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2.
Sex Res Social Policy ; : 1-21, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608404

RESUMO

Introduction: In Europe, young sexual and gender minority (SGM) people continue to face discrimination in the labour sector despite advances in legislation towards their acceptance and equal treatment. Non-discrimination policy strategies helping SGM individuals are not equally enforced in all contexts, making it difficult for many SGM individuals to disclose their identity, hence undermining their health and well-being. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 2020 and February 2021 with 55 SGM youth (18-27 years) having work experience from Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Results: From the analysis, three overarching themes were significant: (1) societal discrimination played a major role in sociocultural factors and policy considerations, (2) workplace discrimination had distinct factors and impacts on SGM individuals and (3) SGM inclusion should use strategies to ensure workplace diversity and equality. Conclusions: SGM individuals from contexts of poor acceptance tended to hide their identity in the workplace, while transgender and non-binary individuals were prone to experience force-disclosure and discrimination in all aspects of employment. There is a lack of resolute reaction from policy makers in managing problems faced by SGM people in workplaces. New laws improving the status of SGM people need to be further adopted, staff training should be implemented, and managers are crucial in achieving an inclusive climate in the workplace.Policy ImplicationsIt is essential to implement policies on how to effectively handle problems faced by sexual and gender minority people in the workplace.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 45-53, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598008

RESUMO

Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide in young people aged 15-19 years. However, little is known about the correlates of multiple suicide attempts in adolescents, especially from a global perspective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of putative physical, behavioral, and social correlates with multiple suicide attempts among adolescents aged 12-15 years from 61 countries. Data from the Global school-based Student Health Survey (2009-2017) were analyzed. Multiple suicide attempts was classified as having attempted suicide at least twice in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential correlates. Data on 162,994 adolescents [mean (SD) age 13.8 (0.9) years; 50.8% boys] were analyzed. The overall prevalence of multiple suicide attempts was 4.4% [range 1.2% (Laos) to 13.8% (Ghana)]. Among those who had attempted suicide at least once in the past 12 months, in the overall sample, food insecurity, smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis use, amphetamine use, sedentary behavior, sexual intercourse, sleep problems, loneliness, no close friends, and bullying victimization were all independently associated with higher odds for multiple suicide attempts although some regional differences were observed. Our study results indicate potential target factors that could be addressed amongst those who had attempted suicide in the past to reduce future suicide attempts and possibly completed suicides. Furthermore, it is possible that region-specific interventions are necessary.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199049

RESUMO

Medical care of transgender and non-binary (TNB) patients if often a complex interdisciplinary effort involving a variety of healthcare workers (HCWs) and services. Physicians not only act as gatekeepers to routine or transitioning therapies but are also HCWs with the most intimate and time-intensive patient interaction, which influences TNB patients' experiences and health behaviors and healthcare utilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the physician-patient relationship in a sample of TNB individuals within the Austrian healthcare system, and explore its associations with sociodemographic, health-, and identity-related characteristics. A cross-sectional study utilizing an 56-item online questionnaire, including the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire 9 (PDRQ-9), was carried out between June and October 2020. The study involved TNB individuals 18 or older, residing in Austria, and previously or currently undergoing medical transition. In total, 91 participants took part, of whom 33.0% and 25.3% self-identified as trans men and trans women, respectively, and 41.8% as non-binary. Among participants, 82.7% reported being in the process of medical transitioning, 58.1% perceived physicians as the most problematic HCWs, and 60.5% stated having never or rarely been taken seriously in medical settings. Non-binary participants showed significantly lower PDRQ-9 scores, reflecting a worse patient-physician relationship compared to trans male participants. TNB patients in Austria often report negative experiences based on their gender identity. Physicians should be aware of these interactions and reflect potentially harmful behavioral patterns in order to establish unbiased and trustful relations.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Áustria , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1361-1372, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction after cancer treatment are clinically important complications, but their exact prevalence by various kinds of cancer site and type of treatment is unknown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the available evidence and provide pooled estimates for prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction in relation to all cancer sites and identify characteristics associated with EjD in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies. We searched 4 electronic databases (Medline®, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Embase®) until July 22, 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting the prevalence of EjD in male patients with cancer were included in this review. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted calculating prevalence proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence proportions were calculated for the incidences of EjD by cancer site and type of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies (a total of 10,057 participants) were included for analysis. The most common cancer sites were bladder, colon, testis and rectum. The prevalence rates of EjD after surgical intervention ranged from 14.5% (95% CI 2.2-56.3) in colon cancer to 53.0% (95% CI 23.3-80.7) in bladder cancer. The prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 6.8% (95% CI 0.8-39.1) in bladder cancer to 68.7% (95% CI 55.2-79.6) in cancer of the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study-level meta-analysis, we looked at a high prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction at various cancer sites and across different treatment types. Prospective studies of EjD and erectile dysfunction after various kinds of cancer treatments are warranted.

