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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence supports a role of whole grains in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention, but the association between gluten intake and CRC risk in healthy populations is unclear. We examined the association of grain and gluten intake with risk of CRC overall and by subsite among Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort participants. METHODS: In 1999, 50,118 men and 62,031 women completed food frequency questionnaires assessing grain intake. Gluten intake was estimated using the protein content of grain products. Multivariable-adjusted hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CRC risk were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During follow-up through 2013, 1742 verified CRC cases occurred. For the highest vs. lowest quintiles of whole grain intake, HRs (95% CIs) of CRC risk were 0.77 (0.61-0.97; P trend = 0.03) among men and 1.10 (95% CI 0.88-1.36; P trend = 0.14) among women (P interaction by sex = 0.01). Men in the highest vs. lowest quintile of whole grain intake had a 43% lower risk of rectal cancer (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.93, P trend = 0.04). Gluten intake was not associated with CRC risk overall (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.32, P trend = 0.10), but was associated with risk of proximal colon cancer among men and women, combined (HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.07-1.75, quintile 5 vs. 1, P trend = 0.001) and separately. Refined grains and grain-based sweets were not associated with CRC risk. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher whole grain intake was associated with lower CRC risk among older US men, but not women. The positive association of gluten intake with the risk of proximal colon cancer deserves further study.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1439-1451, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy diet patterns are associated with lower risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. Metabolomics has the potential to expand dietary biomarker development to include dietary patterns, which may provide a complement or alternative to self-reported diet. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the correlation of serum untargeted metabolomic markers with 4 diet pattern scores-the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED), alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015-and used multivariate methods to identify discriminatory metabolites for each pattern. METHODS: Among 1367 US postmenopausal women with serum metabolomic data in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, we conducted partial correlation analysis, adjusted for demographic and lifestyle variables, to examine cross-sectional correlations between serum metabolomic markers and healthy diet pattern scores. In a randomly selected "training" set (50%), we conducted orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis to identify metabolites that discriminated the top from bottom diet score quintiles. Combinations of metabolites with a variable importance in projection (VIP) score ≥2.5 were tested for predictability in the "testing" set based on the use of receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Out of 1186 metabolites, 32 unique metabolites were considered discriminatory based on a VIP score ≥2.5 in the training dataset with some overlap across scores (aMED = 16; AHEI = 17; DASH = 13; HEI = 12). Spearman partial correlation analyses, applying a cut-point (|r| ≥ 0.15) and Bonferroni correction (P < 1.05 × 10-5), identified similar key metabolites. The top 5 metabolites for each pattern mostly distinguished high compared with low scores; 4 of the 5 (fish-derived) metabolites were the same for aMED and AHEI, 2 of which were identified for HEI; 4 DASH metabolites were unique. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolomic methods that used a split-sample approach identified potential biomarkers for 4 healthy diet patterns. Similar metabolites across scores reflect fish consumption in healthy dietary patterns. These findings should be replicated in independent populations.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 186(2): 243-254, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977126

RESUMO

There is insufficient evidence linking excess body weight to risk of myeloid malignancies. We investigated this association using data from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), and a meta-analysis of published cohort studies. Among 152 090 CPS-II participants, 387 acute myeloid leukaemias (AML), 100 chronic myeloid leukaemias (CML) and 170 MDS were identified over 21 years of follow-up. In CPS-II, body mass index (BMI) was weakly associated with risk of CML (hazard ratio [HR] = 1·04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0·99-1·09 per 1 unit increase in BMI), AML (HR = 1·01, 95% CI: 0·98-1·03) and MDS (HR = 1·03, 95% CI: 0·99-1·07). After controlling for other anthropometric factors, no clear association was observed for height, BMI at age 18 years or weight change. In the meta-analysis (n = 7117 myeloid leukaemias), BMI 25-29·9 kg/m2 (HRpooled  = 1·36, 95% CI: 1·12-1·59) and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (HRpooled  = 1·43, 95% CI: 1·18-1·69) were associated with higher risk of myeloid leukaemia overall, compared to a BMI <25 kg/m2 . Likewise, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 was positively associated with both AML and CML risk individually in the meta-analysis. These results underscore the need for large studies to detect associations with rare cancers, and show a modest, but positive association between excess body weight and myeloid malignancy risk.

