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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in the risk stratification of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in the current era is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of DSE and the additive role of DSE to clinical criteria for preoperative risk stratification of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The study included 4,494 patients undergoing DSE ≤90 days before noncardiac surgery. The primary outcome was a composite of postoperative myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and all-cause mortality ≤30 days after noncardiac surgery. RESULTS: The overall 30-day postoperative cardiac event rate was 2.3%. The mortality rate was 0.9% overall and 0.7% and 1.3% after normal and abnormal results on DSE, respectively. Among clinical variables, the modified Revised Cardiac Risk Index score demonstrated the strongest association with postoperative risk (P < .001). Patients with Revised Cardiac Risk Index scores of ≥3 had an event rate of 7.5%. The event rates for patients with wall motion score index ≥1.7 at baseline, left ventricular ejection fractions <40% at peak stress, or ischemic thresholds <70% of age-predicted maximal heart rate were 7.1%, 8.6%, and 7.9%, respectively. After adjusting for clinical variables, the overall result of DSE (P < .001), baseline and peak-stress wall motion score index (P < .001 and P = .014, respectively), peak-stress left ventricular ejection fraction (P < .001), and the number of ischemic segments (P = .027) were all associated with postoperative cardiac events. Incremental multivariate analysis demonstrated that an overall abnormal result on DSE, added to clinical variables, was associated with an increased risk for postoperative cardiac events (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.35-3.17; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline and peak-stress findings on preoperative DSE add to the prognostic utility of clinical variables for stratifying cardiac risk after noncardiac surgery.

2.
Heart ; 106(4): 280-286, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation (AF) versus sinus rhythm (SR) on the management and outcomes of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: 1847 consecutive patients with severe AS (aortic valve area ≤1.0 cm2 and aortic valve systolic mean Doppler gradient ≥40 mm Hg or peak velocity ≥4 m/s) and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% were identified. The independent association of AF and all-cause mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Age was 76±11 years and 46% were female; 293 (16%) patients had AF and 1554 (84%) had SR. In AF, 72% were symptomatic versus 71% in SR. Survival rate at 5 years for AF (41%) was lower than SR (65%) (age- and sex-adjusted HR=1.66 (1.40-1.98), p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, factors associated with mortality included age (HR per 10 years=1.55 (1.42-1.69), p<0.0001), dyspnoea (HR=1.58 (1.33-1.87), p<0.0001), ≥ moderate mitral regurgitation (HR=1.63 (1.22-2.18), p=0.001), right ventricular systolic dysfunction (HR=1.88 (1.52-2.33), p<0.0001), left atrial volume index (HR per 10 mL/m2=1.13 (1.07-1.19), p<0.0001) and aortic valve replacement (AVR) (HR=0.44 (0.38-0.52), p<0.0001). AF was not a predictor of mortality independent of variables strongly correlated HR=1.02 (0.84-1.25), p=0.81). The 1-year probability of AVR following diagnosis of severe AS was lower in AF (49.8%) than SR (62.5%) (HR=0.73 (0.62-0.86), p<0.001); among patients with AF not referred for AVR, symptoms were frequently attributed to AF instead of AS. CONCLUSION: AF was associated with poor prognosis in patients with severe AS, but apparent differences in outcomes compared with SR were explained by factors other than AF including concomitant cardiac abnormalities and deferral of AVR due to attribution of cardiac symptoms to AF.

