusted life-year in 94.5% of iterations and at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year in 97.1% of iterations. CONCLUSION: The use of liposomal bupivacaine transversus abdominis plane block resulted in cost savings and improved quality-adjusted life-years in base-case analyses and was cost-effective at conventional willingness-to-pay thresholds in the majority of iterations in probabilistic sensitivity analyses.

20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 219-229, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to examine patterns of readmission after nonoperative trauma, including rates of delayed operative intervention and mortality. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database (2013-2014) was queried for all adult trauma admissions and 30-day readmissions. Index admissions were classified as operative (OI) or nonoperative (NOI), and readmissions examined for major operative intervention (MOR). Multivariable regression modeling was used to evaluate risk for readmission requiring MOR and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of 2,244,570 trauma admissions, there were 59,573 readmissions: 66% after NOI, and 35% after OI. Readmission rate was higher after NOI compared with OI (3.6% vs. 1.7% p < 0.001). Readmitted NOI patients were older, with a higher proportion of Injury Severity Score ≥15 and were readmitted earlier (NOI median 8 days vs. OI 11 days). Thirty-one percent of readmitted NOI patients required MOR and experienced higher overall mortality compared with OI patients with operative readmission (NOI 2.9% vs. OI 2%, p = 0.02). Intracranial hemorrhage was an independent risk factor for NOI readmission requiring MOR in both the overall (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.22) and Injury Severity Score of 15 or greater cohorts (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24-1.7), with a predominance of nonspine neurosurgical procedures (20.3% and 55.1%, respectively). Operative readmission after NOI cost a median of $17,364 (interquartile range, US $11,481 to US $27,816) and carried a total annual cost of US $147 million (95% CI, US $141 million to $154 million). CONCLUSIONS: Nonoperative trauma patients have a higher readmission rate than operative index patients and nearly one third require operative intervention during readmission. Operative readmission carries a higher overall mortality rate in NOI patients and together accounts for nearly US $150 million in annual costs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
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