4.
Neurology ; 92(18): e2089-e2100, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify prediagnostic plasma metabolomic biomarkers associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We conducted a global metabolomic study using a nested case-control study design within 5 prospective cohorts and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up. We profiled plasma metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and identified 404 known metabolites. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the associations between metabolites and ALS risk. Further, we used machine learning analyses to determine whether the prediagnostic metabolomic profile could discriminate ALS cases from controls. RESULTS: A total of 31 out of 404 identified metabolites were associated with ALS risk (p < 0.05). We observed inverse associations (n = 27) with plasma levels of diacylglycerides and triacylglycerides, urate, purine nucleosides, and some organic acids and derivatives, while we found positive associations for a cholesteryl ester, 2 phosphatidylcholines, and a sphingomyelin. The number of significant associations increased to 67 (63 inverse) in analyses restricted to cases with blood samples collected within 5 years of onset. None of these associations remained significant after multiple comparison adjustment. Further, we were not able to reliably distinguish individuals who became cases from controls based on their metabolomic profile using partial least squares discriminant analysis, elastic net regression, random forest, support vector machine, or weighted correlation network analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Although the metabolomic profile in blood samples collected years before ALS diagnosis did not reliably separate presymptomatic ALS cases from controls, our results suggest that ALS is preceded by a broad, but poorly defined, metabolic dysregulation years before the disease onset.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Neurology ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether prediagnostic levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk. METHODS: We included participants from 5 large cohort studies-The Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the Women's Health Initiative-and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up. Two controls were randomly selected for each case, matched on cohort, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood draw. We measured metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and used conditional logistic regression to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of individual BCAAs with ALS risk. RESULTS: None of the 3 BCAAs was associated with a higher ALS risk. The risk estimates were similar for leucine (RR top vs bottom quartile: 0.87, 95% CI 0.57-1.33), isoleucine (RR top vs bottom quartile: 0.81, 95% CI 0.52-1.24), and valine (RR top vs bottom quartile: 0.80, 95% CI 0.52-1.23) in a multivariable analysis adjusted for body mass index, smoking, level of education, and physical activity. The estimates did not vary significantly by sex, fasting status, or time interval between blood draw and disease onset. CONCLUSION: The results from this study do not support the hypothesis that BCAAs are risk factors for ALS.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, an industrial chemical and probable human carcinogen, can be formed in primarily carbohydrate-containing foods during high heat cooking or processing. Most epidemiological studies show no associations of dietary acrylamide intake with most cancer outcomes, but limited prospective evidence suggests a positive association with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: In 1999, 102,154 men and women from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort completed a questionnaire on diet, lifestyle and cancer risk factors and were followed through June 30, 2013. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between estimated dietary acrylamide intake and risk of RCC. RESULTS: After 1,137,441 person-years of follow-up, 412 cases of invasive RCC occurred. In multivariable adjusted models, there was no association between acrylamide intake and risk of RCC (HR=1.09, 95% CI 0.82-1.43) for the highest vs. lowest quartile of intake. Associations were not modified by sex or smoking history. CONCLUSIONS: We found no associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and risk of invasive RCC. IMPACT: Findings from this large, prospective analysis do not support a positive association between higher dietary acrylamide intake and RCC risk.