3.
Heart Lung ; 48(1): 34-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disorder with a high mortality. Clinical experience and small case series suggest thrombocytopenia may be frequent in this population and associated with a poor prognosis. We sought to estimate the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in patients with PAH and characterize its association with disease characteristics and patient outcome. METHODS: Single center cohort study of 714 incident adult patients with Group 1 PH who were evaluated for baseline platelet count at the time of diagnosis. Pts were stratified into three groups: normal platelet count (>150 × 109/L), Grade 1 thrombocytopenia (75-149 × 109/L) and Grade 2-4 thrombocytopenia (<75 × 109/L). RESULTS: The median platelet count was 209 × 109/L (IQR 163, 264). There were 572 (80%) pts without thrombocytopenia, 107 (15%) with Grade 1 and 35 (5%) with Grade 2-4 thrombocytopenia. The median pt age was 55 years (IQR 44-65) with no difference between platelet groups (p = 0.85). Men were more likely to have thrombocytopenia (62, 34%) than women (80, 15%, p < 0.0001). Thrombocytopenia was frequent with portopulmonary PAH (84%) as opposed to idiopathic PAH (iPAH; 14%) or connective tissue disease associated PAH (12%). Platelet counts were not associated with functional class symptoms, the degree of right ventricular enlargement or dysfunction or tricuspid regurgitation by echocardiography. Invasive hemodynamics of right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were also similar between platelet groups. Thrombocytopenia was associated with higher mortality in iPAH patients (age- and sex-adjusted 5 year mortality [HR 1.95 (1.20, 3.08) p = 0.008] but not in other etiology groups. In a multivariate model of iPAH patients (adjusted for age, sex, DLCO, PVR, creatinine and 6MW distance) thrombocytopenia was most predictive of 5-year mortality [HR 1.68 (1.32, 2.12), p < 0.0001]. CONCLUSION: Thrombocytopenia in the context of iPAH portends a poor prognosis and is a simple independent factor to consider in judging severity of disease.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/mortalidade , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Adulto , Causas de Morte/tendências , Ecocardiografia , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Am J Med ; 131(6): 702.e15-702.e22, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support the use of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) prior to noncardiac surgery in higher-risk patients who are unable to perform at least 4 metabolic equivalents of physical activity. We evaluated postoperative outcomes of patients in different operative risk categories after preoperative DSE. METHODS: We collected data from the medical record on 4494 patients from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2011 who had DSE up to 90 days prior to a noncardiac surgery. Patients were divided into low, intermediate, and high preoperative surgery-specific risk. Baseline demographic data and risk factors were abstracted from the medical record, as were postoperative cardiac events including myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and mortality within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: There were 103 cardiac outcomes (2.3%), which included myocardial infarction (n = 57, 1.3%), resuscitated cardiac arrest (n = 26, 0.6%), and all-cause mortality (n = 40, 0.9%). Cardiac event rates were 0.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%-3.9%) in the low-surgical-risk group, 2.1% (95% CI, 1.6%-2.5%) in the intermediate-surgical-risk group, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.0%-4.4%) in the high-risk group. Thirty-day postoperative mortality rates were 0%, 0.9%, and 0.8% for the low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk surgical groups, respectively, and were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate low cardiac event rates in patients who underwent a DSE prior to noncardiac surgery. The previously accepted construct of low-, intermediate-, and high-risk surgeries based on postoperative events of <1%, 1%-5%, and >5% overestimates the actual risk in contemporary settings.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 30(6): 595-601, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines suggest that an abnormal blood potassium level is a relative contraindication to performing dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). However, this has not been previously studied. METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of patients who had potassium testing within 48 hours of undergoing DSE for the evaluation of myocardial ischemia over a 10-year period (N = 13,198). Normal potassium range in our laboratory is 3.6-5.2 mmol/L. Hemolyzed samples were not included. The association of potassium levels with the development of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias was assessed. RESULTS: The incidence of clinically significant arrhythmias was very low (supraventricular tachycardia/atrial fibrillation, 4.9%; nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, 2.9%; sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, 0.1%), confirming the overall safety of DSE. Most arrhythmias (88%) occurred in patients with normal potassium levels, and arrhythmia rates remained low in patients with potassium abnormalities. Patients with hyperkalemia had a lower risk of developing mild (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.71) and severe (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.01-0.68) supraventricular arrhythmias as well as mild ventricular arrhythmias (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83). Even though events were rare, patients with severe hypokalemia (potassium levels ≤ 3.1 mmol/L) had an increased risk of supraventricular arrhythmia and ventricular ectopy. CONCLUSIONS: DSE is safe even in the setting of abnormalities in blood potassium concentrations, and hence cancellation of DSE in patients with potassium abnormalities does not appear warranted. Elevated potassium levels are associated with lower rates of clinically significant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. While remaining at relatively low risk, patients with very low potassium levels (≤3.1 mmol/L) at the time of DSE have a modestly increased risk of arrhythmia. Consideration could be given to correcting severe hypokalemia prior to DSE.