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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 108(6): 475-86, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10856019

RESUMO

We review the factors influencing children's exposure to environmental contaminants and the data available to characterize and assess that exposure. Children's activity pattern data requirements are demonstrated in the context of the algorithms used to estimate exposure by inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion. Currently, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to adequately assess multimedia exposures to environmental contaminants. As a result, regulators use a series of default assumptions and exposure factors when conducting exposure assessments. Data to reduce uncertainty in the assumptions and exposure estimates are needed to ensure chemicals are regulated appropriately to protect children's health. To improve the database, advancement in the following general areas of research is required: identification of appropriate age/developmental benchmarks for categorizing children in exposure assessment; development and improvement of methods for monitoring children's exposures and activities; collection of activity pattern data for children (especially young children) required to assess exposure by all routes; collection of data on concentrations of environmental contaminants, biomarkers, and transfer coefficients that can be used as inputs to aggregate exposure models.


Assuntos
Proteção da Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Xenobióticos/efeitos adversos , Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Exposição por Inalação
2.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 47(4): 491-500, 1997 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28065154

RESUMO

The probabilistic National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Exposure Model applied to carbon monoxide (pNEM/CO) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate frequency distributions of population exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and the resulting carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. To evaluate pNEM/CO, the model was set up to simulate CO exposure data collected during a Denver Personal Exposure Monitoring Study (PEM) conducted during the winter of 1982-1983. This paper compares computer-simulated exposure distributions obtained by pNEM/CO with the observed cumulative relative frequency distributions of population exposure to CO from 779 people in the Denver PEM study. The subjects were disaggregated into two categories depending upon whether they lived in a home with a gas stove or an electric stove. The observed and predicted population exposure frequency distributions were compared in terms of 1-hr daily maximum exposure (1DME) and 8-hr daily maximum moving average exposure (8DME) for people living in homes with gas stove or an electric stove. For 1DME, the computer-simulated results from pNEM/CO agreed most closely within the range of 6-13 ppm, but overestimated occurrences at low exposure (<6 ppm) and underestimated occurrences at high exposure (>13 ppm). For 8DME, the predicted exposures agreed best with observed exposures in the range of CO concentration between 5.5 and 7 ppm, and over-predicted occurrences below 5.5 ppm and under-predicted occurrences above 7 ppm.

3.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 47(3): 491-500, 1997 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29081285

RESUMO

The probabilistic National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Exposure Model applied to carbon monoxide (pNEM/CO) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate frequency distributions of population exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and the resulting carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. To evaluate pNEM/CO, the model was set up to simulate CO exposure data collected during a Denver Personal Exposure Monitoring Study (PEM) conducted during the winter of 1982-1983. This paper compares computer-simulated exposure distributions obtained by pNEM/CO with the observed cumulative relative frequency distributions of population exposure to CO from 779 people in the Denver PEM study. The subjects were disaggregated into two categories depending upon whether they lived in a home with a gas stove or an electric stove. The observed and predicted population exposure frequency distributions were compared in terms of 1-hr daily maximum exposure (1DME) and 8-hr daily maximum moving average exposure (8DME) for people living in homes with gas stove or an electric stove. For 1DME, the computer-simulated results from pNEM/CO agreed most closely within the range of 6-13 ppm, but overestimated occurrences at low exposure (<6 ppm) and underestimated occurrences at high exposure (>13 ppm). For 8DME, the predicted exposures agreed best with observed exposures in the range of CO concentration between 5.5 and 7 ppm, and over-predicted occurrences below 5.5 ppm and under-predicted occurrences above 7 ppm.

4.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol ; 42(3): 271-7, 1976 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1067531

RESUMO

The P.S.R.O. program is being implemented to improve the quality of care through effective peer review. Effective peer review requires that the oral surgeon must not only detect problems, but analyze causes and develop, implement, and evaluate corrective programs. To actively participate in development of P.S.R.O. criteria for admission, the Department of Oral Surgery at the University of Tennessee Memorial Hospital, Knoxville, conducted a restrospective survey of oral surgery admissions. Utilization review of the oral surgery admissions was conducted to determine the average length of stay and the utilization of the operating room and the ambulatory surgery clinic for patients admitted to the hospital.


Assuntos
Organizações de Normalização Profissional , Cirurgia Bucal , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde , Assistência Odontológica , Hospitalização , Legislação Odontológica , Tempo de Internação , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tennessee
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