8.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 68(6): 446-470, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303518

RESUMO

In the United States, it is estimated that more than 1.7 million people will be diagnosed with cancer, and more than 600,000 will die of the disease in 2018. The financial costs associated with cancer risk factors and cancer care are enormous. To substantially reduce both the number of individuals diagnosed with and dying from cancer and the costs associated with cancer each year in the United States, government and industry and the public health, medical, and scientific communities must work together to develop, invest in, and implement comprehensive cancer control goals and strategies at the national level and expand ongoing initiatives at the state and local levels. This report is the second in a series of articles in this journal that, together, describe trends in cancer rates and the scientific evidence on cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and survivorship to inform the identification of priorities for a comprehensive cancer control plan. Herein, we focus on existing evidence about established, modifiable risk factors for cancer, including prevalence estimates and the cancer burden due to each risk factor in the United States, and established primary prevention recommendations and interventions to reduce exposure to each risk factor.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800714, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dietary patterns, indicators of overall diet quality, are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence but less consistently with mortality among CRC survivors. We prospectively evaluated associations of diet quality pre- and postdiagnosis with risk of mortality among men and women with CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, 2,801 participants were cancer free at baseline in 1992/1993 and subsequently diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic CRC during follow-up through June 2013. Pre- and postdiagnosis diet data were available for 2,671 and 1,321 participants, respectively, among whom 1,414 and 722 died. Concordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), American Cancer Society nutrition guidelines (ACS-score), prudent, and Western dietary patterns was used to evaluate diet quality. RESULTS: Extreme scoring group comparisons showed that prediagnosis ACS-score was inversely associated with all-cause (hazard ratio high v low [HRHigh vLow], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.95) and CRC-specific (HRHigh vLow, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.03) mortality, whereas the Western diet score was associated with higher all-cause mortality (HRHigh vLow, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.64). For postdiagnosis diet, the ACS-score was associated with lower risk of all-cause (HRHigh vLow, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.83) and CRC-specific (HRHigh vLow, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.73) mortality, the DASH score was inversely associated with all-cause (HRHigh vLow, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.99) and CRC-specific (HRHigh vLow, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.89) mortality, and the prudent score was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HRHigh vLow, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.93). Among participants with a low diet quality before diagnosis, improved DASH (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.92) and prudent (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.95) scores from pre- to postdiagnosis were inversely associated with CRC-specific mortality. CONCLUSION: Dietary patterns reflective of high intakes of plant foods and low intakes of animal products before and after CRC diagnosis are associated with longer survival.

10.
Gut ; 2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional data indicate that systemic inflammation is important in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a prospective study to assess whether prediagnostic circulating markers of inflammation were associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and to what extent they mediated associations of obesity and cigarette smoking with cancer risk. DESIGN: This nested case-control study included 296 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cases and 296 incidence density matched controls from seven prospective cohort studies. We quantitated 69 circulating inflammation markers using Luminex-based multiplex assays. Conditional logistic regression models estimated associations between inflammation markers and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as direct and indirect effects of obesity and smoking on risk of malignancy. RESULTS: Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2) (ORsquartile 4 vs 1=2.67, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.68) was significantly associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Additional markers close to the adjusted significance threshold included C reactive protein, serum amyloid A, lipocalin-2, resistin, interleukin (IL) 3, IL17A, soluble IL-6 receptor and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3. Adjustment for body mass index, waist circumference or smoking status slightly attenuated biomarker-cancer associations. Mediation analysis indicated that sTNFR2 may account for 33% (p=0.005) of the effect of waist circumference on oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, C reactive protein and serum amyloid A were also identified as potential mediators of obesity-oesophageal adenocarcinoma associations. For smoking status, only plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was a nominally statistically significant (p<0.05) mediator of cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This prospective study provides evidence of a link between systemic inflammation and oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. In addition, this study provides the first evidence that indirect effects of excess adiposity and cigarette smoking, via systemic inflammation, increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1203-1207, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030213