6.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(11): 2117-2124, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sexual orientation and functional limitations in a large representative sample of the English population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 7403 adults aged 16-95 years (51.4% female; mean age, 46.3±18.6y) were included in the present study. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual orientation was assessed using 2 items adapted from the Kinsey scale and was dichotomized into heterosexual and sexual minority orientation. Functional limitations were assessed using 7 activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Functional limitations were defined as at least 1 difficulty in 1 of 7 ADL and IADL. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between sexual orientation (independent variable) and functional limitations (dependent variable). RESULTS: The level of sexual minority orientation and prevalence of functional limitations in the sample was 7.1% and 32.9%, respectively. After adjusting for several potential confounders, sexual minority orientation was positively and significantly associated with functional limitations (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.95; reference group: heterosexual orientation). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of this study, interventions aiming to prevent against and/or manage/reduce functional limitations in sexual minorities are needed. More research is also warranted to better understand mediators (eg, obesity, cognitive complaints, psychiatric disorders) involved in the sexual orientation-functional limitation relationship.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/normas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108488, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine the correlates of increased alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions that were implemented in a sample of UK adults. METHODS: This paper presents analyses of data from a cross-sectional study. Adults aged 18 years and over, residing in the UK and self-isolating from others outside their own household were eligible to participate. Participants reported increase or no increase in their level of alcohol consumption from before to during lockdown, as well as symptoms of anxiety, depression and mental wellbeing. Socio-demographic characteristics were compared between adults with and without reported increased alcohol consumption. The associations between reported increased alcohol consumption and mental health outcomes were investigated using logistic and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: 691 adults (61.1 % women; 48.8 % aged 35-64 years) were included in the analysis. Of these, 17 % reported increased alcohol consumption after lockdown. A higher proportion of 18-34-year olds reported increased alcohol consumption compared to older groups. The prevalence of poor overall mental health was significantly higher in individuals with increased alcohol consumption (vs. no increase) (45.4 % versus 32.7 %; p-value = 0.01). There was a significant association between increased alcohol consumption and poor overall mental health (OR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.01, 2.66), depressive symptoms (unstandardized beta = 2.93; 95 % CI = 0.91, 4.95) and mental wellbeing (unstandardized beta=-1.38; 95 % CI=-2.38, -0.39). CONCLUSIONS: More than one in six UK adults increased their alcohol consumption during lockdown and a higher proportion of these were younger adults. Increased alcohol consumption was independently associated with poor overall mental health, increased depressive symptoms and lower mental wellbeing. These findings highlight the importance of planning targeted support as we emerge from lockdown and plan for potential second and subsequent waves.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sex Med ; 17(11): 2148-2155, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying correlates of sexual behavior among young adolescents is critical for preventing adverse outcomes linked to such behavior. AIM: This study examined the relationship of bullying victimization with sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and non-condom use in adolescents aged 12-15 years across 53 countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 145,342 adolescents aged 12-15 years participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2003-2016 were analyzed. Data on bullying victimization were assessed by the question "During the past 30 days, on how many days were you bullied?" OUTCOMES: Data on several sexual behaviors were collected: (i) ever having had intercourse, among those who reported having had intercourse; (ii) multiple (≥2) lifetime sexual partners; and (iii) condom use in last sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations. The overall prevalence of any bullying in the past 30 days and lifetime sexual intercourse were 28.8% and 13.1%, respectively. Compared with those who were not bullied in the past 30 days, those who were bullied for 20-30 days were 2.08 (95% CI = 1.65-2.63), 1.70 (95% CI = 1.10-2.63), and 1.72 (95% CI = 1.12-2.67) times more likely to report sexual intercourse, non-condom use, and multiple sex partners, respectively. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study provides further evidence that bullying victimization is a global phenomenon and interventions are required to reduce its prevalence and unwanted consequences. