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2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1333-1339, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been validated with high sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the new criteria with regard to disease duration, sex and race/ethnicity, and compared its performance against the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria. METHODS: Twenty-one SLE centres from 16 countries submitted SLE cases and mimicking controls to form the validation cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of the EULAR/ACR 2019, SLICC 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria were evaluated. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of female (n=1098), male (n=172), Asian (n=118), black (n=68), Hispanic (n=124) and white (n=941) patients; with an SLE duration of 1 to <3 years (n=196) and ≥5 years (n=879). Among patients with 1 to <3 years disease duration, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 81%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well in men (sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%) and women (sensitivity 97%, specificity 94%). Among women, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 82%). Among white patients, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (95% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 83%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well among black patients (sensitivity of 98%, specificity 100%), and had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria among Hispanic patients (100% vs 86%) and Asian patients (97% vs 77%). CONCLUSIONS: The EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria perform well among patients with early disease, men, women, white, black, Hispanic and Asian patients. These criteria have superior sensitivity than the ACR criteria and/or superior specificity than the SLICC criteria across many subgroups.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Cell Rep ; 31(2): 107494, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294445

RESUMO

Paradoxically, early host responses to infection include the upregulation of the antiphagocytic molecule, CD47. This suggests that CD47 blockade could enhance antigen presentation and subsequent immune responses. Indeed, mice treated with anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections show increased activation of both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), enhancement of the kinetics and potency of CD8+ T cell responses, and significantly improved virus control. Treatment efficacy is critically dependent on both APCs and CD8+ T cells. In preliminary results from one of two cohorts of humanized mice infected with HIV-1 for 6 weeks, CD47 blockade reduces plasma p24 levels and restores CD4+ T cell counts. The results indicate that CD47 blockade not only enhances the function of innate immune cells but also links to adaptive immune responses through improved APC function. As such, immunotherapy by CD47 blockade may have broad applicability to treat a wide range of infectious diseases.

4.
Nature ; 576(7787): 397-405, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853080

RESUMO

Despite considerable global investment, only 60% of people who live with HIV currently receive antiretroviral therapy. The sustainability of current programmes remains unknown and key incidence rates are declining only modestly. Given the complexities and expenses associated with lifelong medication, developing an effective curative intervention is now a global priority. Here we review why and where a cure is needed, and how it might be achieved. We argue for expanding these efforts from resource-rich regions to sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere: for any intervention to have an effect, region-specific biological, therapeutic and implementation issues must be addressed.


Assuntos
Terapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Recursos em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Receptores CCR5/deficiência , Receptores CCR5/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
5.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 297(8): 1392-406, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24867874

RESUMO

Establishment of a functional immune system has important implications for health and disease, yet questions remain regarding the mechanism, location, and timing of development of myeloid and lymphoid cell compartments. The goal of this study was to characterize the ontogeny of the myeloid-lymphoid system in rhesus monkeys to enhance current knowledge of the developmental sequence of B-cell (CD20, CD79), T-cell (CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3), dendritic cell (CD205), and macrophage (CD68) lineages in the fetus and infant. Immunohistochemical assessments addressed the temporal and spatial expression of select phenotypic markers in the developing liver, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and bone marrow with antibodies known to cross-react with rhesus cells. CD3 was the earliest lymphoid marker identified in the first trimester thymus and, to a lesser extent, in the spleen. T-cell markers were also expressed midgestation on cells of the liver, spleen, thymus, and in Peyer's patches of the small and large intestine, and where CCR5 expression was noted. A myeloid marker, CD68, was found on hepatic cells near blood islands in the late first trimester. B-cell markers were observed mid-second trimester in the liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, bone marrow spaces, and occasionally in GALT. By the late third trimester and postnatally, secondary follicles with germinal centers were present in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. These results suggest that immune ontogeny in monkeys is similar in temporal and anatomical sequence when compared to humans, providing important insights for translational studies.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Tecido Linfoide/embriologia , Células Mieloides/citologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
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