RESUMO

Background: Kidney cancer has several well-established risk factors, including smoking, obesity, and hypertension. These factors do not, however, completely account for its etiology. One previous study of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and risk of renal cell carcinoma found a striking inverse association that warranted replication.Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort to prospectively examine circulating DBP concentration and renal cell carcinoma risk. Cases (n = 87) were matched 1:1 to controls on gender, race, age (±5 years), and date of blood collection (±30 days). ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for quartiles of DBP using conditional logistic regression.Results: There was a statistically significant inverse trend across quartiles of DBP such that participants with higher DBP had a markedly decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma (vs. Q1: Q2 OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.41-2.11; Q3 OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.15; Q4 OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.10-1.06; P trend = 0.03).Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a strong inverse association between circulating DBP and risk of renal cell carcinoma, supporting the findings from previous research.Impact: This is only the second study to examine DBP and risk of kidney cancer, and one of only a handful of studies to examine circulating DBP and risk of cancer at any site. Our findings support emerging evidence for an etiologic role of DBP in cancer and may provide insights into the etiology of kidney and other cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1203-7. ©2018 AACR.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912394

RESUMO

Background: Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest a protective role for vitamin D in colorectal carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations that minimize risk are unknown. Current Institute of Medicine (IOM) vitamin D guidance is based solely on bone health. Methods: We pooled participant-level data from 17 cohorts, comprising 5706 colorectal cancer case participants and 7107 control participants with a wide range of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. For 30.1% of participants, 25(OH)D was newly measured. Previously measured 25(OH)D was calibrated to the same assay to permit estimating risk by absolute concentrations. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) for prediagnostic season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random effects models. Results: Compared with the lower range of sufficiency for bone health (50-<62.5 nmol/L), deficient 25(OH)D (<30 nmol/L) was associated with 31% higher colorectal cancer risk (RR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.62); 25(OH)D above sufficiency (75-<87.5 and 87.5-<100 nmol/L) was associated with 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.99) and 27% (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91) lower risk, respectively. At 25(OH)D of 100 nmol/L or greater, risk did not continue to decline and was not statistically significantly reduced (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.24, 3.5% of control participants). Associations were minimally affected when adjusting for body mass index, physical activity, or other risk factors. For each 25 nmol/L increment in circulating 25(OH)D, colorectal cancer risk was 19% lower in women (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.87) and 7% lower in men (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.00) (two-sided Pheterogeneity by sex = .008). Associations were inverse in all subgroups, including colorectal subsite, geographic region, and season of blood collection. Conclusions: Higher circulating 25(OH)D was related to a statistically significant, substantially lower colorectal cancer risk in women and non-statistically significant lower risk in men. Optimal 25(OH)D concentrations for colorectal cancer risk reduction, 75-100 nmol/L, appear higher than current IOM recommendations.

13.
J Nutr ; 148(6): 932-943, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767735

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies suggest that untargeted metabolomics is a promising tool to identify novel biomarkers of individual foods. However, few large cross-sectional studies with comprehensive data on habitual diet and circulating metabolites have been conducted. Objective: We aimed to identify potential food biomarkers and evaluate their predictive accuracy. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of consumption of 91 food groups or items, assessed by a 152-item food-frequency questionnaire, in relation to 1186 serum metabolites measured by mass spectrometry-based platforms from 1369 nonsmoking postmenopausal women (mean age = 68.3 y). Diet-metabolite associations were selected by Pearson's partial correlation analysis (P < 4.63 × 10-7, |r| > 0.2). The predictive accuracy of the selected food metabolites was evaluated from the area under the curve (AUC) calculated from receiver operating characteristic analysis conducted among women in the top and bottom quintiles of dietary intake. Results: We identified 379 diet-metabolite associations. Forty-two food groups or items were correlated with 199 serum metabolites. We replicated 63 metabolites as biomarkers of habitual food intake reported in previous cross-sectional studies. Among those not previously shown to be associated with habitual diet, several are biologically plausible and were reported in acute feeding studies including: banana and dopamine 3-O-sulfate (r = 0.34, AUC = 76%) and dopamine 4-O-sulfate (r = 0.33, AUC = 74%), garlic and alliin (r = 0.24, AUC = 69%), N-acetylalliin (r = 0.27, AUC = 70%), and S-allylcysteine (r = 0.23, AUC = 69). Two unannotated metabolites were the strongest predictors for dark fish (X-02269, r = 0.51, AUC = 94%) and coffee intake (X-21442, r = 0.62, AUC = 98%). Conclusion: In this comprehensive, cross-sectional analysis of habitual food intake and serum metabolites among postmenopausal women, we identified several potentially novel food biomarkers and replicated others. Our findings contribute to the limited literature on food-based biomarkers and highlight the significant and promising role that large cohort studies with archived blood samples could play in this field. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03282812.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(7): 814-821, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703763