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Hipopotassemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Contraindicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Incidência , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Potássio/sangue , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 10(10 Pt B): 1268-1277, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize the profiles of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) Doppler flow velocity envelopes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and to establish whether changes in the RVOT flow profile related to patient outcome. BACKGROUND: The RVOT systolic flow profile is frequently abnormal, with findings of a mid-systolic flow deceleration and notching, previously proposed as an indicator of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). METHODS: We reviewed RVOT systolic flow profiles recorded by pulsed-wave Doppler from 159 consecutive patients with PAH and measured deceleration time (DT) of mid-systolic deceleration slope (mid-systolic DT) and the peak velocity of pre- and post-notching flow. Concurrent right-heart catheterization was available in all (41 of 41) incident patients and in 39 of 118 established patients. Outcomes, defined as time to all-cause mortality or need for lung transplantation, were assessed during 3 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Notched envelopes were identified in 150 of 159 patients. The presence of a notched pattern and a decrease in the mid-systolic DT were associated with higher PA pressures; higher PVR; and, at a threshold of a mid-systolic DT of <120 ms, worse outcome. Those patients with a shorter DT were further subdivided based on the post-notch systolic flow velocity. In these patients, a decline in the post-notch flow velocity to <62% of the pre-notch flow velocity defined a cohort with a marked reduction in systolic function and the worst outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In PAH, the notched profile of RVOT Doppler flow velocity envelope appears to integrate indicators of pulmonary vascular load and RV function and serves as a marker for adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Pulmonar , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Transplante de Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 10(4)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether abnormal blood pressure (BP) responses during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) are associated with abnormal test results, nor if such results indicate obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to define the frequency of abnormal BP responses during DSE and their impact on accuracy of test results. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 21 949 patients who underwent DSE at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, grouped by peak systolic BP achieved during the test. We also analyzed a subgroup who underwent coronary angiography within 30 days after positive DSE. The positive predictive value of DSE was calculated for each BP group. Patients with hypertensive response (n=1905; 9%) were more likely to have positive DSE than those with normal (n=19 770; 90%) or hypotensive (n=274; 1%) BP responses (32% versus 21% versus 23%, respectively; P<0.0001). Angiography, performed in 1126 patients, showed obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis) in 814 patients and severe CAD (≥70% stenosis) in 708 patients. Positive predictive value of DSE was similar for patients who had hypertensive and normal BP responses (69% versus 73%; P=0.3), considering 50% stenosis cut point. The proportion of severe CAD (≥70% stenosis) was lower in patients who had hypertensive response compared with those who had normal BP response (54% versus 65%; P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hypertensive response during DSE are more likely to have stress-induced myocardial ischemia compared with those with normal or hypotensive BP responses but are not more likely to have false-positive DSE results. They are, however, less likely to have higher grade or multivessel CAD.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Dobutamina/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Contração Miocárdica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 91(11): 1535-1544, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27720456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of screening stress testing for coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with diabetes in a community-based population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included 3146 patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota, with no history of coronary artery disease or cardiac symptoms in whom diabetes was newly diagnosed from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2008. With combined all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction as the primary outcome, weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was performed with screening stress testing within 2 years of diabetes diagnosis as the time-dependent covariate. For descriptive analysis, participants were classified by their clinical experience during the first 2 years postdiagnosis as screened (asymptomatic, underwent stress test), unscreened (asymptomatic, no stress test), or symptomatic (experienced symptoms or event). RESULTS: Among the screened and unscreened participants, 54% (1358 of 2538) were men; the mean (SD) age at diabetes diagnosis was 55 years (13.8 years), and 97% (2442 of 2520) had type 2 diabetes. In event-free survival analysis, 292 patients comprised the screened cohort and 2246 patients comprised the unscreened cohort. Death or myocardial infarction occurred in 454 patients (32 patients in the screened cohort and 422 in the unscreened cohort [5-year rate, 1.9% and 5.3%, respectively]) during median (interquartile range) follow-up of 9.1 years (5.3-12.5 years). Screening stress testing was associated with improved event-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.61; P=.004), independent of cardiac risk factors. However, while stress test results were abnormal in 47 of the 292 screened patients (16%), only 6 (2%) underwent coronary revascularization. CONCLUSION: Although screening cardiac stress testing in asymptomatic patients with diabetes in this community-based population was associated with improvement in long-term event-free survival, this result does not appear to occur by coronary revascularization alone.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Teste de Esforço , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Echo Res Pract ; 3(2): 53-61, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343212