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: The main strength was the large sample of young adolescents across 53 countries. However, findings from the present study should be interpreted in light of its limitations. First, the study was cross-sectional in nature and thus the direction of the association cannot be established. Second, the data only included young adolescents who attend school. Third, data were self-reported and thus reporting bias may exist. Fourth, the measure of sexual activity used was not able to distinguish between penetrative and nonpenetrative sex. Fifth, adolescents who are victims of bullying may also be exposed to other types of violence such as child maltreatment and sexual assaults, for which data were not available. Finally, the present data set did not contain data on sexual orientation. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the need for interventions either acting to educate about the potential negative consequences or to prevent risky sexual behavior in young adolescents who experience bullying victimization. Smith L, Grabovac I, Jacob L, et al. Bullying Victimization and Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents Aged 12-15 Years From 53 Countries: A Global Perspective. J Sex Med 2020;17:2148-2155.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(9): 1809-1815, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to assess both the credibility and strength of evidence arising from systematic reviews with meta-analyses of observational studies and physical health outcomes associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. METHODS: We performed an umbrella review of observational studies. Evidence was graded as convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or nonsignificant. RESULTS: From 3413 studies returned, 20 were included, covering 55 health outcomes. Median number of participants was 18 743 (range 403-225 000 000). Overall, 45 (81.8%) of the 55 unique outcomes reported nominally significant summary results (P < .05). Only 5 outcomes (9.0%; higher likelihood of presence of breathlessness, higher chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] prevalence, maternal sepsis, higher risk of anemia, and higher risk of all fractures among people living with HIV [PLWHIV]) showed suggestive evidence, with P values < 10-3; only 3 (5.5%; higher prevalence of cough in cross-sectional studies, higher incidence of pregnancy-related mortality, and higher incidence of ischemic heart disease among PLWHIV in cohort studies) outcomes showed stronger evidence using a stringent P value (<10-6). None of the unique outcomes presented convincing evidence (Class I), yet 3 outcomes presented highly suggestive evidence, 5 outcomes presented suggestive evidence, and 37 outcomes presented weak evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Results show highly suggestive and suggestive evidence for HIV and the presence of a cough, COPD, ischemic heart disease, pregnancy-related mortality, maternal sepsis, and bone fractures. Public health policies should reflect and accommodate these changes, especially in light of the increases in the life expectancy and the incidence of comorbidities in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
J Sex Med ; 17(1): 60-68, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity is likely to be associated with sexual activity. However, to date, there is no literature on the relationship between overweight/obesity and sexual activity outcomes. AIM: Thus, the present study assessed the associations among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status with sexual activity and number of previous sexual partners in a representative sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: Data on leisure time physical activity, total sitting time, weight status, sexual behavior outcomes, and other characteristics were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Study cycle 2007 to 2016. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations among body mass index, leisure time physical activity, and total sitting time with past-year sexual activity and number of sexual partners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self reported frequency of past-year sexual activity and number of sex partners in the past year. RESULTS: In a sample of 7,049 men (mean age: 38.3 ± 0.3 years) and 7,005 women (mean age: 38.7 ± 0.2 years) being overweight was associated with higher odds of frequent sexual activity (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7) among men, but lower odds among women (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6-0.9). Sufficient physical activity was associated with higher odds of frequent sexual activity among both men (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) and women (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.4). In those living alone, being obese was associated with lower odds of having at least 1 sexual partner for men (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.5-0.9) and women (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.8). Being sufficiently physically active was associated with higher odds of having at least 1 sexual partner only in men (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare professionals need to be made aware of these results, as they could be used to plan tailored interventions. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Strengths include the large, representative sample of U.S. adults and objective measures of anthropometry. Limitations include the cross-sectional design of the study and that all variables on sexual history were self-reported. CONCLUSION: The present study identifies novel modifiable behavioral and biological antecedents of sexuality outcomes. Grabovac I, Cao C, Haider S, et al. Associations Between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Weight Status With Sexuality Outcomes: Analyses from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Sex Med 2020;17:60-68.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais , Sexualidade
11.
J Homosex ; 67(9): 1261-1289, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880630