RESUMO

Background: The oral microbiota play a central role in oral health, and possibly in carcinogenesis. Research suggests that coffee and tea consumption may have beneficial health effects. We examined the associations of these common beverages with the oral ecosystem in a large cross-sectional study.Methods: We assessed oral microbiota in mouthwash samples from 938 participants in two U.S. cohorts using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Coffee and tea intake were assessed from food frequency questionnaires. We examined associations of coffee and tea intake with overall oral microbiota diversity and composition using linear regression and permutational MANOVA, respectively, and with taxon abundance using negative binomial generalized linear models; all models adjusted for age, sex, cohort, body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, and energy intake.Results: Higher tea intake was associated with greater oral microbiota richness (P = 0.05) and diversity (P = 0.006), and shifts in overall community composition (P = 0.002); coffee was not associated with these microbiome parameters. Tea intake was associated with altered abundance of several oral taxa; these included Fusobacteriales, Clostridiales, and Shuttleworthia satelles (higher with increasing tea) and Bifidobacteriaceae, Bergeyella, Lactobacillales, and Kingella oralis (lower with increasing tea). Higher coffee intake was only associated with greater abundance of Granulicatella and Synergistetes.Conclusions: In the largest study to date of tea and coffee consumption in relation to the oral microbiota, the microbiota of tea drinkers differed in several ways from nondrinkers.Impact: Tea-driven changes to the oral microbiome may contribute to previously observed associations between tea and oral and systemic diseases, including cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(7); 814-21. ©2018 AACR.

15.
J Nutr ; 148(4): 599-606, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659953

RESUMO

Background: Adolescent diet is thought to play an important role in future chronic disease risk. However, few studies have examined the reproducibility of adult-reported adolescent diet, and evidence for possible differences in reproducibility by demographic characteristics is limited. Objective: We assessed the ability of adults to consistently report past high school diet over a 1-y period and examined differences in reproducibility by selected demographic characteristics. Methods: By using age-adjusted partial Spearman (ρ) or Pearson (r) correlations, we assessed 1-y reproducibility for 33 line items, 20 food groups, and 2 dietary patterns of high school diet reported in adulthood via a questionnaire completed by 742 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS-3) Diet Substudy. Results: Participants' median age was 53 y (range: 31-70 y), 65.2% were women, 59.8% were non-Hispanic white, 24.8% were non-Hispanic black, and 15.4% were Hispanic. The mean Spearman correlation assessing reproducibility across the 33 line items was 0.60 and ranged from 0.44 to 0.72, with no differences in mean correlations by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, or body mass index (BMI). Reproducibility was similar across food groups (ρ = 0.62; range: 0.44-0.68), with differences by sex, ethnicity, age, or BMI observed for some food groups (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages). Pearson correlations for the reproducibility of 2 major eating patterns, "fast food" and "whole food," were 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Conclusion: These results show good 1-y reproducibility of assessed high school diet, as reported from memory in adulthood, by line item, food group, and dietary pattern, with noted differences by demographic characteristics.