RESUMO

AIM: It is not well known if advancing age influences normal rest or exercise pulmonary artery pressures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of increasing age with measurements of pulmonary artery systolic pressure at rest and with exercise. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 467 adults without cardiopulmonary disease and normal exercise capacity (age range: 18-85 years) underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing with Doppler measurement of rest and exercise pulmonary artery systolic pressure. RESULTS: There was a progressive increase in rest and exercise pulmonary artery pressures with increasing age. Pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise were 25±5mmHg and 33±9mmHg, respectively, in those <40 years, and 30±5mmHg and 41±12mmHg, respectively, in those ≥70 years. While elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressures were excluded by protocol design, markers of arterial stiffness associated with the age-dependent effects on pulmonary pressures. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that in echocardiographically normal adults, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increases with advancing age. This increase is seen at rest and with exercise. These increases in pulmonary pressure occur in association with decreasing transpulmonary flow and increases in systemic pulse pressure, suggesting that age-associated blood vessel stiffening may contribute to these differences in pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 118(2): 292-7, 2016 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291969

RESUMO

It has been suggested that lipoprotein abnormalities may contribute to the pulmonary arteriolar dysfunction observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) has vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, and endothelial protective properties. We hypothesized that a higher serum HDL level may be advantageous for survival in PAH and that the serum HDL level at diagnosis would be an independent predictor of survival in PAH and be additive to previously validated predictors of survival. This study included all patients with PAH seen at the Mayo Clinic Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2009, who had a baseline HDL measurement. Mortality was analyzed over 5 years using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated to evaluate the relation between baseline HDL level and survival. HDL levels were available for 227 patients. Higher HDL levels were associated with significantly lower mortality. Patients with an HDL >54 mg/dl at diagnosis had a 5-year survival of 59%. By comparison those with an HDL <34 mg/dl had a 5-year survival of 30%. On multivariate analysis, higher HDL was associated with an age-adjusted risk ratio for death of 0.78 (CI 0.67 to 0.91; p <0.01) per 10 mg/dl increase. In conclusion, HDL was an independent predictor of survival in PAH.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
11.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 17(5): 557-63, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26206464

RESUMO

AIMS: Blood pressure (BP) responses during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) have not been systematically studied. Consequently, it is not known what constitutes a normal or an abnormal BP response to dobutamine stress. We sought to define the typical BP response during DSE of patients not known to have cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 24 134 patients who underwent DSE from November 2003 to December 2012 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2968 were selected for inclusion in this retrospective study. Excluded were patients with a history of hypertension, diabetes, or coronary artery disease, and those taking vasoactive medications. Patients who had baseline and/or stress-induced wall motion abnormalities were also excluded. The distribution of the study population's BP responses during DSE was Gaussian; we defined cut-point values for normative BP responses at 2 SD for each decade of age and for the whole study population. During DSE, systolic BP (SBP) increased from baseline to peak stress (Δ +2.9 ± 24 mmHg, P < 0.0001) and diastolic BP (DBP) decreased (Δ -7.4 ± 14 mmHg). BP changes were age and sex dependent; men and younger patients had greater ΔSBP and lesser ΔDBP, compared with women and older patients. Patients who received atropine had higher peak BP values than patients who did not receive atropine, due to greater ΔSBP (+7.4 ± 26 vs. -0.5 ± 22 mmHg, P < 0.0001) and lesser ΔDBP (-4 ± 14 vs. -9.7 ± 12 mmHg, P < 0.0001). This atropine effect was present in men and women, and was more pronounced in younger patients. The normative peak SBP values ranged from 82 to 182 mmHg. CONCLUSION: BP responses during DSE vary and depend on patients' age, gender, and the use of atropine. We describe the typical BP responses seen during DSE and report normative reference values, which can be used for defining normal and abnormal BP responses to dobutamine stress.


Assuntos
Atropina/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Dobutamina/farmacologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Pulm Circ ; 5(1): 211-6, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25992284

RESUMO

An association between pulmonary hypertension (PH) and POEMS syndrome (characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) as well as other plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma (MM), has been shown to exist. Recent case reports have identified a reversible form of PH that occurs outside of previously identified etiologies. We report two cases of PH in the setting of smoldering MM (SMM) that resolved with chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. Although other features were individualized among the cases (dermatomyositis, scleromyxedema), treatment of MM and SMM resulted in a normalization of right ventricular systolic pressure and improvement in right ventricular dysfunction that was previously unresponsive to PH therapies. The magnitude and sustained nature of reversibility in these four cases could offer clues about the pathophysiology and treatment of PH.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 114(3): 473-8, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24948490

