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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether pre-diagnostic lipid levels are associated with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk. Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study nested in five large prospective US cohorts (the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the Women's Health Initiative), and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up and had provided blood samples before disease diagnosis. For each ALS case, we randomly selected two controls who were alive at the time of the case diagnosis and matched on cohort, birth year (±1 year), sex, race/ethnicity, fasting status, and time of blood draw. We measured total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels in the plasma samples, and used conditional logistic regression to estimate associations between lipid levels and ALS risk. Results: Higher levels of HDL-C were associated with higher ALS risk in an analysis adjusted for the matching factors (risk ratio [RR] Q4 vs. Q1: 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.69, p trend: 0.007). The estimate remained similar in a multivariable analysis additionally adjusted for body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma urate levels, and use of cholesterol-lowering drugs (RR Q4 vs. Q1: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.07-2.73, p trend: 0.02). Plasma levels of TC, LDL-C, and TG were not associated with ALS risk. Conclusions: Higher pre-diagnostic HDL-C levels, but not levels of other lipids, were associated with a higher risk of ALS.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917645

RESUMO

Increased COX-2 and decreased 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-HPGD) expression promote prostaglandin-mediated inflammation and colorectal carcinogenesis. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin D and calcium may inhibit these pathways, but their effects on colorectal tissue COX-2 and 15-HPGD expression in humans are unknown. We tested the effects of supplemental vitamin D (1,000 IU/day) and/or calcium (1,200 mg/day) on COX-2 and 15-HPGD expression in the morphologically normal rectal mucosa from 62 paients with colorectal adenoma in a placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial. We measured biomarker expression using automated IHC and quantitative image analysis at baseline and 1-year follow-up, and assessed treatment effects using mixed linear models. The primary outcome was the COX-2/15-HPGD expression ratio, because these enzymes function as physiologic antagonists. After 1 year of treatment, the mean COX-2/15-HPGD expression ratio in full-length crypts proportionately decreased 47% in the vitamin D group (P = 0.001), 46% in the calcium group (P = 0.002), and 34% in the calcium + vitamin D group (P = 0.03), relative to the placebo group. Among individuals with the functional vitamin D-binding protein isoform DBP2 (GC rs4588*A), the COX-2/15-HPDG ratio decreased 70% (P = 0.0006), 75% (P = 0.0002), and 60% (P = 0.006) in the vitamin D, calcium, and combined supplementation groups, respectively, relative to placebo. These results show that vitamin D and calcium favorably modulate the balance of expression of COX-2 and 15-HPGD-biomarkers of inflammation that are strongly linked to colorectal carcinogenesis-in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of patients with colorectal adenoma (perhaps especially those with the DBP2 isoform).

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2383-2386, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of a potential inverse association between coffee, particularly caffeinated coffee, consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and few studies have examined this association by tumor hormone receptor status. To provide further evidence, we examined total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption in relation to postmenopausal invasive breast cancer incidence overall, and by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) subtype. METHODS: Among 57,075 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer free and reported coffee intake in 1999, we identified 2,980 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up through June 2015. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Neither total, caffeinated, nor decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with invasive breast cancer risk; HRs (95% CIs) comparing consumption of ≥2 cups per day with <1 cup per month were 0.99 (0.89-1.11), 0.96 (0.87-1.06), and 1.06 (0.95-1.19), respectively. Similarly, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of hormone receptor-positive (ER+ or PR+) or hormone receptor-negative (ER- and PR-) breast tumors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support an association between coffee consumption and invasive breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This large prospective study contributes to the limited evidence on coffee consumption and breast cancer risk, finding no association overall or by tumor receptor subtype.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101730, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk generally appears null, but recent evidence suggests that risk may vary by coffee type. We examined associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with colorectal cancer risk overall and with colon and rectum separately, among older U.S. men and women. METHODS: In 1999, 47,010 men and 60,051 women with no previous diagnosis of cancer, aged 47-96 years, in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire that assessed caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake; consumption was updated in 2003. A total of 1829 colorectal cancer cases were verified through June 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking history, alcohol, caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee intake (depending on the model), and other colorectal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee, compared to no decaffeinated coffee, was associated with lower risk of overall colorectal cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96, P-trend = 0.04), colon cancer (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99, P-trend = 0.05) and rectal cancer (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.99, P-trend = 0.17). Consumption of ≥2 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with higher risk of rectal cancer (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99-1.89, P-trend = 0.04), but not with colorectal or colon cancer. CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, higher intake of decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers. Further study on associations of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk by subsite is needed.