RESUMO

Myriad social groups are targets of hostile and benevolent (i.e., ambivalent) prejudice. However, prejudice toward gay men is typically conceptualized as hostile, despite the prevalence of benevolence toward gay men in popular media. This article aims to compare gay men with other targets of ambivalent prejudice (i.e., women and elderly people) and draw on the stereotype content and microaggressions literatures in order to develop a theory of ambivalent homoprejudice. The resultant framework, comprising repellent, adversarial, romanticized, and paternalistic homoprejudice was investigated using seven focus groups of heterosexuals and gay men (N = 22), and the findings were consistent with stereotype content theory. Directions for future research into the deleterious effects of ambivalent homoprejudice and possible empowering interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Homofobia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estereotipagem
12.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(9): 1080-1085.e1, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older people present an under-represented population in research, with limited research citing higher prevelance of depression, loneliness, rejection, and overall poorer health and well-being outcomes. Our study compares well-being, defined as quality of life, life satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and depression, among LGB people with their heterosexual peers'. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA), a representative panel study of older adults aged 50 and older. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were from ELSA wave 6, collected 2012-2013. A total of 5691 participants were included in the analysis, with 326 (5.7%) self-identifying as LGB. MEASURES: Well-being was measured using CASP-19, a quality of life questionnaire; the Satisfaction with Life Scale for life satisfaction; and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for depressive symptoms. Sexual satisfaction was assessed using the question "During the past three months, how satisfied have you been with your overall sex life?" In addition, t test and chi-square tests were used to test differences in sociodemographic characteristics between LGB and heterosexual participants. Bivariate logistical regression and linear regression were used to test associations between sexual orientation and well-being outcomes. RESULTS: In unadjusted models, LGB participants reported significantly lower mean quality of life and life satisfaction, and had significantly lower odds of reporting satisfaction with their overall sex life and higher odds of reporting depressive symptoms above threshold. After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates, there remained significant differences between LGB and heterosexual groups in mean quality of life scores (B = -0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.87 to -0.06, P = .037) and odds of sexual satisfaction (odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.82, P = .003). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: LGB older people report lower quality of life and lower sexual satisfaction than their heterosexual counterparts, possibly associated with a number of unwanted social experiences.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Sex Res ; 55(6): 783-801, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261328

RESUMO

Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Health Psychol ; 22(2): 176-185, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26238342

RESUMO

Much of the focus on sexual health for people living with HIV has been on promoting safe sex behaviours. However, also important for sexual health is a positive sexual self-esteem. This article reports on an interpretative phenomenological analysis of interviews with seven men about the impact that having HIV has had on their sense of sexual self. Five overarching themes were identified: the 'destruction' of a sexual self; feeling sexually hazardous; sexual inhibition; reclaiming a sexual self and finding a place through sero-sorting. With HIV now being a chronic illness, interventions are required to support people to lead sexually satisfying lives.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Inglaterra , Humanos , Masculino
15.
PLoS One ; 8(5): e62821, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23690955

RESUMO

The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044), conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a) to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b) to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c) to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, p<.01). The effect of threat appeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17). This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Assunção de Riscos , Publicidade/métodos , Humanos
16.
J Soc Psychol ; 149(2): 263-6, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19425362

RESUMO

The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHRS; S. J. Ellis, C. Kitzinger, & S. Wilkinson, 2002) by distributing copies of that instrument and several validation measures (e.g., religious fundamentalism) to 267 female students attending modules in psychology at a large Irish university. Output from an exploratory factor analysis did not support the tripartite structure that Ellis et al. noted. Instead, a 2-factor solution appeared to be most reasonable, with the 1st factor assessing global support for the human rights of sexual minorities (Global, 14 items) and the 2nd factor focusing more narrowly on the legality of homosexuality (Legal, 4 items). Scale score reliability coefficients for the 2 factors were .86 and .61, respectively. Scores on the Global subscale correlated significantly with all validation measures; however, the present authors obtained mixed results for the Legal subscale. The authors outline potential uses of the modified SLGHRS.


Assuntos
Atitude , Homossexualidade , Direitos Humanos , Testes Psicológicos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Irlanda , Psicometria , Religião e Psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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