RESUMO

Diastolic function and E/e' correlate with peak aerobic capacity (VO2) in patients with heart failure, but the echocardiographic correlates of abnormal gas exchange in patients without heart failure are not well defined. We sought to determine the echocardiographic correlates of peak VO2 and breathing efficiency (estimated using the ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production, or VE/VCO2 nadir) in patients with unexplained dyspnea. We identified 232 patients with unexplained dyspnea who underwent echocardiography at rest followed by stress echocardiography with simultaneous measurement of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 nadir. At baseline, 17 patients (5%) had an E/e' of ≥15 while 31 patients (17%) had a right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of >35 mm Hg. E/e' ≥15 and RVSP >35 mm Hg were associated with lower peak VO2 (14.1 ± 4.4 vs 21.0 ± 6.9 and 15.2 ± 3.6 vs 21.8 ± 6.8 ml/kg/min, respectively, p <0.0001). E/e' ≥15 (sensitivity 0.13, specificity 0.99, area under the curve 0.64) and RVSP >35 mm Hg (sensitivity 0.38, specificity 0.93, area under the curve 0.76) were highly specific for predicting limited peak VO2. Age and RVSP at rest were independent correlates with VE/VCO2, but diastolic function was not. However, the risk of having abnormal VE/VCO2 nadir was only elevated in subjects with elevated RVSP in the setting of abnormal diastolic function (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.6, p = 0.02). In conclusion, both E/e' ≥15 and RVSP >35 mm Hg are highly specific markers of exercise limitation in patients without heart failure, but RVSP at rest may offer better overall diagnostic power than E/e' to predict low peak VO2 in this group.


Assuntos
Dispneia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Diástole , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 88(12): 1408-19, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24290114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and prognostic significance of abnormal exercise echocardiographic results for patients achieving a workload of 10 or more metabolic equivalents during treadmill exercise echocardiography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent treadmill exercise echocardiography from November 1, 2003, through December 31, 2008, and exercised for 9 or more minutes using the Bruce protocol (N=7236) were included. Clinical and exercise echocardiographic characteristics and outcomes were evaluated. Variables associated with abnormal exercise echocardiographic results and mortality were identified. RESULTS: Exercise echocardiographic results were positive for ischemia in 862 patients (12%). Extensive ischemia developed in 265 patients (4%). For patients with normal exercise echocardiographic results, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were 0.30% and 0.05% per person-year of follow-up, respectively. For patients who had extensive ischemia, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were 0.84% and 0.25% per person-year of follow-up, respectively. Patients at highest risk were those who had extensive and severe regional wall motion abnormalities at rest (n=58), and their all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were 2.65% and 0.76% per person-year of follow-up. Exercise echocardiographic variables did not identify sizable patient subgroups at risk for death and did not provide incremental prognostic information (C statistic was 0.74 compared with 0.73 for the clinical plus exercise electrocardiography model). CONCLUSION: Patients achieving a workload of 10 or more metabolic equivalents during treadmill exercise testing do not often have extensive ischemic abnormalities on exercise echocardiography. Although exercise echocardiographic results provide some prognostic information, it is not of incremental value for these patients, whose short-term and medium-term prognosis is excellent.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Teste de Esforço , Equivalente Metabólico , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Chest ; 144(5): 1530-1538, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23949692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence and size of a pericardial effusion in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and its association with outcome is unclear. METHODS: In this single-center cohort study of 577 patients with group 1 PAH seen between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2005, all patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography and were followed for ≥ 5 years. Echocardiography-guided pericardiocentesis was performed as needed. RESULTS: Pericardial effusions on index echocardiography occurred in 150 patients (26%); 128 patients had small and 22 had moderate-sized or larger effusions. Most of the moderate or greater effusions occurred in patients who had connective tissue disease (82%). Mean right atrial pressure was 13.4 ± 4.4 mm Hg (no effusion), 15.1 ± 4.4 mm Hg (small effusion), and 17.0 ± 4.0 mm Hg (moderate or greater effusion) (P < .0001). Median survival for patients with moderate or greater effusion, mild effusion, or no effusion was 11.3 months, 42.3 months, and 76.5 months, respectively. Four of the 22 patients with moderate or greater pericardial effusions eventually required echocardiography-guided pericardiocentesis because of clinical and echocardiographic evidence of hemodynamic impact. When drained, the effusions were large (858 ± 469 mL) and generally serous. All pericardiocenteses were performed cautiously under echocardiographic guidance by a highly experienced echocardiologist, with low immediate morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Pericardial effusions are relatively common but rarely of hemodynamic significance in patients with PAH. However, even modest degrees of pericardial fluid are associated with a significant increase in mortality and appear to reflect the presence of associated collagen vascular disease and high right atrial pressure.