5.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 70(4): 245-271, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515498

RESUMO

The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes the Diet and Physical Activity Guideline to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. This guideline is developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and reflects the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS guideline focuses on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. This 2020 ACS guideline is consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3110-3118, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506449

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead are persistent environmental toxins that are known or probable carcinogens, based on evidence for causality for nonhematologic cancers. Associations of these metals with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are unknown but biologically plausible. To examine the associations of circulating levels of lead and cadmium exposure with risk of B-cell NHL (B-NHL) and multiple myeloma, we conducted a nested case-control study among 299 incident B-cell NHLs and 76 MM cases within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II NC). Each case was incidence-density matched to two eligible controls on age, race, sex and blood draw date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lymphoid malignancies overall and stratified by subtype. We observed a significant positive association between high erythrocyte lead concentration and risk of lymphoid malignancies overall (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33 per 17.6 µg/L (1 standard deviation [SD])) and follicular lymphoma in particular (RR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.80 per SD). In contrast, there was no association between erythrocyte cadmium and risk of B-NHL (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.75-1.06 per 0.37 µg/L [1 SD]), or any B-NHL subtypes; but a strong inverse association with MM risk (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, per SD). Results from our study suggest a positive association between erythrocyte lead level and risk of lymphoid malignancies and a possible inverse association between cadmium and myeloma. Additional research is needed to confirm and further explore these findings.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2725-2734, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391587