16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(3): 389-397, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Use of glucosamine supplements has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in previous studies; however, information on this association remains limited. METHODS: We examined the association between glucosamine use and CRC risk among 113,067 men and women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Glucosamine use was first reported in 2001 and updated every 2 years thereafter. Participants were followed from 2001 through June of 2011, during which time 1440 cases of CRC occurred. RESULTS: As has been observed in prior studies, current use of glucosamine, modeled using a time-varying exposure, was associated with lower risk of CRC (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.97) compared to never use. However, for reasons that are unclear, this reduction in risk was observed for shorter-duration use (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.52-0.87 for current users with ≤ 2 years use) rather than longer-duration use (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.72-1.13 for current users with 3 to < 6 years of use; HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.76-1.29 for current users with ≥ 6 years of use). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to better understand the association between glucosamine use and risk of CRC, and how this association may vary by duration of use.

17.
18.
Mov Disord ; 33(3): 414-420, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. METHOD: We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Matching factors included cohort, birth year, source of DNA, date of DNA collection, and race. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic models. Interactions were tested both on the multiplicative scale and on the additive scale. RESULTS: Overall, caffeine intake was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted relative risk for highest versus lowest tertile = 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.86; p < .001). In analyses stratified by the GRIN2A-rs4998386 genotype, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk of PD comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of caffeine was 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.88; p < .01) among individuals homozygous for the C allele, and 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.32; p = .47; pRERI = .43) among carriers for the T allele. Interactions between caffeine and GRIN2A were not significant in either the multiplicative or additive scales. We also did not observe significant interactions for CYP1A2-rs762551 and incident PD risk. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the hypothesis of an interaction between the GRIN2A-rs4998386 or CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphism and caffeine intake in determining PD risk. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(1): 113-115, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284671

RESUMO

Background: The glycemic potential and energy density (ED) of diet may influence endometrial cancer risk. Although glycemic load (GL) is considered a probable risk factor for endometrial cancer, no studies have evaluated the association of total dietary ED with risk.Methods: We evaluated associations of ED, GL, and glycemic index (GI) with postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence. Analyses included 30,997 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of cancer or diabetes, who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999 and were followed for cancer incidence through June 2013. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for quartiles (Q) of total dietary ED, GL, and GI in relation to endometrial cancer incidence using Cox proportional hazards regression models.Results: During a median follow-up time of 13.6 years, 425 endometrial cancer cases were identified. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g [interquartile range (IQR) = 1.3-1.7 kcal/g]. Median (IQR) GL and GI were 113.7 (100.5-126.8) and 52.5 (50.4-54.5), respectively. After adjustment for age, use of hormone replacement therapy, physical activity, and body mass index (kg/m2), neither ED, GL, nor GI were associated with endometrial cancer risk.Conclusions: We found no associations of ED, GL, or GI with endometrial cancer risk.Impact: These results do not support an association between total dietary ED, GL, or GI and risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 113-5. ©2017 AACR.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine for the first time the association between plasma urate levels measured in healthy participants and future amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk. METHODS: A pooled case-control study nested in five US prospective cohorts comprising 319,617 participants who provided blood, of which 275 had ALS during follow-up. Pre-diagnostic plasma urate was determined for all participants using a clinical colorimetric enzyme assay. Gender-specific multivariable-adjusted rate ratios (RR) of ALS incidence or death estimated by conditional logistic regression and pooled using inverse-variance weighting. RESULTS: In age- and matching factor-adjusted analyses, a 1 mg/dL increase in urate concentration was associated with RR = 0.88 (95% CI: [0.78, 0.997] p = 0.044). After adjustment for BMI, a strong predictor of ALS and urate levels, and other potential covariates, the RR = 0.89 (95% CI: [0.78, 1.02]; p = 0.08 for 1mg/dL increase in urate). CONCLUSION: Elevation of plasma urate was modestly inversely associated with the risk of ALS and warrants further study for a potential role in this disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Colorimetria , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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