Assuntos
Drenagem/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Derrame Pericárdico/etiologia , Ecocardiografia , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Derrame Pericárdico/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pericárdico/epidemiologia , Pericardiocentese/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 88(4): 345-53, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and stress echocardiography use after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and their effect on referral for coronary angiography and revascularization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The referral, timing, and results of stress imaging after CABG; referral for coronary angiography and revascularization; and all-cause mortality were assessed in this longitudinal, population-based, retrospective study of 1138 Olmsted County, Minnesota, patients undergoing CABG between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2003. RESULTS: A total of 570 patients (50.1%) underwent a stress imaging study (341 SPECT and 229 echocardiography) during the study period. Of the 1138 patients, 372 (32.7%) were referred for coronary angiography, and 144 of those patients (12.7%) underwent repeated revascularization (132 percutaneous revascularization and 12 CABG). The median interval between CABG and the index stress imaging study was 3.0 years (25th-75th percentile, 1.2-5.7 years). The results of 75.7% (258 of 341) of the stress SPECT studies and 70.7% (162 of 229) of the stress echocardiograms were abnormal. Seventy-six of 570 patients (13.3%) referred for stress imaging underwent coronary angiography within 180 days after the stress test. Repeated coronary revascularization was performed in 25 patients (4.4%) who underwent a stress imaging study within the preceding 180 days. The 5- and 10-year survival rates in the entire study cohort (83.5% and 65.1%, respectively) were not significantly different than predicted for the age- and sex-matched Minnesota population. CONCLUSION: Half of this community-based population of patients with CABG underwent stress SPECT or echocardiography during median follow-up of 8.9 years. Despite that approximately 75% of the results of stress imaging studies were abnormal, subsequent referral for coronary angiography within 180 days was low (13.3%), and the yield for repeated revascularization was very low (4.4%).


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Recidiva , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 112(2): 200-7, 2013 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23611754

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine whether diastolic dysfunction (DD) is associated with outcomes in the absence of myocardial ischemia. We studied 2,835 patients undergoing exercise echocardiography from January 2006 through December 2006 who had normal systolic function (ejection fraction ≥50%) and an absence of exercise-induced wall motion abnormalities. Diastolic function was graded as normal, mild DD, or moderate to severe DD. Medical records review and patient contact were undertaken to determine mortality, cardiovascular events (i.e., death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), incident heart failure (HF), and hospitalization. The mean ± SD age was 58.9 ± 12.8 years, and 54.0% were women. DD was present in 40.0% of the participants, with mild DD in 28.2% and moderate to severe DD in 11.8%. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 81 deaths and 114 cardiovascular events occurred, and DD was associated with greater rates of mortality, cardiovascular events, and HF events or hospitalizations (all p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, mild or moderate to severe DD (referent, normal function) was associated with HF or hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.78, p <0.001 for mild DD; hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.37 to 2.24, p <0.001 for moderate to severe DD) but was not independently associated with death or cardiovascular events. The diastolic index of filling pressure (E/e') was independently associated with mortality, cardiovascular events, and HF or hospitalization. In conclusion, among patients without demonstrable myocardial ischemia, left ventricular DD was associated with greater event rates during long-term follow up but did not independently predict hard end points other than HF or hospitalization. E/e' was independently associated with the clinical outcomes and might be an important echocardiographically derived parameter to identify in patients undergoing exercise echocardiography.


Assuntos
Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 111(1): 143-8, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23102474

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess whether serial quantitative assessment of right ventricular (RV) function by speckle-based strain imaging is affected by pulmonary hypertension-specific therapies and whether there is a correlation between serial changes in RV strain and clinical status. RV longitudinal systolic function was assessed using speckle-tracking echocardiography in 50 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) before and after the initiation of therapy. The mean interval to follow-up was 6 ± 2 months. Subsequent survival was assessed over 4 years. Patients demonstrated a mean increase in RV systolic strain from -15 ± 5 before to -20 ± 7% (p = 0.0001) after PAH treatment. Persistence of or progression to a severe reduction in free wall systolic strain (<-12.5%) at 6 months was associated with greater disease severity (100% were in functional class III or IV vs 42%, p = 0.005), greater diuretic use (86% vs 40%, p = 0.02), higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (67 ± 20 vs 46 ± 17 mm Hg, p = 0.006), and poorer survival (4-year mortality 43% vs 23%, p = 0.002). After adjusting for age, functional class, and RV strain at baseline, patients with ≥ 5% improvement in RV free wall systolic strain had a greater than sevenfold lower mortality risk at 4 years (hazard ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.50, p = 0.003). In conclusion, serial echocardiographic assessment of RV longitudinal systolic function by quantitative strain imaging independently predicts clinical deterioration and mortality in patients with PAH after the institution of medical therapy.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Sístole
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