RESUMO

Lower prediagnostic circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)-considered the best marker of total vitamin D exposure-is associated with higher mortality risk among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, it is unknown whether this association differs by the vitamin D-binding protein (GC) isoform Gc2 (encoded by GC rs4588*C>A, Thr436Lys), which may substantially affect vitamin D metabolism and modify associations of 25(OH)D with colorectal neoplasm risk. Prediagnostic 25(OH)D-mortality associations according to Gc2 isoform were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression among 1281 CRC cases (635 deaths, 483 from CRC) from two large prospective cohorts conducted in the United States (Cancer Prevention Study-II) and Europe (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). 25(OH)D measurements were calibrated to a single assay, season standardized, and categorized using Institute of Medicine recommendations (deficient [<30], insufficient [30 - <50], sufficient [≥50 nmol/L]). In the pooled analysis, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CRC-specific mortality associated with deficient relative to sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations were 2.24 (95% CI 1.44-3.49) among cases with the Gc2 isoform, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.68-1.22) among cases without Gc2 (Pinteraction = .0002). The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.80 (95% CI 1.24-2.60) among those with Gc2, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.84-1.51) among those without Gc2 (Pinteraction = .004). Our findings suggest that the association of prediagnostic vitamin D status with mortality among CRC patients may differ by functional GC isoforms, and patients who inherit the Gc2 isoform (GC rs4588*A) may particularly benefit from higher circulating 25(OH)D for improved CRC prognosis.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and weight are commonly used metrics in epidemiologic studies to calculate body mass index. Large cohort studies generally assess height and weight by self-report rather than by measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported height and weight in the Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3), a large, nationwide cohort recruited by the American Cancer Society between 2006-2013. METHODS: In a subset of CPS-3 participants (n = 2,643), weight and height were assessed at the same time via self-report and in-person measurement. BMI was calculated and classified underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-<25 kg/m2), overweight (25-<30 kg/m2), or obese (≥30 kg/m2). Self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI were compared using mean differences and Bland-Altman plots and examined by sex, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, age group, and BMI category. RESULTS: Men and women slightly overreported height and underreported weight. BMI calculated from self-reported data was lower than for measured data for men and women. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, age, education, and marital status, older women and women with less than a college degree overreported height. Approximately 13% of men and 7% of women were misclassified into a lower self-reported BMI category, with misclassification of BMI being greatest in obese men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, height, weight, and BMI were well-reported, and this study further suggests that BMI computed from self-reported weight and height is a valid measure in men and women across different socio-demographic groups.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
9.
J Nutr ; 150(6): 1566-1578, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FFQs are commonly used to assess dietary intake and it is important to evaluate their performance in the target population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the reproducibility and relative validity of the Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) FFQ in estimating usual intake of 63 food groups and diet quality in accordance with the American Cancer Society dietary guidelines for cancer prevention. METHODS: A subset of participants from the CPS-3 (433 women, 244 men), 31-70 y of age, were included in a cross-sectional diet assessment substudy (2015-2016). Reproducibility was assessed by comparing estimates from repeat FFQs, approximately 1 y apart, using Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) and Pearson correlation coefficient (rp) correlations for food groups and diet quality, respectively. Validity was assessed similarly by comparing FFQ estimates with estimates from ≤6 interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Analyses were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Reproducibility correlations for repeated FFQs were > 0.50 for 83-97% of food groups analyzed across strata of sex and race. Although participants tended to overreport plant foods (e.g., fruits and legumes) and underreport refined grains and sugar-sweetened beverages, the median energy-adjusted, deattenuated Spearman correlations comparing the second FFQ to the 24HR were 0.50 and 0.52 among men and women (range: 0.05-0.82), respectively, suggesting that ranking was preserved for most food groups. Validity was highest for coffee, alcohol, and total dairy, and lowest for pasta and regular-fat yogurt. Median validity across food groups varied by race/ethnicity and was highest among whites (rs = 0.54) followed by Hispanics (rs = 0.49) and African Americans (rs = 0.45). The diet quality score had good validity in all subgroups examined, but was higher among men (rp = 0.69) than women (rp = 0.61), and lower among whites (rp = 0.62) than Hispanics (rp = 0.64) or African Americans (rp = 0.73). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates good reproducibility and validity of the CPS-3 FFQ for most major food groups and the diet quality score in all sex and race/ethnicity groups examined.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , American Cancer Society , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1029-1038, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the relationship of meat, fish, and egg consumption and mortality among prostate cancer survivors is limited. METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between baseline in 1992/1993 and 2015 were followed for mortality until 2016. Analyses of pre- and postdiagnosis intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, and eggs included 9,286 and 4,882 survivors, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 4,682 and 2,768 deaths occurred during follow-up in pre- and postdiagnosis analyses, respectively. Both pre- and postdiagnosis intakes of total red and processed meat were positively associated with all-cause mortality (quartile 4 vs. 1: RR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25; P trend = 0.02; RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.39; P trend = 0.03, respectively), and both pre- and postdiagnosis poultry intakes were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (quartile 4 vs. 1 RR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; P trend = 0.04; RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P trend = 0.01, respectively). No associations were seen for prostate cancer-specific mortality, except that higher postdiagnosis unprocessed red meat intake was associated with lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher red and processed meat, and lower poultry, intakes either before or after prostate cancer diagnosis were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. IMPACT: Our findings provide additional evidence that prostate cancer survivors should follow the nutrition guidelines limiting red and processed meat consumption to improve overall survival. Additional research on the relationship of specific meat types and mortality is needed.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(6): 1128-1134, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in patients with colorectal cancer have been consistently associated with higher mortality in observational studies. It is unclear whether low 25(OH)D levels directly influence colorectal cancer mortality. To minimize bias, we use genetic variants associated with vitamin D levels to evaluate the association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. METHODS: Six genetic variants have been robustly identified to be associated with 25(OH)D levels in genome-wide association studies. On the basis of data from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium, the individual genetic variants and a weighted genetic risk score were tested for association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards models in 7,657 patients with stage I to IV colorectal cancer, of whom 2,438 died from any cause and 1,648 died from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The 25(OH)D decreasing allele of SNP rs2282679 (GC gene, encodes group-specific component/vitamin D-binding protein) was associated with poorer colorectal cancer-specific survival, although not significant after multiple-testing correction. None of the other five SNPs showed an association. The genetic risk score showed nonsignificant associations with increased overall [HR = 1.54; confidence interval (CI), 0.86-2.78] and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.76; 95% CI, 0.86-3.58). A significant increased risk of overall mortality was observed in women (HR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.45-7.33; P heterogeneity = 0.01) and normal-weight individuals (HR = 4.14; 95% CI, 1.50-11.43, P heterogeneity = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided little evidence for an association of genetic predisposition of lower vitamin D levels with increased overall or colorectal cancer-specific survival, although power might have been an issue. IMPACT: Further studies are warranted to investigate the association in specific subgroups.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 974-981, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Energy balance-related factors, such as body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity, may influence colorectal cancer etiology through interconnected metabolic pathways, but their combined influence is less clear. METHODS: We used reduced rank regression to derive three energy balance scores that associate lifestyle factors with combinations of prediagnostic, circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), C-peptide, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among 2,498 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Among 114,989 participants, we verified 2,228 colorectal cancer cases. We assessed associations of each score with colorectal cancer incidence and by tumor molecular phenotypes using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The derived scores comprised BMI, physical activity, screen time, and 14 food groups, and explained 5.1% to 10.5% of the variation in biomarkers. The HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for quartile 4 versus 1 of the HbA1c+C peptide-based score and colorectal cancer was 1.30 (1.15-1.47), the hsCRP-based score was 1.35 (1.19-1.53), and the hsCRP, C-peptide, and HbA1c-based score was 1.35 (1.19-1.52). The latter score was associated with non-CIMP tumors (HRQ4vsQ1: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.17-2.16), but not CIMP-positive tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These results further support hypotheses that systemic biomarkers of metabolic health-inflammation and abnormal glucose homeostasis-mediate part of the relationship between several energy balance-related modifiable factors and colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Results support cancer prevention guidelines for maintaining a healthful body weight, consuming a healthful diet, and being physically active. More research is needed on these clusters of exposures with molecular phenotypes of tumors.

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